3rd Declension Nouns (Lesson 40) Latin II Dec. 2-6, 2013 Third Declension Nouns! • Latin has 5 declensions of nouns. • Declensions are groups of nouns which share the same endings. 3rd declension nouns • Third declension is the largest declension of nouns! • Third declension includes masculine, feminine, and neuter nouns, plus a sub-group called “istem nouns.” • Both masculine and feminine 3rd declension nouns use the same chart. 3rd declension nouns • Third declension nouns are identified by the –is ending in the genitive singular. pax, pacis (f.) lex, legis (f.) salus, salutis (f.) dux, ducis (m.) 3rd Declension Endings Singular Nominative* Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative ---is -i -em -e Plural -ēs -um -ibus -ēs -ibus * There are several nominative endings, so they’re not listed on the chart. Whatever the first form of the word is in your vocabulary list…that’s the nominative. Step 1 – Find the noun stem The noun stem is found by dropping the genitive singular ending from the noun. Dictionary entry of a noun: pax, Nominative singular pacis, f. peace Genitive Gender singular Meaning pacis – is = pac Noun Stem Let’s Find Stems for 3rd Declension! • • • • • • dux, ducis homo, hominis lex, legis miles, militis pax, pacis salus, salutis • • • • • • duchominlegmilitpacsalut- Let’s Find Stems for 3rd Declension! • • • • • • dux, ducis homo, hominis lex, legis miles, militis pax, pacis salus, salutis • • • • • • duchominlegmilitpacsalut- Step 2: Add the case endings to the noun stem. Singular Plural Nominative dux Genitive duc duc duc duc duc duc Accusative duc Ablative duc Dative dux, ducis (m.) is em duc Note that the lovely nominative form will appear once on the chart, then disappear…like a ibus briefly-lived ibusbug. e es es i um Your Turn! • Decline any 1 of your third declension vocabulary nouns on the whiteboard. Nouns and Adjectives • The adjectives you have learned thus far are called “1st/2nd declension adjectives” • bonus, bona, bonum • Therefore, they do not use 3rd declension endings! bonus, bona, bonum Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. bonus boni bono bonum bono Feminine forms use 1st declension endings. Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. bonum boni bono bonum bono boni bonorum bonis bonos bonis Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. bona bonorum bonis bona bonis Masculine forms use 2nd declension endings. bona bonae bonae bonam bonā bonae bonarum bonis bonas bonis Neuter forms use 2nd declension neuter endings. Nouns and Adjectives • But what if you need to use a 1st/2nd declension adjective to describe a 3rd declension noun?!?! Nouns and Adjectives • Remember our old abbreviation G-N-C? • Nouns and adjectives agree in gender, number, and case. • They DO NOT have to agree in declension! • This means: often nouns and adjectives have endings that AGREE but AREN’T SPELLED the same way. Nouns and Adjectives • Let’s say we want to decline the pair of words “a good law.” • lex, legis (f.)---law • bonus, BONA, bonum---good • So, a good law is a “lex bona” • Let’s see what it looks like… Lex Bona Singular Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. lex legis legi legem lege bona bonae bonae bonam bonā Plural leges bonae legum bonarum legibus bonis leges bonas legibus bonis Your Turn! • Decline “pax magna” on a single chart on the whiteboard. • Decline “dux bonus” on a single chart on the whiteboard. “Dux” is masculine so “bonus” is masculine---use 2nd declension endings on “bonus.” Your Turn! • Decline “pax aequa” on a single chart • Complete WB Ex. “C” pages 147-148 • Add it to your declension practice from yesterday! Practice! • Complete textbook page 282, Ex. A • Write the LATIN and ENGLISH • Add to your previous exercises and turn in everything to the box. Gratias!