Intensive, Individualized Intervention

Report
Early Childhood:
Intensive Instruction
’12-13
Amy Matthews, Ph.D. & Jamie Owen-DeSchryver, Ph.D.
Grand Valley State University
Linda Elenbaas, M.A.
Spring Lake Schools / OAISD
Agenda

Welcome Back and Review

Intensive Teaching/Applied Behavior Analysis
(ABA)

ABA Components

Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT)/Intensive
Teaching and NET

Preparing for intensive teaching
Intensive, Individualized Intervention
What is it?
Why is it critical?
Why was Anne Sullivan’s teaching
successful?
Individualized
 Intensive
 Repetition
 Follow through
 Targeted
 High expectations
 Failure was not an option

Children with ASD Need Good
Teaching Even More Than
Most Kids
Neurotypical Child
Child with Autism
1,000 learn units a day
Learn from their environment
Specific instruction not needed
Strong speaking skills
Strong listening skills
Few learn units a day
Poor observational learners
Specific instruction necessary
Weak speaking skills
Weak listening skills
*A child with autism has to learn at a faster rate than
typical peers just to catch up.
More Learning Opportunities
Provide individualized intensive teaching
to increase learning for students who do
not learn from the natural environment or
through typical classroom activities
Presenting Instruction
Request
(Stimulus)
Response
Reaction
(Consequence)
Presenting Instruction
PROMPT
REINFORCEMENT
What makes the
behavior happen
REQUEST
RESPONSE REACTION
Instruction
“Do This”: Imitation
“MATCH”: Pre-academic
“Do Puzzle”: Play Skills
“Give me the . . .”: Receptive Language
What increases the chance
the behavior will happen
again
The 3 Rs are what
we call a
“Learning
Opportunity” or
“Learning Trial”
Using the 3 Rs…
100% success is
expected so…
Failure is not an
option
A child will be
assisted until he is
successful
Don’t make a
request unless you
can follow through
More About the 3 Rs







Who presents
Where to present
What do you present
How to prompt
How to reinforce
How many times to present
How quickly to present
Request
Response
Reaction
What is ABA?
The Basics of
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
ABA is Good Teaching
What is ABA?
ABA systematically applies
procedures based on behavioral
principles to the instruction and
modification of socially significant
behaviors.
Why ABA?






Based on over 60 years of scientific evidence
Research supports intensive, structured
intervention
Best way to prepare young children with ASD to
learn
Effective way to teach many new skills
Individualized and intensive
Ongoing monitoring through data collection
ABA as a Broad Science

Applied behavior analysis contributes to a full
range of areas including: AIDS prevention,
conservation of natural resources, education,
gerontology, health and exercise, industrial
safety, language acquisition, littering, medical
procedures, parenting, seatbelt use, severe
mental disorders, sports, and zoo management
and care of animals. ABA-based interventions
have gained recent popularity in the last
20 years related to teaching students with ASD.
What is ABA?
 ABA
 Only
is Not:
applicable to young children with ASD. It
can be used with any age group and individuals
with and without various disabilities.
Applied Behavior Analysis
The broad approach to changing
behavior based on behavioral principles
Seat-Belt Use



Negative reinforcement tactics work to
increase seatbelt use unless buzzing can
be disconnected
Research would suggest positive
reinforcement strategies will increase use
Researchers suggest: a light on the license plate to
indicate the belt is buckled followed by a large scale
community effort to reward drivers for their use,
including entrance to “fast” traffic lane, discounts given
by businesses with drive-thru window (banks, fast
food, etc)
Geller, E.S., Casali, J.G., & Johnson, R.P. (1980). Seat belt usage: A potential target for
applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. 13(4) pp. 669-675.
ABA methods are used to support
persons with autism in at least six ways:



to increase behaviors (e.g. reinforcement
procedures increase on-task behavior, or social
interactions);
to teach new skills (e.g. systematic instruction
and reinforcement procedures teach functional
life skills, communication skills, social skills);
to maintain behaviors (e.g. teaching self control
and self-monitoring procedures to stay on task);
ABA methods are used to support
persons with ASD in at least six ways:



to generalize or to transfer behavior from one
situation or response to another (e.g. from
completing assignments in the resource room to
performing as well in the general ed classroom);
to restrict or narrow conditions under which
interfering behaviors occur (e.g. playing with
trains has a time and a place); and
to reduce interfering behaviors (e.g. aggression,
stereotypy)
Different Forms of ABA Teaching
•
Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT)
•
Incidental Teaching
•
Verbal Behavior
•
PECS
•
Pivotal Response Training
ABA Credential

ABA isn’t just another strategy

It is a field of study based on many years of
research that serves as a foundational approach
to teaching

Board Certified Behavior Analyst (BCBA) is the
credential given to people with significant
expertise and experience with ABA
Behavior Analysis Certification Board (BACB) – www.bacb.com
ABA and Evidence-based
Practice

ABA is listed as an evidence-based
practice by:
 National
Professional Development Center on
ASD
 National Standards Project
 Association for Science in Autism Treatment
 Numerous recent books and articles on
evidence-based practice
ABA Effectiveness

According to a cost/benefit analysis conducted by
Jacobson, Mulick & Green (1996), competently-delivered,
early, intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) can offer
the hope of unprecedented gains for both children and
taxpayers: estimated savings per child to age 22 are
about $200,000; to age 55, $1,000,000.

Similar analysis by Chasson, Harris, & Neely (2007)
suggested the use of EIBI can lead to a savings of
$208,500 per child across 18 years of education in the
state of TX.
According to Ganz (2006), ninety percent of
children with ASD who are deprived of
intensive, effective early intervention will
require special or custodial care throughout
their lives, and this is estimated to cost the
United States $35 billion dollars a year.
Getting STARTed with Intensive
Teaching

First, we need to review some of the basic
components of ABA

Many of them will look familiar to you; you
might be surprised that much of it isn’t
new!
ABA Components
 Prompting
 Errorless
Learning
 Reinforcement
 Behavioral Momentum
 Stages of Learning
Prompting

Prompting involves helping the child give the
correct response after a given request.

When learning new tasks, a child needs help
to understand the connection between the
request and the desired response.

Prompts increase the success of the student.

Prompting may occur at the same time as the
request, right after the request, or even before
the request.
Summary: Types of Prompts

Verbal prompts

Visual prompts





Model prompts
Picture prompts
Gestural prompts
Positional prompts
Physical prompts



Blocking
Initiation prompts
Full Physical prompts
Verbal Prompts
 Verbal
prompt involves providing a
verbal instruction, cue, or model, or
overemphasizing the correct word in
an array of choices (direct and
indirect).
Visual Prompts

Model prompts is the acting out of the target
behavior by the adult or another child with the hope
that the child will imitate.

Picture prompts provide a visual cue to the child.

Gestural prompts includes pointing to, looking at,
moving, or touching an item or area to indicate a
correct response.

Positional prompts involves arranging the
materials of the trial so that the correct item is in a
position advantageous to the child.
Physical Prompts

Blocking involves stopping an incorrect
response or behavior before it occurs

Initiation prompts involves helping the
child to begin an action to complete a task

Physical prompts involves actually
touching the child.
Prompting

Using the right level of
prompting
 Least to most (reduces
dependency)
 Most
to least (errorless
learning)
Errorless Learning

Learning it wrong

Have you ever…
 Learned
a name and later discovered it was the
wrong name
 Made a wrong turn the first time going somewhere
and then made the same mistake next time
 Added the wrong ingredient to a recipe and then did it
again
When are errors not okay?

Surgery

Pilots

Bridge architects

When it will take just
as much work to
unlearn errors
Errorless Learning

In errorless learning, children only learn
the correct skill. That is, the teacher
teaches in such a manner that students do
not make any mistakes. As a result, they
do not learn an incorrect skill that will have
to be corrected or re-taught.
It might look like cheating but it isn’t

Examples:
 You’re
wearing blue shoes. If you have blue
shoes, line up.
 My name is Miss Lisa. Who am I?
 “Raise your hand” while modeling raise hand
and providing an initiation prompt.
 This is a truck. What is this?
 You have an apple and milk for lunch. What
are you having for lunch? While showing a
picture of apple and milk.
Errorless Learning
Errorless learning offers the following benefits:
 Minimizes the number of errors
 Increases time available for instruction
 Reduces the likelihood that errors will be
repeated in the future
 Reduces frustration and increases opportunities
for reinforcement
Errorless Learning


Prompting leads to success 90-100% of the time
Errorless process:
 Give an instruction once
 Wait for a response; prompt before an error
occurs within 3-5 seconds of request
 When a child is first learning a skill, the
prompt may be immediate
When to use Errorless Learning
When to use
 Has few
skills/acquisition
phase
 Unlikely to learn
without many trials,
supported by prompts
When not to use
 Has skills; working on
mastery or fluency
Prompting Cautions

Watch for unplanned prompts (e.g. Clever
Hans)

Beware of prompt dependency
Goal is to use the least amount
of prompting necessary to get
the child to respond correctly
Fade Prompts
Prompt fading
 Gradually reduce the
level of prompting
needed. For example:
 Full
physical to partial
physical
 Full physical to
gestural
 Model to verbal
 Verbal to visual
Time delay
 Delay prompt by 1-3
seconds
Prompting: Application/Activity

Consider 2 tasks
1.
2.

Dressing or completing a drawing activity
Identifying features of an object or labeling pictures
How would you prompt your student in these
tasks
to least – errorless teaching
 Least to most
 Most

How would you fade
ABA Components
 Prompting
 Errorless
Learning
 Reinforcement
 Behavioral Momentum
 Stages of Learning
Hurray for Reinforcers!!
Reinforcement

All people use reinforcement in every day life.

Something is a reinforcer if it increases the
behavior that occurred immediately before the
reinforcer was delivered.
Reinforcement

A reinforcer can be positive or negative.
– giving something to increase a
behavior, like a smile, a cookie or a toy
 Positive
 Negative-
taking something away to increase
a behavior, like turning off the alarm clock, or
a teacher removing a demand so the child will
stop screaming.
Guidelines for Reinforcement

If it doesn’t increase behavior, it isn’t a reinforcer.

Each child will have different reinforcers.

A reinforcer for a child won’t be a reinforcer forever.

Vary reinforcers.

Reinforcers should be immediate.

Always pair tangible reinforcers with social praise,
eye contact, high fives, hugs, brief games.
Guidelines for Reinforcement

Use descriptive praise for correct responses (e.g.
“You are sitting so quietly, we are ready to get
started!” or “Thanks for closing the door, you are a
great helper.”).

If reinforcement is being presented after each trial, shortlived reinforcers should be used. A single mini M&M, one
blow on the bubble wand, a quick high five and a "Great
job!"

Start with reinforcement after every trial then thin out the
reinforcement schedule once a behavior is learned.
101 Ways to Praise
WOW • WAY TO GO • SUPER • YOU'RE SPECIAL • OUTSTANDING • EXCELLENT
•GREAT• GOOD • NEAT • WELL DONE • REMARKABLE • I KNEW YOU COULD DO
IT • I'M PROUD OF YOU • FANTASTIC • SUPER STAR • NICE WORK • LOOKING
GOOD • YOU'RE ON TOP OF IT • BEAUTIFUL • NOW YOU'RE FLYING • YOU'RE
CATCHING ON • NOW YOU'VE GOT IT • YOU'RE INCREDIBLE • BRAVO • YOU'RE
FANTASTIC • HURRAY FOR YOU • YOU'RE ON TARGET • YOU'RE ON YOUR WAY
• HOW NICE • HOW SMART • GOOD JOB • THAT'S INCREDIBLE • HOT DOG •
DYNAMITE • YOU'RE BEAUTIFUL • YOU'RE UNIQUE • NOTHING CAN STOP YOU
NOW • GOOD FOR YOU • I LIKE YOU YOU'RE A WINNER • REMARKABLE JOB •
BEAUTIFUL WORK • SPECTACULAR • YOU'RE SPECTACULAR • YOU'RE
DARLING • YOU'RE PRECIOUS • GREAT DISCOVERY • YOU'VE DISCOVERED THE
SECRET • YOU FIGURED IT OUT • FANTASTIC JOB • HIP, HIP, HURRAY • BINGO •
MAGNIFICENT • MARVELOUS • TERRIFIC • YOU'RE IMPORTANT • PHENOMENAL
• YOU'RE SENSATIONAL • SUPER WORK • CREATIVE JOB • SUPER JOB •
FANTASTIC JOB • EXCEPTIONAL PERFORMANCE • YOU'RE A REAL TROOPER •
YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE • YOU ARE EXCITING • YOU LEARNED IT RIGHT • WHAT
AN IMAGINATION •WHAT A GOOD LISTENER • YOU ARE FUN • YOU'RE
GROWING UP • YOU TRIED HARD • YOU CARE • BEAUTIFUL SHARING •
OUTSTANDING PERFORMANCE • YOU'RE A GOOD FRIEND • I TRUST YOU •
YOU'RE IMPORTANT • YOU MEAN A LOT TO ME • YOU MAKE ME HAPPY • YOU
BELONG • YOU'VE GOT A FRIEND • YOU MAKE ME LAUGH • YOU BRIGHTEN MY
DAY • I RESPECT YOU • YOU MEAN THE WORLD TO ME • THAT'S CORRECT •
YOU'RE A JOY • YOU'RE A TREASURE • YOU'RE WONDERFUL • YOU'RE
PERFECT • AWESOME • A+ JOB • YOU'RE A-OK MY BUDDY • YOU MADE MY DAY
• THAT'S THE BEST • A BIG HUG • A BIG KISS • I LOVE YOU!
Reinforcement

Better responses get a better reinforcer
 Faster
responding
 Louder responding
 Longer responding (e.g., time on task)
 More accurate (e.g., says word more clearly)

Better reinforcers are
 More
(e.g., popcorn)
 Better (e.g., favorite color m & m)
 Longer access (e.g., more time to watch video)
Reinforcement Schedules

Continuous – Reinforce after every correct
response
 Used

for acquisition and difficult tasks
Intermittent – Fixed or variable schedule
 Used
to maintain a behavior
Identifying and Individualizing
Reinforcers
Ask / Survey
 Observe
 Sample/Preference
assessment

Reinforcer Assessment


Survey
 Reinforcer
survey 1
 Reinforcer
survey 2
Conduct a reinforcer assessment
Rapport Building
(Pairing)



High quality programs have positive teacher
child interactions
The goal of pairing is for the learner to enjoy
being with the instructor (the instructor is a big
chocolate chip cookie)
The learner should not want to escape from the
instructor
 When
a child sees you, he should know that great
things are going to happen and not bad things

Pairing happens before instructional demands
start
Rapport Building (Pairing)
We don’t want kids working to escape from the
teacher.
It’s okay to work to get a fun reinforcer and learn
to associate that reinforcer with a person.
So…
Why wouldn’t you try to use pairing?
What is better than this?
Rapport Building (Pairing)

A process of establishing yourself as a reinforcer
in order to build rapport with child. Associate
yourself with a reinforcer.

Best types of reinforcers for pairing:
 Are
controlled by you
 Can be delivered multiple times in small amounts
 Go away by themselves and don’t need to be taken
away
 Are somehow better with you than without you (toy
that only you know how to turn on)
Pairing: Steps

Identify the learner’s reinforcers

Best types of reinforcers for pairing:








Are controlled by you
Can be delivered multiple times in small amounts
Go away by themselves and don’t need to be taken away
Are somehow better with you than without you (toy that only you
know how to turn on)
Limit the availability of other reinforcers during pairing
Create an environment that is fun
Offer something that is more desirable than what they
are already doing
Pair your voice and yourself with the reinforcers
Engaging Tasks

Boring is not always in the task, but in the
environment because you don’t have
enough reinforcement (lever example)

A task has to be so engaging that children
do not want to escape
ABA Components
 Prompting
 Errorless
Learning
 Reinforcement
 Behavioral Momentum
 Stages of Learning
Behavioral Momentum
Behavioral Momentum
Faced with a list of tasks, we often
complete the easier tasks first so we
can check them off the list and achieve
satisfaction from small successes
before we tackle the harder tasks…
This is the concept of behavior
momentum
Behavioral Momentum
Use the same procedure with your students


Roll with successes
Provide the student with a series of high
probability (motivating) requests or directions. This
will increase the likelihood that the student will
comply with the less likely (low probability)
direction/request.
Behavioral Momentum and the
Classroom Schedule



Avoid starting the day with “unlikely” or “nonpreferred”
activities, such as a review of the previous day’s
problems, a difficult assignment, or calendar review.
Instead, begin with “likely” or “preferred” behaviors,
games or activities, such as “Simon Says,” team guess
of a teacher’s selected mystery animal, or reading a
high-interest story.
Follow the preferred activities with less likely activities
(e.g., academic assignments, problem review).
Ben’s
Picks
Behavioral Momentum and
Individual Student Responses

Use behavior momentum to encourage students
to follow directions and complete demands
 Start
by giving three or more requests that a student
will readily do. After successfully completing each
request, reinforce the student—this builds “behavior
momentum.”
 Next make a more difficult request

This is why we use “mixed trials” – more about
this later
Behavioral Momentum: Example
Mrs. Cleaver is working with 4-year-old Allison to
improve following directions. After identifying high
and low probability behaviors for Allison, she uses
the following sequence . . .
“Allison, where’s the dog?”
“Allison, give me five.”
“Allison, what’s your favorite animal?”
“Allison, put your puzzle
back on the shelf.”
ABA Components
 Prompting
 Errorless
Learning
 Reinforcement
 Shaping
 Behavioral Momentum
 Stages of Learning
Stages of learning

For each targeted goal, consider the
stage of learning.
Acquisition
2. Fluency building
3. Maintenance
4. Generalization
1.
Acquisition

Characterized by high rates of inaccurate
responses. Students have little or no skill at
this stage. With careful teacher-directed
instruction, the rate of accurate responses
rises.
Acquisition

Acquisition requires intense teacher-student
interaction

Numerous prompts are needed for correct
responses

Correct responding is the focus not fast
responding

Use errorless learning to reduce errors
Acquisition

Foreign languages

Reading

Picture Exchange Communication: Request
Fluency Building

When the responses reach independence at 8090% accuracy, students are moving into fluency
building.

Students practice to increase the speed of
responding accurately.

Teacher provides corrective feedback.
Fluency

Foreign languages

Reading

Picture Exchange Communication: Request
Maintenance

Once students respond fluently,
instructional time for the target skill is
reduced

Practice is provided for maintenance

(Goal selection)
Maintenance

Foreign languages

Reading

Picture Exchange Communication: Request
Generalization
If you don’t program for
generalization, don’t bother
teaching at all.
Generalization

Transfer of learning:
– use multiple exemplars and real objects
 People – use multiple instructions, parents
 Settings – use varied and natural settings
 Behaviors – teach behaviors of similar response class
 Stimuli

Reduce the level of prompting and
reinforcement used so the student can
demonstrate the behavior independently.
Generalization

Foreign languages

Reading

Picture Exchange Communication: Request
Ways to Increase Generalization

Teach in the target situation

Use common items that will be encountered in the
natural environment

Provide multiple examples

Vary instructors

Increase reinforcement in the natural environment for
taught behaviors

Teach meaningful behaviors that are useable across
people and settings
Discrete Trial Teaching
(DTT)
What is the difference
between ABA and DTT?
Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT)
DTT is a teaching procedure based
on ABA principles
Steege, M. W., Mace, F. C., Perry, L., & Longnecker, H. (2007). Applied behavior
analysis: Beyond discrete trial teaching. Psychology in the Schools, 44(1), 91-99.
Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT)

Primarily adult-directed and implemented
in a structured setting

Particularly effective for teaching early
learning and language skills

One component of a comprehensive
program for children with ASD
Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT)






Breaks skills into small parts
Provides concentrated teaching opportunities
Uses prompting & prompt fading
Uses reinforcement procedures
Data collection informs programming
decisions
Teaches to fluency and generalization
To Master a Concept
8-12 repetitions for a gifted student
 23-35 repetitions for an average student
 1400 repetitions for a “naïve” student

What works: Research about teaching and learning, US Dept of Ed, 1996
Presenting Instruction
PROMPT
REINFORCEMENT
What makes the
behavior happen
REQUEST
RESPONSE REACTION
Instruction
“Do This”: Imitation
“MATCH”: Pre-academic
“Do Puzzle”: Play Skills
“Give me the . . .”: Receptive Language
What increases the chance
the behavior will happen
again
Get attention
REQUEST
Correct
RESPONSE
Reinforce
REACTION
Incorrect
Prompt for
correct response
Instructional Delivery
Request  Response  Reaction
Stimulus  Response  Consequence

Nuances of presentation
 Environment
 Teaching session length
 Instructor language
 Mixing vs. massing
 Pacing
 Varying placement
 Set size
Instructional Delivery: Environment

Work in the most natural environment that will
still allow the child to learn

Use the environment to block and manage
behavior, but gradually move to a natural
learning environment
Instructional Delivery
Request  Response  Reaction
Stimulus  Response  Consequence

Nuances of presentation
 Environment
 Teaching session length
 Instructor language
 Mixing vs.
 Pacing
massing
 Varying placement
 Set size
Instructional Delivery: Session
Length

Keep track of when a child starts to lose
momentum and stop a minute before

Always end on a positive request

Work up to longer periods of work
Instructional Delivery
Request  Response  Reaction
Stimulus  Response  Consequence

Nuances of presentation
 Environment
 Teaching session length
 Instructor language
 Mixing vs.
 Pacing
massing
 Varying placement
 Set size
Instructional Delivery: Instructor
Language

Simple vs. complex

When do you keep the lead constant vs.
vary the lead (e.g. point to…, touch…,
show me…, where is…)
Instructional Delivery
Request  Response  Reaction
Stimulus  Response  Consequence

Nuances of presentation
 Environment
 Teaching session length
 Instructor language
 Mixing vs.
 Pacing
massing
 Varying placement
 Set size
Presentation:
Mass Trial vs. Mixed Trial

Mass trial is repeated practice of the same task
 Provides
lots of practice
 Rote and sometimes hard to generalize

Mixed trials involve asking a combination of
questions
 More
natural and easier to generalize
 Some students may have a hard time learning a task
in a mixed presentation
Mass Trial vs. Mixed Trial
Instructional Delivery
Request  Response  Reaction
Stimulus  Response  Consequence

Nuances of presentation
 Environment
 Teaching session length
 Instructor language
 Mixing vs.
 Pacing
massing
 Varying placement
 Set size
Instructional Delivery: Pacing

How quickly to you present a request to a
student?

Considerations:
 Child’s
processing speed
 Errorless learning approach
 Stage of learning (acquisition vs. fluency)
Instructional Delivery
Request  Response  Reaction
Stimulus  Response  Consequence

Nuances of presentation
 Environment
 Teaching session length
 Instructor language
 Mixing vs.
 Pacing
massing
 Varying placement
 Set size
Instructional Delivery: Vary
Placement

Change position of item presented each time

Change from horizontal to vertical

Change setting (e.g. PECS)

Change location (table vs. held by instructor)
Instructional Delivery
Request  Response  Reaction
Stimulus  Response  Consequence

Nuances of presentation
 Environment
 Teaching session length
 Instructor language
 Mixing vs.
 Pacing
massing
 Varying placement
 Set size
Instructional Delivery: Set Size
How many items are presented at a time?
 When do you present two?

When do you present three? (why is this
better?)

When do you present multiple items?
Autism and ABA Apps

Autism Apps

ABA Apps
Day Two
Next Steps
How do we set up intensive teaching?
Next Steps: How do we set up
intensive teaching?
Identify curricula
 Complete a student skills assessment
 Select targets based on the assessment
 Establish a data collection system
 Complete reinforcer survey and collect items
 Identify time in the daily schedule for
intensive teaching

Intensive Teaching Curriculum Areas


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


Readiness skills/Learning to learn
 Attention
 Imitation
 Motivation
 Making choices
Language
Play/Social skills
Pre-academic/Academic/Literacy
Self help/Adaptive
Motor
Curriculum to Teach Specific Skills

Assessment, Evaluation and Programming System (0-3
and 3-6) (AEPS) - http://aepslinkedsystem.com/

The STAR Program – www.starautismprogram.com

Rethink Autism - http://www.rethinkautism.com/

Teaching language to children with autism or other
developmental disabilities by Sundberg & Partington

Behavioral Intervention for Young Children with Autism
by Maurice, Green, & Luce

Teach Me Language by Freeman & Dake
Next Steps: How do we set up
intensive teaching?
Identifying curricula
 Complete a student skills assessment
 Select targets based on the assessment
 Establish a data collection system
 Complete reinforcer survey and collect items
 Identify time in the daily schedule for
intensive teaching

Conducting a Skills Assessment

You only know what to teach by assessing
a child’s current skills and knowing where
you want the child to go next.
One day Alice came to a fork in the road and saw a Cheshire cat in a tree.
“Which road do I take”? she asked.
His response was a question: “Where do you want to go”?
“I don’t know,” Alice answered.
“Then,” said the cat, “it doesn’t matter.”
~Lewis Carroll
Alice in Wonderland
MDE Approved Assessment
Systems

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Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming System
(AEPS)
Battelle Developmental Inventory, 2n edition (BDI-2)
Brigance Inventory of Early Development-II (IED-II)
Carolina Curriculum for Preschoolers with Special Needs
(CCPSN)
Preschool Child Observation Record, 2nd ed (COR)
Creative Curriculum Development Continuum for Ages
3-5 (CCDC)
Learning Accomplishment Profile – Third Edition (LAP-3)
http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/REPORTING_PRESCHOOL_SPED_OUTCOMES_for_the_WEB_4.08_235053_7.pdf
Assessment systems often used
with children with ASD



Assessment, Evaluation, and Programming
System for Infant and Children (AEPS)
 AEPS Interactive (AEPSi)
http://www.aepsi.com
The Assessment of Basic Language and
Learning Skills-Revised (ABBLS-R)
Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and
Placement Program (VB-MAPP)
Classroom Skills Assessment

You can use a skills assessment data
sheet for all of your students to assess
performance in typical classroom activities
and self-help skills

This data can be used for the development
of IEP goals and intensive teaching targets
Skills Data Sheet Across Students

Fine motor

Social

Eating
Basically…know thy student

Student
summary

Student
summary
example
Student Example

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





Gavin knows his upper and lowercase letters, letter sounds, numbers to 29, the
concept of one and all in a set, basic colors and shapes.
He is able to copy simple lines, trace letters and lines.
He is independent in eating and beginning toileting.
He has some overall delays in motor coordination for his age but navigates safely in
multiple environments.
He has significant delays in functional use of language and speaks in primarily one
word utterances.
He does not communicate to get his needs met, seek information or interact by
answering questions or recalling events.
He is able to receptively and expressively identify pictures and objects.
He is beginning to understand the features, function and category of objects.
He understands the concepts of small, medium and large
He has difficulty initiating interaction with peers and primarily plays alone or with an
adult. He will participate in organized games supervised by an adult and do some
basic pretend play with adult supervision.
He rarely responds to peer initiated interactions or initiaties with peers.
Student Example: Gavin

Progress record

Graph 1

Graph 2

Child report
Select a student for intensive
teaching

Based on your assessments of all
students, who would require more
intensive instruction.

Develop an intensive teaching program for
one student to begin.
Next Steps: How do we set up
intensive teaching?
Identifying curricula
 Complete a student skills assessment
 Select targets based on the assessment
 Establish a data collection system
 Complete reinforcer survey and collect
items
 Identify time in the daily schedule for
intensive teaching

What do we teach?
We teach those skills that will help
the child become better learners,
gain independence, and be
successful in general education
Choosing Goals

Expectations are addressed throughout
the day in all activities and generally are
not chosen as IEP goals and targets

Choose your IEP goals and targets from
the items on the assessment and from a
solid curriculum
Choosing Targets


Balance across curriculum areas
Ask the following question:
 Does the child have the necessary prerequisite skills
for this target?
 Is this target developmentally/age appropriate for the
child?
 Will this skill help to reduce problem behaviors?
 Will this skill lead to the teaching of other meaningful
skills?
 Is this skill likely to generalize?
 Will this skill be maintained?
 Will the child acquire this skill in a reasonable amount
of time?
 Is this skill important for the child and family?
Choosing target words to teach

If you were going to Japan and you wanted to
choose 12 words that would be very relevant
to get around, what would they be?

When choosing any target, choose what is
most relevant and likely to be learned and
used
This concept applies generally across all areas: preacademic skills, play, etc.
Choosing target words to teach

Teach words that can be used broadly (e.g., “open”
can be understood and used for open door, open jar,
open lid, open goldfish bag, open mouth and say
ahh)

Avoid choosing words that do not convey a concrete
meaning (e.g. more) or words that are not critical for
understanding (e.g. please, more)

Choose words that are motivating to the child and will be
used frequently and reinforced

Teach yes and no
Target Examples

Target Areas

Target Areas with Examples

Circle Time Targets
Student Example: Gavin
Student summary
 IEP Summary

IEP Goals 1
 IEP Goals 2
 IEP Goals 3

Next Steps: How do we set up
intensive teaching?
Identifying curricula
 Complete a student skills assessment
 Select targets based on the assessment
 Establish a data collection system
 Complete reinforcer survey and collect
items
 Identify time in the daily schedule for
intensive teaching

Identifying a Data Collection
System

Identify an appropriate data sheet
 Clearly
 Probe
define targets and instructions
data collection vs. trial by trial
 Indicate
prompt level
Taking Data

Identify an appropriate data sheet
 Clearly
define targets and instructions
Probe Data Sheet
Sample Probe Data Sheet
Develop criteria for success/mastery

Consider how same aged typical peers perform this
skill. Does a typical child perform this skill 80% of
the time or more?

Do not set your criteria too low or the child will not achieve
true mastery. Anything less than 80% mastery probably
will not be maintained once intensive teaching is ended.
 Do not set your criteria higher than would be observed in
same aged peers without a disability

For intensive teaching, the criteria often used in the
Ottawa program is independent responses on the
first cold probe over 3 consecutive days
Student Example: Gavin

Probe data sheet
Multiple students Data Tracking

Goals may be clustered across students
Examples
 Skills Assessment
 Classroom Behavior
 Social Goals
Classroom IEP Data Sheets

IEP Goals 1

IEP Goals 2

Skills Assessment

Toilet training data sheet
Monitoring Progress

The data needs to be reviewed weekly to
decide whether changes need to be made
to the program

Use a systematic process to decide when
to make changes:
 Mastery
criteria for movement forward
 Problem solving model for lack of progress
Probe Data Sheet
Example
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Next Steps: How do we set up
intensive teaching?
Identifying curricula
 Complete a student skills assessment
 Select targets based on the assessment
 Establish a data collection system
 Complete reinforcer survey
 Identify time in the daily schedule for
intensive teaching

Reinforcer Assessment

Ask/Survey
 Reinforcer
survey 1
 Reinforcer survey 2
Observe
 Create a Summary

 Reinforcer
Summary
Next Steps: How do we set up
intensive teaching?
Identifying curricula
 Complete a student skills assessment
 Select targets based on the assessment
 Establish a data collection system
 Complete reinforcer survey and collect
items
 Identify time in the daily schedule for
intensive teaching

Accumulated Information
You now have lots of knowledge about
practices and strategies. Let’s go back
to your schedule and think about
maximizing time.
Finding Time: Be Creative


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

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Specials class (e.g., art or music) when another teacher is in the room –
only a segment of the time
Snack – two children do intensive teaching and the snack can be part of the
reinforcer
Story time – two children do intensive teaching, especially if you have
children that have trouble sitting and paying attention and may require lots
of redirection, and thus adult attention, anyway
Coloring time may be a good time for a couple of children to get some
intensive teaching time
Speech or OT time when some children might be with the therapist, then the
other children can get intensive teaching
If a child is having behavior problems that require 1:1 adult time anyway,
then change the schedule to give intensive teaching time to that child
Set up stations/centers, including at least 1-2 independent centers, and
have 1-2 centers be intensive teaching with a teacher and a para
In all of these situations, rotate the children
so they do not consistently miss the same activity
Next Steps: How do we set up an
intensive teaching program?

Complete reinforcer survey and collect
items: Review Handout

Fill in scheduling activity form

Identify time in the daily schedule for
intensive teaching: Review Handout
Guidelines to Maximize Progress

Make it fun; Use lots of interesting and varied
reinforcers (and materials when appropriate)

Begin with shorter sessions then extend time

Take breaks

Mix the trials

Alternate difficult & easy trials (behavioral
momentum)

Generalize skills daily
How do we do
intensive teaching with
more than one child?
Working with More than One Child
at a Time

Identify students with same targets or
similar targets (quick movement back and
forth between students)

If students have different targets, create a
system for moving between different
materials and presentations (occupy nonengaged student)
How do we find time to
offer intensive teaching?
Models of Intensive Teaching

Additional staff to run intensive teaching sessions across
classrooms (TBA model)

Extra training and assistance to classroom staff when a
child with ASD starts in a new classroom

Project DATA/extended day (Schwartz et al.)

Embedded in classroom schedule (McBride & Schwartz)
Expanding Learning Opportunities
Project

Rethink Autism curriculum

Project DATA model

Undergrads supervised by professional
staff
What to do before the next
training?

Keep Working on the Classroom Priorities

Develop Intensive Teaching for one
student

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