Mozart Piano Concerto no 23 in A Major Features of Classical Music • Texture: Light and clear mainly homophonic • Melody: Elegant and expressive • Instruments: Orchestra grew from Baroque Period. Piano featured lots. • Form: Chamber music along with symphony, sonata and concerto gained popularity. Sonata form developed. • Features: Alberti Bass – repeated figure in LH – broken chord Mozart’s Styles • • • • Skilled composer and pianist Clear form and structure Uses many themes linked brilliantly Classical period usually had keys modulating to related keys but Mozart often used unexpected keys….SURPRISE!!!! • Mozart developed the clarinet…writing solo pieces for it. Classical Form • Concerto – Solo instrument contrasted against the orchestra • Cadenza – Solo section usually inserted at the end to show the skill of the player. • Ternary form – 3 part form where the first part is identical to the last ABA • Sonata Form – form in 3 sections Exposition, Development and Recapitulation Piano Concerto No. 23 in A Major K488 • • • • • 3 movements Movement 1 – Sonata Form Movement II – Ternary Form Movement III – Sonata-Rondo Form Sonata Rondo Form uses the recurring theme idea of Rondo with the Sonata plan form Form Comparisons SONATA RONDO FORM – Movement III SONATA FORM – Movement I Section Expo Si Subject A Key TONIC Tion Development Recap Itula B A/B A B DOM VARIOUS TONIC TONIC tion 1st Movement Analysis Orchestral Exposition bars 1-66 Bars 1-8 Theme 1a • A Major (Violin) • Repeated by WW Theme 1b bars 18-22 (violin) • Rhythmic tune played by WW and strings • Links 1st and 2nd Theme 1st Movement Analysis Orchestral Exposition bars 1-66 Second Subject – Theme 2a (1c) bars 30-35 (Strings repeated by WW not in Dom at this stage) • Lyrical in nature contrasts other themes Bars 46-52 – Theme 2aa (1d) bars energetic and vibrant dialogue between strings and WW • Closes orchestral exposition 1st Movement Analysis Piano Exposition bars 67-156 Bars 67-74 Theme 1a • A Major (Piano with string acc.) • Repeated version decorated hugely Theme 1b bars 83-98(piano) • Broken chord acc in piano • Scales and sequences in RH • Links 1st and 2nd Theme – links to E Major 1st Movement Analysis Piano Exposition bars 67-156 Second Subject – Theme 2a (1c) bars 99-106(Piano with block chord) Repeated by Fl, Bassoon and 1st Violin • Lyrical in nature contrasts other themes Bars 115-136 – Theme 2aa (1d) Melody on piano with Orchestral acc – Alberti bass 1st Movement Analysis Piano Exposition bars 67-148 Bars 114-137 – Theme 2aa (1d) • Piano plays wildly elaborately Bars 137 – material from 1b acts as codetta still in E major Theme 3a (1e) bars 143-149 violin • Sounds like new section but appears later in recap so really belongs to the exposition. Describe it as a ‘development theme’. 1st Movement Analysis Development b156-170 Bars 156-170 – Theme 3 (1e) Part One • Expecting keys of A Major-E Major – D Major – 3 related minors F# minor – C# minor – B minor • However Mozart does not do this • Key sequence uses falling 3rds E-C and C-A Bars 156 – 4 bar phrase in E minor • Dialogue between clarinets, bassoons and horns Bar 160 • Repeated above idea in C Major Bar 164 • Repeat but extend now in A minor • Piano continues with idea ending in F Major • Strings take idea into D minor 1st Movement Analysis Development b170-198 Bars 170 – Theme 3 (1e) Part Two • C material developed again • Cl and fl play in canon at a 4th • RH plays scales and semi-quaver passages Bars 177 • F major chord begins preparation to bring piece back to dominant E which brings music back to A for recap. • B178-185 repeated E’s on low strings and horns • RH plays scales and broken chords • B197 rising chromatic scale 1st Movement Analysis Recapitulation b198-314 • Fusion of orchestral and piano exposition. • Material is shared between soloist and orchestra • Old themes returned but with renewed freshness due to 1E being used in development. 1st Movement Analysis Recapitulation b198-314 • B198 – 1A as usual except with strings and flute. • B213 – 1B as b82 with piano joining in. All in A major. • B229 – 1C now in original key (compare b99) • B244 – 1D compare with b114 • B261 – Decorated piano passage with Cadenza in sight 1E is re-introduced • 1E played 3 times: – Soloist – Clarinet and Bassoon – 4 part counterpoint with piano decoration 1st Movement Analysis Recapitulation b198-314 • Theme 1E is original simplicity not like its appearance in exposition two. • Alberti bass b272 – ends on trill at b283 • B284 – Orchestra play 1B only 6 bars ends with 2 beats rest. • B290 – 1E arrives again stating its importance – very exuberant playing of the theme. • B297 – Cadenza begins – soloist usually improves but Mozart wrote it out…taking no chances for the movement to become disjointed. • B298 Coda – material from 1D used to close coda.