Group 16 Elements PREPARED BY MR. AMULYA KUMAR SAMAL PGT(CHEMISTRY) KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA,KHANAPARA GUWAHATI PHONE NO.09706422596 Eemail@example.com OBJECTIVES:After studying this unit, the students will be able to : 1.appreciate general trends in the chemistry of elements of groups 16 2.describe the properties of group-16. 3.Give answer the reasoning question. The p-block elements The p-block elements are placed in groups 13 to 18 of the periodic table. Their valence shell electronic configuration is ns2np1–6 (except He which has 1s2 configuration) Group 16 Elements Oxygen(O) Non Metals Phosphorus(S) Selenium(Se) Metalloids Tellurium(Te) Polonium(Po) Typical Metal GROUP-16 Symbol Atomic number Electronic configuration O 8 [He]2s22p4 S 16 [Ne] 3s23p4 Se 34 [Ar]3d10 4s2 4p4 Te 52 [Kr]4d10 5s2 5p4 Po 84 [Xe]4f145d106s26p4 Trends in properties Electronic Configuration The valence shell electronic configuration of these elements is ns2np4. The s orbital in these elements is completely filled and p orbitals are four electrons . Atomic and Ionic Radii O considerable increase S Se small increase Te Po due to the presence of completely filled d and/or f orbitals in heavier members.sss Ionisation Enthalpy Δi H O S Se Te Δi H Decreases. Due to gradual increase in atomic size G-15 Δi H decreases Because of the extra stable half-filled p orbitals electronic configuration of group-15 Po ΔiH1 < ΔiH2 < ΔiH3 G-16 Electronegativity O 3.50 S 2.44 Se 2.48 Te 2.01 Po 1.76 E.N Decreases. Due to gradual increase in atomic size Physical Properties Oxygen and sulphur are non-metals,selenium and tellurium metalloids, whereas polonium is a metal The melting and boiling points increase with an increase in atomic number down the group. The large difference between the melting and boiling points of oxygen and sulphur may be explained on the basis of their atomicity; oxygen exists as diatomic molecule (O2) whereas sulphur exists as polyatomic molecule (S8) Chemical Properties Oxidation states and trends in chemical reactivity The common o.s of these elements are –2, +4 and 6. Group-15 Tendency to exhibit –2 o.s decreases due to increase in size and metallic character. The stability of +6 o.s decreases and that of +4 state increases (due to inert pair effect) down the group. Since electronegativity of oxygen is very high, it shows only negative oxidation state as –2 exceptin the case of OF2 where its oxidation state is + 2. Other elements of the group exhibit + 2, + 4, + 6 oxidation states but + 4 and + 6 are more common. Sulphur,selenium and tellurium usually show + 4 oxidation state in their compounds with oxygen and + 6 with fluorine. The stability of + 6 oxidation state decreases down the group and stability of + 4 oxidation state increase (inert pair effect). Bonding in +4 and +6 oxidation states are primarily covalent. Anomalous properties of oxygen Reasons: 1.Its small size 2.high electronegativity 3.high ionisation enthalpy 4.non-availability of d orbitals. Some anomalous properties of oxygen 1.State: oxygen is a gas whereas the others elements are solids and have allotropic forms. 2.Atomicity: oxygen exists as diatomic molecule (O2) whereas sulphur exists as polyatomic molecule (S8). 3.Ability to form pπ -pπ multiple bonds: oxygen has unique ability to form pπ -pπ multiple bonds with itself and with other elements having small size and high electronegativity (e.g., C, O). Heavier elements of this group do not form pπ -pπ bonds as their atomic orbitals are so large and diffuse that they cannot have effective overlapping. 4) Reactivity towards hydrogen: Their acidic character increases from H2O to H2Te. The increase in acidic character can be explained in terms of decrease in bond (H–E) dissociation enthalpy down the group. H2O < H2S < H2Se < H2Te (Acid Strength and Reducing Character) --- BDE H2Te < H2Se < H2S < H2O (Thermal Stability) ---BDE H2O < H2Te < H2Se < H2S (Volatility) --- H-Bond and Van der waal’s force H2S < H2Se < H2Te < H2O (Boiling Point) -- H-Bond and Vander waal’s force Self Assesment EXAMINATION DECODED Important question with answer Q.1# Thermal stability of water is much higher than that of H2S. Ans:- Due to high bond dissociation enthalpy of O—H than S—H bond. (2)Elements of group 16 generally show lower value of first ionization enthalpy compared to the corresponding periods of group 15. Ans: Due to extra stable half-filled p orbitals electronic configurations of Group 15 elements, larger amount of energy is required to remove electrons compared to Group 16 elements. (3) Tendency to show –2 oxidation states diminishes from Sulphur to polonium in group 16. Ans:The outer electronic configuration of group 16 elements is ns2 np4. These elements therefore have the tendency to gain two electrons to complete octet. Since elctronegativity and I.E. decrease on going down the group, tendency to show –2 oxidation state diminishes. (4) Oxygen generally exhibit oxidation state of –2 only whereas other members of the family exhibit +2, +4, +6 oxidation states also. Ans:Oxygen is a electronegative element thus exhibit oxidation state of –2. .Other members of the family have d orbitals and therefore, can expand their octets and show + 2, + 4, + 6 oxidation states also. (5)There is large difference between the melting point of Oxygen & Sulphur. Ans:The large difference between the melting and boiling points of oxygen and sulphur may be explained on the basis of their atomicity; oxygen exists as diatomic molecule (O2) whereas sulphur exists as polyatomic molecule (S8). (6) SF6 is known but SH6 is not known. Ans: Because of very high ectronegativity if fluorine , sulphur exhibits its maximum oxidation stateof +6 in SF6. SH6 is not formed because hydrogen is feebly electronegative. (7) SF6 is not easily hydrolysed. Ans: Since sulphur is hexa-covalent it cannot expand its covalency. . Sulphur hexafluoride, SF6 is exceptionally stable for steric reasons.