ecos-lince

Report
Proposal for a high-intensity, light and
heavy ion facility in Europe
ECOS-LINCE: European LINAC
CENTER
Prepared by
Ismael Martel (Huelva University)
HIGH INTENSITY STABLE ION BEAMS IN
EUROPE
This document was prepared by the ECOS
(European COllaboration on Stable ion beams)
working group, in order to describe the research
perspectives with high intensity stable ion beams, to
help categorize existing facilities and to identify
the opportunities for a dedicated new facility in
EUROPE
ECOS Working group:
Faiçal Azaiez (Chair) (IPNO Orsay)
Giacomo de Angelis (LNL Legnaro)
Rolf-Dietmar Herzberg (Liverpool)
Sigurd Hofmann (GSI Darmstadt)
Rauno Julin (Jyväskylä)
Marek Lewitowicz (GANIL Caen)
Marie-Helene Moscatello (GANIL Caen)
Anna Maria Porcellano (LNL Legnaro)
Ulrich Ratzinger (Frankfurt)
ECOS working group conclusions
IV: Concluding remarks and recommendations
…“The long-term goal for a new dedicated high
intensity stable ion beam facility in Europe, with
energies at and above the Coulomb barrier, is
considered to be one of the important issues to
be discussed in the next Long Range Plan of the
nuclear physics community.”…
LINCE proposal
ECOS facility: a FIRST CLASS High intensity heavy-ion accelerator
for stable ions, with energies at and above the Coulomb barrier.
LINCE; high-intensity superconducting LINAC
- Wide range of ions, from protons to Uranium
- Wide range of energies, up to 10 A MeV for 238U
- High Intensity accelerator (1 mA light ions  10 pA heavy ions)
LINCE: energy booster using heavy-ion synchrotron:
- 50 MeV/u for light ion species
- 200 MeV for deuterons.
PROGRAM:
- Basic and Fundamental problems in nuclear physics
- Applications of nuclear physics
- Interaction with Industry
Basic Nuclear Physics

The totality of the ECOS physics case
- Nuclear structure, low, medium and high spin
- Reaction mechanisms
- Charge-exchange reactions
- Isomers
- Ground-state properties
- Astrophysics
- Superheavies
- Nuclear equation of state (EOS)
- Fundamental physics: neutrinoless double-beta decay
…Studies where one can benefit from high intensity stable
beams
Typical experimental setup
Separator
Spectrometer
Gamma-particle
DEVELOPMENTS
- High resolution spectrometers and recoil separators with high
rejection power (MAGNEX, VAMOS, PRISMA,…)
- High power targets
- New generation of gamma & particle detectors (FAZIA, AGATA,…)
with new generation electronics and data correlation systems.
+ Long and dedicated beam time!!
Fusion energy research
Material research for energy production
Fusion energy research: aiming at qualifying
advanced materials resistant to extreme
conditions, specific to fusion reactors like
ITER. Intense ion beams of moderate energy
are needed to simulate fusion reactor
conditions. (CIEMAT)
IFMIF project: a 40 MeV, 125 mA deuteron +
lithium target  neutrons to test materials for first
generation of fusion reactors
 the DEMO reactor
Cocktail beams à la
JANNUS
Double, triple charged ions
Condition: Same A/q
EX: 56Fe (14+) + 4He(1+)
Radioisotope production
Modern radioisotopes are currently investigated/used to treat in a more
efficient way the different tumours and cancer disease of our society.
What LINACs can do better (than cyclotrons)
ECOS-LINCE 2013, Ulli Coester, Grenoble
Aerospace electronics
High intensity ion beams are used in aerospace programs for
radiation resistant electronics and in nuclear energy applications.
Quality tests are required in order to accomplish with UE safety
regulations for energy control and aerospace on-board electronics.
Research can be centred on the impact of radiation on the response
of new device technologies and single-event effects in new technologies
and ultra-small devices.
Highly demanded ions & energies ~10 MeV/u
Typical figures from RADEF, Finland
LINCE-main parameters
For the program on basic nuclear physics and applications it is proposed the
following parameters:

Protons to Uranium: 1 mA max intensity  eg.,

LINAC: E from 40 keV/u to (8.5 – 45) MeV/u depending on A/q

SYNCHROTON: 50 MeV/u for light ion species & 200 MeV for deuterons.

Full-SC ECR ion source 14.5-18 GHz

RFQ for 1 ≤ A/q ≤ 7

Superconducting cavities

Energies reachable with 4 Cryo-modules: COMPACT linac.

48Ca
(8+) > 10 pA
7000 hours of availability, with 5000 hours for ECOS science and 2000
hours for Applications
Pre-design studies
Partially funded by R&D projects at University of Huelva, Spain






Choice of 1st harmonic (fundamental)  defined minimum time of flight: 50 ns
Fundamental frequency: 18.1875 MHz (54.98 ns) from RF amplifier market  HIbuncher
For protons and alphas: F = 36.375 MHz  need double buncher (space charge
issues)
Frequency of RFQ, F = 72.75 MHz (4th harm.)
◦ E in/out = 0.04A MeV / 0.5A MeV
Frequency of SC cavities : 72.75 MHz (4th harm.) and 109.125 MHz (6th harm.)
Multi-Harmonic Buncher is MANDATORY
A/Q
E/A
Example
Charge state
1
42
H
1+
2
25
D
1+
3
18
18O
6+
4
14
32S
8+
5
12
48Ca
10+
6
10
48Ca
8+
7
8
238U
34+
Intensity:
< 1mA
Pre-design activities
LINCE LINAC layout
Pre-design activities
Building integration
Proposed layout of LINCE
MHB1 f = 18.125 MHz
MHB2 f = 36.250 MHz
RFQ f = 72.75MHz
C1: β = 0.045, f = 72.75 MHz
C2: β = 0.077, f = 72.75 MHz
C2: β = 0.077, f = 72.75 MHz
C3: β = 0.15, f = 109.12 MHz
Rebuncher
LINCE LINAC:
“60 MV equivalent
electrostatic accelerator”
The experimental equipment
Experimental equipment has to be defined and built
- High Resolution Fragment separator: high selectivity at high
intensity
- High Resolution Spectrometer
- Benefit of already detectors being build at EU
1. FAZIA
2. AGATA
3. GASPARD/HYDE
Pre-design studies of LINCE
On-going actions at University of Huelva

Beam dynamics, transport to exp. lines and building integration

Design studies of ECR, buncher, warm magnets, RFQ, SC QWR, couplers, SC magnets, and
criomodules

RFQ model in Al (one full section) and in Cu (one vane) + brazing tests

Ion source test bench

Model of MH Buncher

Machining and welding tests with Nb

Parts of one QWR resonator

Cryolab for cavity testing, including one multi-propose cryostat

RF lab for testing resonators

Specific design of selected elements
Industry & Universities Technology Transfer Project funded by National Government in Spain
(5 Universities, 7 large companies, 5 small companies).
Preliminary matrix cost
Estimated cost of LINAC



Complete LINAC accelerator with servitudes, without building and experimental
facilities : 48 M€
Estimated operation cost : 5 M€/y
EU Convergence funds with help of participating Institutes
General operation

Host region can cover part of the personnel and the operation costs

Participating institutes can collaborate with personnel, instruments, funds…

A legal framework should be defined for the full facility (International ECOS
collaboration)
Proposed planning
Predesign
Detailed design
Construction
2014
2015
2017
2016
2018
Commis
sioning
2019
Construction decision
2020
2021
ECOS-LINCE:
Possible European Sites
SPAIN
PARQUE CIENTÍFICO TECNOLÓGICO DE HUELVA (PCTH, Aljaraque)
Huelva University
3 Km
Punta Umbría
Beach Resort,
3 Km
ECOS-LINCE
European LINAC CENTER
Superheavies
Astropysics
 picobarn!! at relevant energies < 1 MeV, few GK
Extrapolation from higher energies by using the
astrophysical S(E) factor:
S(E) = (E) E exp(2πη)
 DIRECT & INDIRECT METHODS
DIRECT METHODS
-Increase number of detected particles ( “brute force”:  intensity,  detector eff.)
- Reduce the background
- Fight with electron screening: theory does not work!!
INDIRECT METHODS
Coulomb dissociation: Determine the absolute S(E) factor of a radiative capture reaction
A+x  B+ studying the reversing photodisintegration process B+  A+x ~100
MeV/A
Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients (ANC): Determine the S(0) factor of the
radiative capture reaction, A+x  B+ studying a peripheral transfer reaction into a
bound state of the B nucleus.
Trojan Horse Method (THM): Determine the S(E) factor of a charged particle reaction
A+xc+C selecting the Quasi Free contribution of an appropriate A+a(x+s) c+C+s
reaction.
Transfer and fusion reaction studies
- Pair correlations (nn,pp,np channels) in transfer reactions at sub-barrier
energies
- Charge exchange reactions
- Multinucleon transfer reactions (neutron rich nuclei) and effects on induced
fission and quasi fission processes
- Hindrance phenomenon in sub-barrier fusion reactions
Nuclear structure at low, medium and high spin
In-flight production of exotic nuclei at reaction targets
Typical beams
40Ar
~ 14 MeV/u
86Kr ~ 8.5 MeV/u
84Kr ~ 10 MeV/u
136Xe ~ 7 MeV/u
Exotic isotope production:
Height of the Coulomb barrier ~ 4 to 5 MeV/nucleon:
 compound nucleus/fus.evap reactions, E ~ Eb  proton
rich
 reactions of nucleon exchange, E>> Eb  neutron rich
Compound nucleus/fus. evap reactions  Basic mechanism for production of proton rich
nuclei
Neutron rich: preferably ”cold“ processes with minimum neutron loss.  Reactions of
heavy ions with energies around > 10 MeV/u
M. Veselsky, G.A. Souliotis, Nuclear Physics A 765 (2006) 252; A 781 (2007) 521.
G.A.Souliotis et al., PRC 84, 064607 (2011); M. Veselsky,et al., Nucl. Phys. A 872 (2011) 1.
Physics beyond the Standard Model
Nuclear matrix elements
Xsections: ~nanobarn!!  High intensity ion beams
Pre-design studies
TRACK 3D (P. Ostroumov, A.Villari, I. Martel)
Reliable beam dynamics with low beam losses
Calculated full transmission for H-I > 75%
LINCE “energy booster”
HEAVY-ION SYNCHROTON:
- LINAC injection at 15 MeV/u
- OUTPUT: 50 MeV/u for light ion species & 200 MeV for deuterons
- Design study to be done

similar documents