Ethanol yield from fruit peels and adsorption of heavy metal ions

Report
Aman Mangalmurti
Kara Newman
Leong Qi Dong
Soh Han Wei
Depletion of nonrenewable fossil fuels
due to excessive
consumption as a
source of energy
Conversion of
renewable sources, e.g.
organic wastes, to fuel
ensures continual
energy supply
Heavy metal water
contamination of water
is rampant in many
countries.
Possible extinction of
bananas due to various
diseases leads to
banana waste
Heavy metal ions
accumulate inside
organisms and cause
adverse health effects
Biosorption in removal
of heavy metal ions by
fruit peel wastes
Bananas are
threatened by various
diseases
To prepare extracts of fruit peel for ethanol
fermentation
To determine which fruit peel gives highest ethanol
yield
To determine which fruit peel waste adsorbs heavy
metal ions best
To determine a protocol which maximizes efficiency of
fruit waste
Preparation of
fruit peel extract,
microbe, heavy
metal solution
Adsorption of
Ions
Extraction of
sugars
Extraction of
sugars
Ethanol
Fermentation
Ethanol
Fermentation
Residue for
Adsorption of
Ions
Independent
• Fruit peels used (AOS:
banana, HCI: mango)
• Heavy metal ions
• Order of Procedure
Dependent
• Initial concentration of
reducing sugars in fruit
peel extracts
• Ratio of ethanol yield to
initial sugar
concentration
• Final ethanol yield
• Final concentration of
heavy metal ions
Constant
• Mass of fruit peel used
for extraction of glucose
• Type of microorganism
used
• Immobilisation of
microorganism
• Fermentation conditions
• Initial concentration of
heavy metal ions
• Duration of adsorption
• Mass of fruit peel
particles used for
adsorption
• Procedure
APPARATUS
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Centrifuge
Centrifuge tube
Spectrophotometer
Spectrophotometer cuvettes
Glass rod
Dropper
Sieve
Blender
Boiling water bath
Shaking incubator
Fractional distillatory
Quincy Lab Model 30 GC hot-air
oven
Rotary Mill
Sieve: 0.25mm (60 Mesh)
MATERIALS
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Zymomonas mobilis
Glucose-yeast medium
Sodium alginate medium
Calcium chloride solution
Sodium Chloride solution
Fruit peel
Deionised water
Dinitrosalicylic acid
Acidified potassium chromate
solution
Lead (II), Copper (II), Zinc (II) ion
solutions
Lead (II). Copper (II), Zinc (II)
reagent kits
ETHANOL FERMENTATION
ADSORPTION OF HEAVY
METAL IONS
Growth of Z. mobilis
Adsorption of heavy metal ions
Immobilisation of cells
Determination of final ion
concentration
Extraction of sugars from fruit peels
Determination of sugars in extracts
Ethanol fermentation by immobilized Z. mobilis
cells
Determination of ethanol yield with the
dichromate test
The ethanol yield
would be
evaluate by
comparing
• the % ethanol per g of cells
• µmol of ethanol per ml reducing
sugar in fruit peels
The heavy metal
ion adsorption
efficiency would
be evaluated by
comparing
• The ratio of the final concentration
of metal ion to the initial
concentration
• The % of heavy metal ions adsorbed
Cost-effective
method of
producing ethanol
Reduces reliance on
non-renewable fossil
fuels
Using by-product
waste
Viable method in
wastewater
treatment
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