Is a way of gaining understanding through a series of steps which include asking and answering questions, gathering information and conducting experiments, and documenting findings. Scientific Method http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eA86dYxrg4Q Scientific Method Ask a Question / State the Problem Through careful observations, questions arise. Thus, good science investigations begin with a question. The question should be one that leads to an investigation that will yield quantitative or qualitative data. A problem statement is a question that compares variables: What effect does the drop height of a tennis ball have on the bounce height of a tennis ball? Independent Variable – drop height Dependent Variable – bounce height Collect Information Investigate or do some research in order to make an educated guess or hypothesis. Consult at least two or three sources which will be listed in a bibliography. Draw connections between research and project in lab report. Gathered Information Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but transformed from one form to another. “When you hold the ball in the air, it’s full of potential energy. When you drop the ball, the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy (energy of motion). As it bounces back up, the kinetic energy is converted back to potential energy. However, the ball will not return quite as high as you dropped it since some of the energy is transformed into heat and sound in the collision with the floor.” http://books.google.com/books?id=JszH_d5gqSkC&pg=PA67&lpg=PA67&dq=does+the+drop+height+affect+the+boun ce+height+of+a+ball&source=bl&ots=lpvY1b_yyx&sig=4tDVvEhXyvXnofyIi-FRrLJ_qUs&hl=en&sa=X&ei=aNvUMbdDsm42QXphYDYCQ&ved=0CEkQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=does%20the%20drop%20height%20affect%20the% 20bounce%20height%20of%20a%20ball&f=false Gathered Information “Elevating the ball to a certain height will cause it to gain gravitational potential energy that is equal to the amount given by the equation E = mass x gravity x height (Thus, it can be noted that the higher the height of the ball, the more potential energy it has). As soon as the ball is released, that gravitational potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy” http://www.reference.com/motif/science/what-affects-the-bounce-height-of-a-ball Gathered Information “If you drop the same ball on the same surface, the height it bounces back to will be the exact same relative to the height you drop the ball from. In other words, if you drop the ball and it bounces back to half the height from which you dropped it, when you drop it again from the halfway height, it will bounce a quarter of the way back. This is called the coefficient of restitution. Inflation will affect the coefficient of restitution.” http://books.google.com/books?id=JszH_d5gqSkC&pg=PA67&lpg=PA67&dq=does+the+drop+height+affect+the+b ounce+height+of+a+ball&source=bl&ots=lpvY1b_yyx&sig=4tDVvEhXyvXnofyIi-FRrLJ_qUs&hl=en&sa=X&ei=aNvUMbdDsm42QXphYDYCQ&ved=0CEkQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=does%20the%20drop%20height%20affect%20th e%20bounce%20height%20of%20a%20ball&f=false Form a Hypothesis A hypothesis is an educated guess / prediction based on information gathered and includes an explanation. Written as a If…then… Statement, includes because The hypothesis statement will be proven valid or invalid by the experiment. If I increase the height from which a ball is dropped, then the bounce height will increase because there is greater potential energy which turns to kinetic. Experiment – Test the Hypothesis Is a planned way to test the hypothesis and find the answer to the problem statement. Is a way to collect data and determine the value of the dependent variable. Only tests one dependent variable at a time. Compares independent variable to the dependent variable. Experiment – Test the Hypothesis Constant – is what remains the same in the experiment Variable – is what changes in the experiment Independent Variable changed by experimenter known before the experiment Dependent Variable result of the change, thus depends upon the Independent Variable discovered during experiment Observe and Record Data Record data in tables. Include Title: Bounce Height of Dropped Tennis Ball. The first column lists the independent variable. Dropped height of the tennis ball The first row of table lists the dependent variable. Bounce height of tennis ball Within the grid, the data is collected. Observe and Record Data Transfer Data from Table to a Graph: Line Graphs – Compare Independent and Dependent Variables Place Independent Variable on the x-axis Place Dependent Variable on the y-axis y-axis x-axis Analyze Data - Draw a Conclusion State the Facts! Give the averages for each independent variable Say Why! Summarize data. Explain observed trends /result. Was your hypothesis supported? Why or why not? Wrap it Up! Discuss questions you may still have Sources of error Future testing possibilities Report Results Use Scientific Method Lab Write-Up: I. Purpose What can be learned from doing the experiment? II. Hypothesis III. Materials A list of needed equipment and supplies IV. Procedure Exact step by step process followed to complete experiment Identify precautions and safety measures Identify variables: controlled, independent, dependent V. Observations Qualitative and Quantitative / Tables and Graphs VI. Conclusion What was learned, reliability, areas of improvement Table: The effect of drop height on the bounce height of a tennis ball Height Dropped 25 cm 50 cm 75 cm 100 cm 150 cm Height Ball Bounces Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Average Add T1, T2, T3 Divide by 3 Table: 1st hour The effect of drop height on the bounce height of a tennis ball Height Dropped Height Ball Bounces Group 1 (J) Group 2 (F) Group 3 (A) Group 4 (T) 25 cm 14 (13.33) 16 (15.33) 10 (14) 50 cm 30.67 (34.3) 30.33 (31.67) 34 (33.7) 32 (34) 75 cm 46 (44.7) 46.33 (39.33) 65.3 (46.7) 48 (50) 100 cm 63.3 (61.7) 62.67 (66) 58.3 (66) 62 (63.2) 150 cm 93.3 (93.7) 88 (91.33) 94.67 (89) 82 (90) 18.33 (16.8) 3rd hour Table: The effect of drop height on the bounce height of a tennis ball Height Dropped Height Ball Bounces G1T G2 K G3 Kr G4 E G5 D G6 M 25 cm 16 15 17 21 21 17 50 cm 31 25 25 37.7 38 34.3 75 cm 50 48 51 51.6 53 51 100 cm 64 59 64 65.7 70.3 65 150 cm 92 86 91 94.7 92 94.3 4th hour Table: The effect of drop height on the bounce height of a tennis ball Height Dropped 25 cm 50 cm 75 cm 100 cm 150 cm Height Ball Bounces G1 J 15.7 31.3 51 65.7 92.3 G2 M 17 31.7 49 66 89 G3 B 20 34.7 52 69 97 G4 K G5 A 12.7 32 51.7 65 89 17.7 34.7 50 66.3 96.3 Graph The effect of surface on the bounce height of a tennis ball First Paragraph: In your own words describe the purpose of the experiment. Second Paragraph: Restate your hypothesis and your reasoning for this prediction. Summarize the lab procedure. Explain the setup of the lab, control/variable, etc. Describe safety precautions. Third Paragraph: Describe the outcome of the experiment and whether your hypothesis was supported or rejected by the data. refer to your data tables, graphs, etc. in assessing the data trends or patterns that support your conclusion. Conclusion: explain exactly what was/was not accomplished or learned Give a detailed description of how you were able to determine the above. Explain hidden variables that may have affected the reliability of the data Suggestions for improving the reliability of the data?