Main Differences - Australian University Sport

Report
Drugs, Sport, University
Jason Mazanov, PhD MAPS, Senior Lecturer, School of Business
AUG 2009, Opening Ceremony
An Overview of Drugs in Sport
Licit Drugs
Supplements
Prescription Substances
Caffeine
Alcohol
Use Misuse Abuse
Doping
Illicit Drugs
Erythropoietin (EPO)
Human Growth Hormone
(HGH/IGF1)
Androgenic Anabolic
Steroids (AAS)
Beta Agonists
Genetic Manipulation
Cocaine
Amphetamines
Marijuana
A Brief History of Drugs in Sport
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Ancient Olympics
Gladiators
Victorian England
Sport – The
Laboratory of Natural
Science
The Rise of
Pharmacology
World War 2
The Decline of
Amateurism
The Rise of Sport
Science
Mazanov & McDermott, 2009
A Brief History of Drugs and Sport
• Socialising - the Germanic tradition
• Deterrence hypothesis – sport protects
participants from drugs
• Winning – the Cold War, amateurism and sport
science
• Sponsorship – tobacco, alcohol and supplements
• Self-medicating – coping with sport, recovery
A Note on the Deterrence
Hypothesis...
Sport Protects People
From
Tobacco (excl. Baseball)
Range of Illicit Drugs
Alcohol Abuse
Doping
Sport Makes People
Vulnerable to
Dunn et al, 2011; Lisha & Sussman 2010
A Brief History of Drug Control
in Sport
1920s - Debate role of drugs in sport
(incl. Hypnosis)
1950s – Coherent anti-drug policies begin
to emerge
1967 – Cyclist Tommy Simpson dies; antidoping born
1968 – First IOC drug tests (alcohol)
1970s/80s – Anti-doping cynically
administered by IOC
1988 - Seoul Olympics Men’s 100m Final
1989 – Dubin Commission/Black Inquiry
1990 - ASDA
1998 - Tour de France/World Swimming
Championships
2003 - World Anti-Doping Agency 2003
2006 – ASADA
2013 – Lance Armstrong/ACC Report
Mazanov & McDermott, 2009
Anti-Doping: Protecting the
Integrity of Sport
• WADC 2003, 2009,
2015
• “to protect the
integrity of
sport” (Mazanov & Connor,
2010)
• Defines doping as
contrary to
Olympism via
“Spirit of Sport”
• 8 ADRV – 2 for a
drug test, 6
administrative
• Athlete, coach,
trainer, manager,
agent, team staff,
official, medical,
paramedical, parent
or any other person
Spirit of Sport
Aggregate
Male
Female
Do Not
168
85
83
19
Ethics, fair play and
4.072 (1)
4.975
3.536
3.000 (1)
Health
1.161 (7)
1.240
1.083(7)
2.380 (2)
Excellence in performance
0.439 (8)
0.482
0.396
0.354 (10)
Character and education
0.426 (9)
0.515
0.330
0.500 (8)
Fun and joy
1.177 (6)
1.020
1.387(5)
1.026 (6)
Teamwork
1.551 (4)
1.438
1.689
0.894 (7)
Dedication and commitment
1.178 (5)
1.166
1.191
1.348 (5)
Respect for rules and laws
1.807 (3)
2.032
1.612
1.563 (4)
Respect for self and other
4.024 (2)
3.296
5.431
1.944 (3)
Courage
0.336
0.342
0.330
0.302 (11)
Community and solidarity
0.378
0.314
0.445
0.488 (9)
N
Mazanov, Huybers & Connor, 2012
Drug Testing
• Nipple to knee
• Doping control
officer
• Paruresis (Elbe et
al, 2012)
• Applies to any
athlete
Athlete Whereabouts
• Athletes must be available for Out-of-Competition
testing
• 3 months, in advance, nominate a location they
will be at for 1 hour per day they will be
available for drug testing (incl. Christmas)
• Being unavailable results in sanction
• Threats to freedom of movement, autonomy, privacy
(Malloy & Zuckus, 2002)
• Control order usually reserved for
paedophiles/terrorists (Waddington, 2010)
• Subject of case in European Court of Human Rights
ASP Sanctions
• ASP get general idea, no idea how it works
(Mazanov et
al, 2013)
• TKD trainer at Canadian National Championships
• Gave 16 year old banned diuretic by mistake
• 5 year ban
• No record of ASP sanction in Australia
• Sport science in focus
Critique of Anti-Doping
• Drugs inimical to modern sport
• Doping scandal good for business
• Unlikely to ever win the war on drugs in sport
(Fahey, 2013)
• No definition of Spirit of Sport (Mazanov et al, 2012)
• Drug testing inherently flawed (epidemiology
unknown)
• Individually rather than institutionally focused
• Impugns human rights to protect private
institutional interest
• Intensely complicated system (biochemists; XZTT)
• Focus on elite sport at expense of everyone else
• Focus on doping at expense of other drugs
• Fails to manage the role of drugs in sport (Mazanov,
2013)
• Need a new approach to manage drugs in sport
Drug use in University Sport
• We know very little about “doping” in non-elite
sport
• Would love to do the research, need access and
funding
• Substances of threat in university sport:
•
•
•
•
•
Alcohol
Caffeine abuse
Contaminated supplements
Protein abuse
Prescription amphetamines
Drug use in University Sport
• Extension of Huybers & Mazanov (2012)
• Model fit Elite Athletes 0.169 (good), University
Athletes 0.028 (bad)
• University athletes think about doping differently
to elite athletes
• Different drug management required wrt doping
Main Differences
Injury or Performance has no impact on use
More sensitive to contracts
Health impacts irrelevant
No impact for small fines
No impact for other penalties
Managing Drug Use in University
Sport
• Three groups: abstain, use,
maybe
• Focus on drug use rather than
doping
• Cycling Australia Review
• Active rather than passive
drug management
• Health less of an issue in
elite sport
• Folly of punishing A while
hoping for B
• Education around sports
ethics – why rather than
comply
• Education around what can be
used safely and how
Doping in Sport, Doping in Society
• Performance enhancing substance use a societal
phenomenon
• Ballet dancers, military, emergency services,
truck drivers, surgeons, academics
• Cognitive enhancing drug use in universities
• Sport a good testing ground before broader
regulation

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