Including Students with Special Needs in General - NC-APE

Report
INCLUDING STUDENTS WITH
SPECIAL NEEDS IN GENERAL
PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Pitt County Schools
March 2011
FIRST AND FOREMOST - THE LINGO
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Terminology/Acronyms
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ID Severe = Intellectually Disabled – Severe
ID Mod = Intellectually Disabled – Moderate
ID Mild = Intellectually Disabled – Mild
AU = Autism
EC = Exceptional Children
SED = Serious Emotional Disturbance
OCS = Occupational Course of Study
OHI = Other Health Impairment
IEP = Individualized Education Plan
IDEA = Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
LEA = Local Education Agency
LRE = Least Restrictive Environment
NCLB = No Child Left Behind
BIP = Behavior Intervention Plan
ABA = Applied Behavior Analysis (Autism)
VBA = Verbal Behavior Approach (Autism)
FIRST AND FOREMOST - THE LINGO
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Person First Language
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“Students with special needs.”
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“Students with disabilities.”
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Not “Special needs students.”
Not “Disabled students.”
“Students with Autism.”
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Not “Autistic students.”
Appropriate:
Special needs, exceptional needs, disabilities
Not Appropriate:
Handicap, retarded
Gettin’ picky…
“Student uses a wheelchair.”
Not “Student is in a wheelchair.”
Subject
to
Change
THE LAW
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA),
Public Law 108-466 (2004), states that physical education is
a required service for children and youth between the ages of 321 who qualify for special education services because of a specific
disability or developmental delay.
The federal law (PL 94-142, PL 101-476, PL 105-17, PL
108-446) mandates the following in regards to physical
education and students with disabilities:
General.
(1) As used in this part, the term special education means
specially designed instruction, at no cost to the parents, to
meet the unique needs of a child with a disability,
including(i) Instruction conducted in the classroom, in the
home, in hospitals and institutions, and in other
settings; and
(ii) Instruction in physical education.
THE LAW
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(2) The term includes each of the following, if it meets the requirements
of paragraph (a)(1) of this section:
Physical education(i) Means the development of(A) Physical and motor fitness;
(B) Fundamental motor skills and patterns; and
(C) Skills in aquatics, dance, and individual and group games and sports
(including intramural and lifetime sports); and
(ii) Includes special physical education, adapted physical
education, movement education, and motor development.
(3) Specially-designed instruction
Means adapting, as appropriate to the needs of an eligible child under this part,
the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction(i) To address the unique needs of the child that result from the
child's disability; and
(ii) To ensure access of the child to the general curriculum, so that he or
she can meet the educational standards within the jurisdiction of the
public agency that apply to all children.
General.
Physical education services, specially designed if necessary,
must be made available to every child with a disability
receiving FAPE.
THE LAW
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Regular physical education.
Each child with a disability must be afforded the opportunity to
participate in the regular physical education program available to
nondisabled children unless(1) The child is enrolled full time in a separate facility; or
(2) The child needs specially designed physical education, as prescribed in
the child's IEP.
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Special physical education.
If specially designed physical education is prescribed in a child's IEP, the
public agency responsible for the education of that child shall provide the
services directly or make arrangements for those services to be provided
through other public or private programs.
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Education in separate facilities.
The public agency responsible for the education of a child with a disability
who is enrolled in a separate facility shall ensure that the child receives
appropriate physical education services in compliance with paragraphs (a)
and (c) of this section.
APE/PE Continuum
LEVEL 1
Regular Physical Education Class
LEVEL 2
Regular Physical Education with consultation from Adapted Physical
Education
LEVEL 3
Adapted Physical Education for only specific skills or areas of
weakness
LEVEL 4
Part-time Regular PE and part-time Adapted PE
LEVEL 5
Full time Adapted Physical Education
PLACEMENT
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Numerous Factors Determine Placement
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The Disability
Scheduling
Support Services
Age Appropriateness
Assessments
EC Teacher
General PE Teacher
“What is the best educational scenario for THIS student?”
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) –
Varies from school to school, student to student
Regular education students have a right to learn too.
HELPFUL PAPERWORK
HELPFUL PAPERWORK
HELPFUL PAPERWORK
SPECIFIC ADAPTATIONS BY DISABILITY
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Cerebral Palsy
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Use balloons or beach balls
Modify rules or games
End activity before student gets frustrated
Enlarge targets
Use extension for tag games (Foam Noodle)
Use large scooters, create “boat” on scooters
Focus on reaching, grasping, pushing
Use slower locomotor patterns for regular education students.
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Bear crawl, crab walk, hopping, etc.
Down Syndrome
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Positive, positive, positive
Avoid stress to neck area
Highly structured environment
Brief instruction
Visual instruction - demonstrations
Set-up for success
Be consistent with motivation
SPECIFIC ADAPTATIONS BY DISABILITY
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Autism
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Visuals – station signs, picture stories, etc
Predictable/structured routine
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Smooth transitions
Stations
Allow for extra time
Eliminate excessive stimulation
Vigorous exercise – reduce stimming
Duplicate teaching strategies of teacher
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Warm-up, activity, closure
Applied Behavior Analysis
Verbal Behavior Approach
Token System
Reinforcers – touch, food, candy
Wheelchairs
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Ask the student!
Get them out of their chairs
Safety first
Stationary, slower moving balls
Vary distances
Use longer, lighter equipment
Lower goals
Use slower locomotor patterns
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Bear crawl, crab walk, hopping, etc.
SPECIFIC ADAPTATIONS BY DISABILITY
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Visual Impairments
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Safety first
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Give physical assistance (only if necessary)
Increase size of equipment
Use brightly colored equipment
Use beep balls, bell balls
Give physical assistance
Use guides
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Keep it clean
Avoid overprotecting
Notify of changes made to gym
Wall
Guide wire
Carpet runner
Hearing Impairments
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Determine start/stop signal
Use visual demonstrations
Stand still when giving directions
Make sure student can see your lips
Learn basic signs
Be aware of any balance issues
SPECIFIC ADAPTATIONS BY DISABILITY
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Multiple Disabilities
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Be patient
Be flexible
Use brightly colored equipment
Use visuals for boundaries
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Break tasks into smaller steps
Modify equipment
Use physical and verbal prompting
Provide immediate feedback
Self paced activities
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Poly spots, cones, rope
Stations
Task cards
Give lots of positive reinforcement and praise
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Verbal and physical
Learn to adapt the game to the student, not the student to the game.
MODIFICATIONS BY LIMITATION
Limited Strength
•Shorten distance to move or propel object
•Use lighter equipment
•Use shorter and lighter striking implements
•Allow students to sit or lie down while
playing
•Allow students to monitor their own fatigue
•Use deflated balls or suspended balls
•Change movement requirements
Limited Coordination and
Accuracy
•Use stationary objects for kicking/striking
•Decrease distance for throwing, kicking, and
striking
•Make targets and goals larger
•Use scarves, balloons, bubbles to enhance
visual tracking skills
•Increase surface of striking implements
•Use larger balls for kicking and striking
•Use softer, slower balls for striking and
catching
•Use lighter, less stable pins in bowling-type
games.
Limited Speed
•Shorten distance or change distances for
different students
•Change locomotor pattern
•Equalize competition among teams
•Make safe areas in tag games
Limited Balance
•Provide chair, bar or buddy for support
•Teach balance techniques (widen base, use
arms)
•Increase width of surfaces to be walked
•Use carpeted areas rather than slick surfaces
•Teach student how to fall
•Place student near wall for support
•Lower center of gravity
MODIFICATIONS BY SPORT
Badminton
•use oversized racquets
•use larger birdies
•use a lower net
•allow students to sit
•eliminate the net
•use a balloon instead
of a birdie
Basketball
•use smaller, lighter
ball
•use a different type of
ball (e.g., playground
ball)
•use a lower goal
•use a goal with a
larger circumference
•modify rules
•use smaller playing
area
Bowling
Floor Hockey
•use lighter ball
•use fewer number of
pins
•allow students to push
ball while sitting
•use ramp
•allow three tries
instead of two
•use empty milk jugs as
pins
•create lanes with
cones
•use oversized sticks
•use lighter sticks
•use larger ball or puck
•increase size of the
goal
•use smaller playing
area
•modify rules
•do not use goalies
Volleyball
Kickball
Soccer
Softball
•use a lighter, larger
ball
•allow students to use a
hockey stick to contact
ball (wheelchairs)
•decrease distance to
base
•use one base
•allow student to kick
ball when stationary
•use lighter, larger ball
•allow students to use a
hockey stick instead of
kicking the ball
•use smaller playing
area
•allow students to play
with a buddy
•allow student to walk
to ball or roll
wheelchair to ball
•use larger goal
•use a lighter, larger
ball
•use a lighter bat
•use shorter distance
around bases
•use one base
•allow more than three
strikes
•use batting tee
•allow more time to get
to bases
•use a beach ball or
balloon
•allow students to sit
on the floor
•use lower net
•use no net at all
•use smaller playing
court
•allow ball to bounce
once before hitting
•allow unlimited
number of hits
•allow more than one
try when serving
INCLUSION
BENEFITS
LIMITATIONS
Stimulating environment
Less attention from teacher
Motivating environment
Less time on task
Development of social skills
Teacher not adequately prepared
Friendships
Frustration – teachers and
students
Modeling
Requires more planning
Positive experiences
Awareness
Sense of belonging
PARAEDUCATORS
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Main Focus – to assist teacher(s) in implementing a
student’s IEP.
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Can provide valuable information regarding student’s:
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Behaviors at certain times during the day
Communication skills
Likes and dislikes
Medical issues
Other ideas for adaptations/modifications
Tips for Working With Paraeducators
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Be aware of expectations set in place by classroom teacher.
Start off on a good note! Make them like you. 
Empower them.
If para is not doing what is asked of them, always go to the
classroom teacher.
If possible, give them specific instructions.
Keep a log.
Problems with paraeducators are not just a Pitt County thing.
Make it fun for them!
TIPS
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Be Enthusiastic!
Educate Yourself
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the
game.
Teaching strategies
Behavior techniques
Reinforcers
Students
Paraeducators
Teachers
All parties will benefit
Adapt curriculum
Paradigm shift
Appreciate Mini-Victories
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to
Embrace Change
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student
Plan Ahead
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the
Build Relationships
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not
Observe in the Classroom
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Workshops
Professional literature
Webinars
Professional organizations
Learn to adapt the game to the student,
Lining up correctly
Eye contact
Waiting their turn
Smiles
Ask Questions and…………..…….….....Never Underestimate
THE END

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