Aman Mangalmurti Kara Newman Leong Qi Dong Soh Han Wei Depletion of nonrenewable fossil fuels due to excessive consumption as a source of energy Conversion of renewable sources, e.g. organic wastes, to fuel ensures continual energy supply Heavy metal water contamination of water is rampant in many countries. Possible extinction of bananas due to various diseases leads to banana waste Heavy metal ions accumulate inside organisms and cause adverse health effects Biosorption in removal of heavy metal ions by fruit peel wastes Bananas are threatened by various diseases To prepare extracts of fruit peel for ethanol fermentation To determine which fruit peel gives highest ethanol yield To determine which fruit peel waste adsorbs heavy metal ions best To determine a protocol which maximizes efficiency of fruit waste Preparation of fruit peel extract, microbe, heavy metal solution Adsorption of Ions Extraction of sugars Extraction of sugars Ethanol Fermentation Ethanol Fermentation Residue for Adsorption of Ions Independent • Fruit peels used (AOS: banana, HCI: mango) • Heavy metal ions • Order of Procedure Dependent • Initial concentration of reducing sugars in fruit peel extracts • Ratio of ethanol yield to initial sugar concentration • Final ethanol yield • Final concentration of heavy metal ions Constant • Mass of fruit peel used for extraction of glucose • Type of microorganism used • Immobilisation of microorganism • Fermentation conditions • Initial concentration of heavy metal ions • Duration of adsorption • Mass of fruit peel particles used for adsorption • Procedure APPARATUS Centrifuge Centrifuge tube Spectrophotometer Spectrophotometer cuvettes Glass rod Dropper Sieve Blender Boiling water bath Shaking incubator Fractional distillatory Quincy Lab Model 30 GC hot-air oven Rotary Mill Sieve: 0.25mm (60 Mesh) MATERIALS Zymomonas mobilis Glucose-yeast medium Sodium alginate medium Calcium chloride solution Sodium Chloride solution Fruit peel Deionised water Dinitrosalicylic acid Acidified potassium chromate solution Lead (II), Copper (II), Zinc (II) ion solutions Lead (II). Copper (II), Zinc (II) reagent kits ETHANOL FERMENTATION ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METAL IONS Growth of Z. mobilis Adsorption of heavy metal ions Immobilisation of cells Determination of final ion concentration Extraction of sugars from fruit peels Determination of sugars in extracts Ethanol fermentation by immobilized Z. mobilis cells Determination of ethanol yield with the dichromate test The ethanol yield would be evaluate by comparing • the % ethanol per g of cells • µmol of ethanol per ml reducing sugar in fruit peels The heavy metal ion adsorption efficiency would be evaluated by comparing • The ratio of the final concentration of metal ion to the initial concentration • The % of heavy metal ions adsorbed Cost-effective method of producing ethanol Reduces reliance on non-renewable fossil fuels Using by-product waste Viable method in wastewater treatment Anhwange, T. J. Ugye, T.D. Nyiaatagher (2009). Chemical composition of Musa sapientum (Banana) peels. 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