Coaching Feb 2014 ver3

Alicia Sullivan, M.S.
Cristina Villanueva, M.S.
Gary Duhon, Ph.D.
What is Coaching?
Coaching is…
• “a method of transferring skill and expertise from
more experienced and knowledgeable practitioners of
such skill to less experienced ones” (Hargreaves &
Dawe, 1990)
 Coaching is a set of responsibilities, actions and activities . .
. not a particular person.
• “Coaching is the active and iterative delivery of:
▫ (a) prompts that increase successful behavior, and
▫ (b) corrections that decrease unsuccessful behavior”
(Horner, 2009)
• Coaches have changed from “experts” to “thought
partners” (Eggers & Clark, 2000)
General Coaching Model
• 1. “Setting the foundation by defining the context,
establishing the contract, and building a working
▫ Building rapport
• 2. “Assessing the individual”
• 3. “Strategizing the engagement and developing a
plan based on assessment feedback and goals”
• 4. “Implementing the plan”
• 5. “Evaluating the intervention and reassessing
the initial target areas”
Liljenstrand & Nebeker, 2008
Types of Coaching
Business coaching
Career/job coaching
Challenge coaching
Change/capacity coaching
Collegial coaching
Executive coaching
Instructional coaching
Life coaching
Peer coaching
Sports coaching
Technical coaching
Who provides coaching?
• Coaches come from a variety of different educational
▫ Ranging from high school graduates to PhD’s
• Coaches in the psychology field tend to be hired by
▫ Rely more on their academic training when coaching, attend
coaching specific certifications or licensure
▫ They view coaching as a mere extension to their regular
• Coaches in the field of OTH, BUS, or EDU appear to be
hired mainly by individuals receiving coaching services
and seem to be more involved in the personal coaching
• Liljenstrand & Nebeker, 2008
Is Coaching Effective?
Research on Coaching Effectiveness
• Lack of empirical research (Bartlett, 2007; Silver
et al., 2009)
• But what there is indicates that coaching is
▫ Hendrickson et al. (1993)
▫ Haan, Duchworth, Birch, & Jones, 2013
Effective Professional Development
Examine goals and performance
Decisions on what needs to be learned
Contextualized learning in schools
Collaborative problem solving
Ongoing and sufficient support
Rich information
Opportunities to develop theoretical
• Training that is part of a comprehensive reform
Hawley & Valli, 1999, as cited in Batt, 2010
Coaching vs. Didactic Training
• “Traditional ‘stand-and-deliver’ presentations rarely
affect measurable, sustained change in student
learning” (Walpole, 2005, as cited by Denton &
Hasbrouck, 2009)
• “In traditional forms of professional development…
teachers are passive participants in the learning. Such
modes of professional development have been found
to be largely ineffective (e.g., Darling‐Hammond &
McLaughlin, 1995).
▫ In contrast, learning though collaboration has been
identified as a characteristic of effective professional
development (Fullan, 1995)” (Lynch & Ferguson, 2010)
Training Methods and Impact Upon
Gravois et al., 2002
Training Outcomes Related to Training Components
Training Outcomes
Knowledge of
Skill Implementation
Plus Coaching/
Admin Support
Data Feedback
Joyce & Showers, 2002, as cited in Horner, 2009
Why Do Coaching Models Work?
• Coaches…
▫ Have credibility and experience with the target
▫ Meet repeatedly (e.g., monthly or bi-monthly)
▫ Respond to needs & strengths
▫ Adjust the intensity according to need
▫ Provide supportive and specific feedback about
▫ Offer coaching in context
Cappella et al., 2012
Internal vs. External Coaches
• Definitions
▫ Internal coaches – “employed in the school where
they provide support”
 School-based and/or full-time at one school
▫ External coaches – “employed outside the schools
where they provide support (e.g. by district, region,
state)” (Horner, 2009)
 District-level and/or serve multiple schools
Internal vs. External Coaches
Internal Coach
External Coach
Knowledge of school
• Staff relationships
• Regular access
• Outside perspective
• Multiple schools experience
Conflicting roles
• Narrow range of
Limited knowledge of school
• Limited relationships
• Less frequent access
•Unaware of politics in school
Horner, 2009
Special Concerns Associated with
External Coaches
• Sustainability (Cappella et al., 2012)
▫ Coach needs to get whole school on board in order
to have the school sustain the implementation of
the program when a particular administrator leaves
• Schools will need to be effective in organizing
personnel and resources to facilitate assisting,
maintaining, and training—both initial training
and continuing development
Characteristics of Coaches
Roles and Skills
• Maintain a defined role so they can…
▫ Facilitate
 Training & updating in the area in which they provide
 Good use of time management
 Team processes
 Establishment & maintenance of positive
▫ Communicate
 Effectively
 Understand confidentiality & ethics
Hasbrouck & Denton, 2005, as cited in Denton & Hasbrouck, 2009; Haan,
Duckworth, Birch, & Jones, 2013
Coaches are
▫ Experts in
Data collection
Intervention development
Designing & providing professional development
Supporting sustaining, school-wide student success
Effective Coaches are…
• Team meetings
• Activities at trainings
• Implementation –
‘Positive Nag’
• OTISS expert
• Faculty
• Administrator
• District Coordinator
• Community
• Behavioral ‘expert’
•Instructional ‘expert’
• Link to resources
What roles do you hold at your site?
• Explicit roles
▫ Job title
• Implicit roles
▫ What else am I asked to do
• How do these roles support or undermine my
ability to Facilitate, Communicate, gain and
demonstrate expertise?
• Involves active collaboration and participation to,
▫ Build local capacity
 Become unnecessary, but remain available
▫ Maximize current competence
 Never change things that are working
 Always make the smallest change that will have the
biggest impact
▫ Focus on valued outcomes
 Tie all efforts to the benefits for children
• It is not simply group instruction
Coaching also…
• Emphasize accountability
• Measure and report everything
• Build credibility through:
▫ Consistency
▫ Competence with behavioral and academic
▫ Relationships
▫ Time investment
What do you do?
• How do you facilitate your team?
• How do you communicate with your team?
• How do you share information to your team to
build their skills?
• What do you need to build your coaching skills?
Responsibilities of Coaches
Role and Function
Coaches’ Goals are to
• Assist school team with implementation
• Ensure fidelity of implementation
• Serve as a resource for team
• Coaches provide assistance by
▫ Attend site team meetings
▫ Encourage and model effective problem solving
within the team
▫ Help develop tools/ resources/ guidelines for future
▫ Provide ideas for fresh or alternative solutions
▫ Acknowledge progress and encourage continuation
of effective implementation
▫ Support in the development of plans—specifying
goal and steps to achieve goal
• Coaches ensure fidelity by
▫ Monitor team progress (implementation, use of
database, communication with faculty, etc.)
▫ Review data
▫ Monitor accuracy and consistency
▫ Report to district coordinator
• Coaches provide resource by
▫ Providing or securing training in needed areas of
▫ Finding answers to difficult questions
▫ Provide resources, or access to resources
Early Implementation Support is Key
Helps maintain momentum
Helps with team process
Coordinates information and communication
Provide reinforcement thru praise, & celebration
Provide or obtain critical information/technical
• Active problem solving
• All staff trainings/orientation
• Development and use of data for decision-making
Coach must be Problem Analyst
• Identify problems early
• Use data on a regular basis (every two weeks) to
monitor key indicators, and identify problems
before they become difficult
• Refine a problem statement to a level of precision
that will allow functional solutions
• Use data to identify possible solutions
Questions to Ask
• Evaluate performance
▫ How do our data compare with last year?
▫ How does our data on current functioning compare with
our goals?
Questions to Answer
• Do we have a problem?
▫ If a problem is identified, then ask: What is the data we
need, to make a good decision?
• The statement of a problem is important for teambased problem solving.
▫ Everyone must be working on the same problem with
the same assumptions.
• Problems often are framed in a “primary” form that
creates concern but is not useful for problem-solving.
▫ Frame primary problems based on initial review of data
▫ Use more detailed review of data to operationally define
the problem.
Expected Outcomes of Effective
• Implementation accuracy & fluency of evidencebased practice
• Maximum student outcomes
• Durable & generalizable implementation
• Implementation-outcome accountability
Sugai, 2011
Evaluation of Outcomes
• Compare data before and after changes
• Review the identified problem
• To determine if
▫ Changes were made consistently?
▫ Changes address the problem?
▫ There was an impact?
 If so, evaluate changes and impact
• Identify next step. (Continue, modify, discontinue
Evaluation of Outcomes
• Scoring Rubrics for Implementation
▫ OTISS Fidelity Assessment
• Objective measure of overall degree of
▫ It serves as the initial assessment and the measure
of progress
Facilitating Lasting Change
• Clear expectations from the principal/admin that
OTISS is important
• A community of practice in which teachers feel
empowered to seek and provide help to their peers
• Research results that clearly link an instructional
practice with improved student outcomes
• Resources that support implementation (e.g.,
• Flexibility to modify a practice to fit the needs of
teachers and students.
• Lather, rinse, repeat…
Klingner, 2004
Pros and Cons of Coaching
• List the three most challenging
aspects of coaching
▫ In general
▫ At your site
• List three positive aspects of coaching
▫ In general
▫ At your site
• Review the list and ask the groups to discuss
strategies for overcoming the challenges.
Your Next Step???
• Acknowledge/reinforce principal & team for progress since training
• Communicate with the team/leadership & ask
• What is planned?
• Is assistance needed?
• Prompt team to:
Meet & review action plan with staff – are we on track?
Review school data
Plan update to faculty of progress/outcomes to date
Schedule next team meeting
• Monitor completion of team action plan
• Document team & coaching accomplishments, speed bumps,
challenges, solutions
Horner’s (2009) “Lessons Learned”
• “Implementation cannot be faster than your
school staff capacity to implement”
• “Teams need to be taught how to analyze and
use data”
• “Emphasis on directing resources to need and
removing competing activities”
Florida’s Positive Behavior Support Project
New Hampshire Department of Education
Northern Suburban Special Education District
University of Oregon Effective Behavioral &
Instructional Support Systems
• Bartlett II, J. E. (2007). Advances in coaching practices: A humanistic approach to coach and
client roles. Journal of Business Research, 60, 91-93.
• Batt, E. G. (2010). Cognitive coaching: A critical phase in professional development to
implement sheltered instruction. Teaching and Teaching Education, 26, 997-1005.
• Cappella, E., Hamre, B. K., Kim, H. Y., Henry, D. B., Frazier, S. L., Atkins, M. S., &
Schoenwald, S. K. (2012). Teacher consultation and coaching within mental health practice:
Classroom and child effects in urban elementary schools. Journal of Consulting and Clinical
Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0027725
• Denton, C. A., & Hasbrouck, J. (2009). A description of instructional coaching and its
relationship to consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 19, 150175.
• Eaken, G. J., & Hagemeier, C. (2011, February). Sustaining positive behavior supports using
school psychologists as coaches. Presented at the National Association of School
Psychologists Annual Convention in San Francisco, CA.
• Gravois, T. A., Knotek, S., & Babinski, L. M. (2002). Educating practitioners as consultants:
Development and implementation of the instructional consultation team consortium. Journal
of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 13, 113-132.
• Haan, E, Duckorth, A., Birch, D., & Jones, C. (2013). Executive coaching outcome research:
The contribution of common factors such as relationship, personality match, and self-efficacy.
Consulting Psychology Journal, 65, 40-57.
• Hargreaves, A., & Dawe, R. (1990). Paths of professional development: Contrived collegiality,
collaborative culture, and the case of peer coaching. Teaching & Teacher Education, 6, 227-241.
• Hendrickson, J. M., Gardner, N., Kaiser, A., & Riley, A. (1993). Evaluation of a
social interaction coaching program in an integrated day-care setting. Journal
of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 213-225.
• Horner, R. (2009, March). The importance of coaching in implementation of
evidence-based practices. Presented at the Effective Behavioral & Instructional
Support Systems Conference in Eugene, OR.
• Klingner, J. K. (2004). The science of professional development. Journal of
Learning Disabilities, 37, 248-255.
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Research, 60, 57-77.
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Presented at the Kentucky PBIS Institute Conference in Louisville, KY.

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