Laundry Detergent

Report
Hair
Shampoo
Laundry
Detergent
“Cleaning Your Hair vs Cleaning Your Clothes”
Jeff Easley – Sr. Global Performance Improvement Specialist
Stepan Company
Midwest SCC Meeting
March 11, 2014
Objectives…
Compare and Contrast:
• Cleaning technology
• Ingredient types
• Ingredient functions
• Formulations
• Performance testing
• Regulatory environment
Cleaning Technology
Cleaning Hair vs Cleaning Fabric
In General…
• Different substrates
• Many more fabric types than hair types
• Soils to be removed differ
• Surfactant interfacial phenomena similar
• Differences in washing processes
Detersive Systems
System
Soil
Household
Laundry
Mixed &
Variable
Hair
Shampoo
Oily
Mechanical
Action
Moderate
Vigorous
• Rubbing in
• Rinse cycle
Detergent
Unbuilt or
Built
Surfactant
Organic
Surfactant
Progression of Laundry Detergent
Forms
Bars
Liquids
Powders
Also known as:
Heavy Duty Powders
(HDP)
Heavy Duty Liquids
(HDL)
Product Trends
• Increasing Concentration
– 2X, 4X and greater
• Cold Water Cleaning
• Eco-friendly Products
– Using “Green” or natural based Ingredients
• Recyclable Packaging
• High Efficiency
– Low foaming variants
Comparison of Claims
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Hair Shampoo
Rapid-Drying
Fragrance Free
Dermotologist Recommended
Volumizing
Clarifying
Hypoallergenic
pH Balanced
No Animal Testing
Mild
Moisturizing
Free From…
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Laundry Detergent
Botanical/Herbal
Kosher
No Additives/Preservatives
Fragrance Free
Hypoallergenic
Economy
Convenient Packaging
All Natural Product
Ease of Use
pH Neutral
Dermatologically Tested
Interesting Laundry Fact…
Ingredient Types
Ingredient Comparison….
Hair Shampoo
Key
• Surfactants
• Water
• pH adjusters
• Fragrance
• Dye
• Preservative
• Vitamins
• Protein derivatives
• Inorganic salts
• Humectants
• Emollients
• Silicones
• Thickening agents
• Chelants/Sequestrants
• Suncreen agents
Laundry Detergent
• Surfactants
• Builders
• Buffering Agents
• Enzymes
• Optical Brightener
• Polymers
• Hydrotropes
• Enzyme Stabilizer
• Preservative
• Colorant
• Fragrance
• Softening Agent
• Bleach
• Anti-redepostion Agent
• Filler
• Water
Typical Physical Properties
pH
Hair Shampoo Slightly
acidic
(5.5 – 6.5)
Household
Alkaline
Laundry
(8.0-10.5)
Detergent
(Liquid)
Viscosity % Actives
3,500–
10-12%
7,000 cps (mid-tier)
at 25C
300 – 700 5-30%
cps at 25C
(bargain
to
premium)
Soils Types and Ingredients to
Address Them
Anionic &
Nonionic
Surfactants
Anionic
Surfactant
Nonionic
Surfactant,
Solvents
Enzymes
Surfactants,
Bleaching
Agents
Water-soluble
Particulate
Fats/oils
Proteins/
carbohydrates
Oxidizable
Inorganic salts
Sugar
Urea
Perspiration
Metal oxides
Clays
Humus
Carbon
Vegetable oil
Animal fat
Human sebum
Mineral oil
Waxes
Blood
Egg
Milk
Grass
Starches
Fruits
Vegetables
Wine
Coffee
Tea
Surfactant Comparison
Hair Shampoo
• Sulfonates
Laundry Detergent
• Sulfonates
– Alpha Olefin Sulfonate
– Acids
– Neutralized forms
• Sulfates
– Alkyl ether sulfates
– Alkyl sulfates
•
•
•
•
•
Alkanolamides
Amphoterics
Methyl Esters
Sulfoacetates
Sulfosuccinates
• Sulfates
– Alkyl ether sulfates
– Alkyl sulfates
•
•
•
•
Alkoxylates
Alkanolamides
Methyl esters
Hydrotropes
Common Primary Anionic Surfactant
• Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonic Acid (LABSA)
–
–
–
–
–
Good foamer
Good detergency
Neutralization necessary
Best carbon chain C11-12 linear
Corrosive in acidic state
Common Primary Anionic Surfactant
• Alkyl Ether Sulfates (AES)
C12-15(O-CH2-CH2)nOSO3- Na+
–
–
–
–
–
n = 2 or 3
Foam enhancer
Good hard water tolerance
Carbon chain C12-14 with 2-3 moles EO Preferred
Due to gel phase formation, add other ingredients first
Stable at 4<pH<10
Other Primary Anionic Surfactant
• Alpha Olefin Sulfonate
CH3(CH2)m
CH3(CH2)m
CH
CH
(CH2)nSO3- Na+
+
(CH2)nSO3- Na+
OH
Where m = 8 – 14; n = 1-3; and m + n = 9-15
–
–
–
–
Good foaming
Good detergency
Stable over a broad pH range
Synergism with LAS
Common Primary Nonionic Surfactant
• Alcohol Ethoxylates
C12-15(O-CH2-CH2)nOH
–
–
–
–
–
Mid to high HLB preferred
Good grease cleaner
Low foam generation
Stable in alkaline solutions
Compatible with anionics/cationics
n = 7-9
Common Secondary Surfactant
CH3
• Amine Oxides (AO)
N
CH3(CH 2)11
• Alcohol Ethoxylates (low
HLB)
CH3
OH
H
CH3
N
CH3(CH 2)11
C11-15(O-CH2-CH2)nOH
n = 2-4
O
OH
C11-17
N
• Alkanolamides
OH
O
• Soap (defoamer)
C11-17
O- Na+
O
CH3
Ingredient Functions
Surfactant Attributes for
Laundry Detergents
Role of Surfactants
The Ideal Surfactant
Other Considerations
• Hydration of fabrics and soils
• Solubilization of greases/oils
• Suspension of hydrophobic soils
• Generation of suds
Surfactant Attributes for
Laundry Detergents
Role of Surfactants
The Ideal Surfactant
Other Considerations
• Low CMC
• Low Krafft temperature
• High solubility in hard/cold water
• Lowest air/water surface tension
• Low oil interfacial tension
• Fast kinetics
Surfactant Attributes for
Laundry Detergents
Role of Surfactants
The Ideal Surfactant
Other Considerations
• Low cost to performance ratio
• Excellent environmental profile
• Excellent human safety profile
Surfactant Function in
HDL Formulas
• Primary Surfactants Provide:
– Good foaming
– Good detergency (removing soils from clothes)
– Emulsification and solubilization of soils or dirt
Surfactants Function in HDL Formulas
• Secondary Surfactants Provide:
– Foam enhancement
– Cleaning enhancement
– High viscosity formulas
– Solubilization of other ingredients
Functions of Some Commonly Used
Laundry Additives
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Builders
Antiredeposition Agents
Dye transfer inhibitors
Soil release polymers
Optical brighteners
Enzymes
Control additives for pH, viscosity, foam
Preservatives, Perfume, Dye
Formulation Comparison
Formulation Ingredients
HDLs
Primary Surfactants (5-40%)
Hydrotropes (0-5%)
Secondary Surfactant (0.5-3%) Enzyme Stabilizer (0-5%)
Buffering Agents (1-8%)
Preservative (0-0.05%)
Builders (1-7%)
Colorant (0-0.1%)
Enzymes (0-1.5%)
Fragrance (0-1%)
Optical Brightener (0.02-2%)
Softening Agent (0-7%)
Polymers (0-1%)
Formulation Ingredients
HDPs
Primary Surfactants (5-15%)
Polymers (0-1%)
Builders (10-30%)
Anti-caking Agent
Bleach (0-5%)
Filler (30-60%)
Anti-redeposition Agent (0-1.5%)
Colorant (0-0.1%)
Enzymes (0-1.5%)
Fragrance (0-1%)
Optical Brightener (0.02-2%)
Softening Agent (0-7%)
Premium Laundry Formula
INGREDIENTS
% Wt. RANGE
FUNCTIONALITY
DODECYL BENZENE SULFONIC ACID
10-15
Primary Anionic Surfactant
SODIUM ALKYL ETHER SULFATE
7-10
Primary Anionic Surfactant
LINEAR ALCOHOL ETHOXYLATE
12-18
Primary Nonionic Surfactant
SODIUM XYLENE SULFONATE
2-4
HARDENED COCONUT FATTY ACID
0.5-2
SODIUM HYDROXIDE (50% solution)
3-5
BORAX PENTAHYDRATE
Hydrotrope
Foam Modifier
Neutralizer
0.5-3
Stabilizer
PROPYLENE GLYCOL
1-3
Stabilizer
CITRIC ACID (50% solution)
2-4
Builder
TRIETHANOLAMINE
0.25-1
pH Buffer
MONOETHANOLAMINE
0.25-1
pH Buffer
0.05-1.5
Brightener
FLUORESCENT WHITENING AGENT
PROTEASE
0.5-2
Enzyme
AMYLASE
0.2-1
Enzyme
q.s..to 100
Additives
DI WATER, FRAGRANCE, COLORANT AND PRESERVATIVE
Economy Laundry Formula
INGREDIENTS
% Wt. RANGE
FUNCTIONALITY
DODECYL BENZENE SULFONIC ACID
3-7
Primary Anionic Surfactant
SODIUM LAURETH SULFATE
4-9
Primary Anionic Surfactant
LINEAR ALCOHOL ETHOXYLATE
5-8
Primary Nonionic Surfactant
SODIUM CARBONATE (100% powder)
2-4
pH Buffer/Builder
SODIUM HYDROXIDE (50% solution)
0.5-2
Neutralizer
FLUORESCENT WHITENING AGENT
0.0-0.2
Brightener
q.s.to 100
Additives
DI WATER, FRAGRANCE, COLORANT AND PRESERVATIVE
Performance Testing
Cleaning Performance
• Washing:
ASTM Methods D 4265-98 (stains) and D 3050-07 (artificial soils)
–
–
–
–
HE (High Efficiency) and top loading machines
Temperature controlled wash and rinse
6-lb ballast
Purchased standard stained/soiled fabrics with dust sebum, clay,
grass, red wine, cocoa, coffee, blueberry, blood/ink/milk, make-up
among others
– Duplicate washes
• Data Analysis:
– Hunter Spectrophotometer Software and LabScan
XE sensor
SRI = 100 -
(L
- L
)
clean
washed
DSRI = SRIexperimental - SRIcontrol
2
+ (a
clean
- a
washed
2
) + (b
clean
- b
washed
2
)
Regulatory Environment
Some Regulatory Matters…
Item
1,4-Dioxane
At Issue…
Hair
Shampoo
Laundry
Detergent
Carcinogen
Yes
No
Diethanolamide Carcinogen
Yes
No
Alkyl Phenol
Ethoxylates
No
Yes
Nitrosamine
Reproductive,
Developmental
effects
Carcinogen
Yes
No
Phosphates
Eutrophication
Yes
Yes
Summary
• Surfactants are the key to both laundry detergent and
hair shampoo formulations
• There are several similarities and differences between
laundry detergent and hair shampoo formulations
• Personal Care formulators can formulate laundry
detergents too with a little know how
• Never use a laundry detergent as a substitute for hair
shampoo !! 
References
Available Upon Request
Contact information:
Jeff Easley
Sr. Global Performance Improvement Specialist
Stepan Company
Direct Dial: 847-501-2239
Fax: 847-446-9359
Email: [email protected]

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