Coaching Alicia Sullivan, M.S. Cristina Villanueva, M.S. Gary Duhon, Ph.D. What is Coaching? Coaching is… • “a method of transferring skill and expertise from more experienced and knowledgeable practitioners of such skill to less experienced ones” (Hargreaves & Dawe, 1990) Coaching is a set of responsibilities, actions and activities . . . not a particular person. • “Coaching is the active and iterative delivery of: ▫ (a) prompts that increase successful behavior, and ▫ (b) corrections that decrease unsuccessful behavior” (Horner, 2009) • Coaches have changed from “experts” to “thought partners” (Eggers & Clark, 2000) General Coaching Model • 1. “Setting the foundation by defining the context, establishing the contract, and building a working alliance” ▫ Building rapport • 2. “Assessing the individual” • 3. “Strategizing the engagement and developing a plan based on assessment feedback and goals” • 4. “Implementing the plan” • 5. “Evaluating the intervention and reassessing the initial target areas” Liljenstrand & Nebeker, 2008 Types of Coaching • • • • • • • • • • • Business coaching Career/job coaching Challenge coaching Change/capacity coaching Collegial coaching Executive coaching Instructional coaching Life coaching Peer coaching Sports coaching Technical coaching Who provides coaching? • Coaches come from a variety of different educational disciplines ▫ Ranging from high school graduates to PhD’s • Coaches in the psychology field tend to be hired by organizations ▫ Rely more on their academic training when coaching, attend coaching specific certifications or licensure ▫ They view coaching as a mere extension to their regular services • Coaches in the field of OTH, BUS, or EDU appear to be hired mainly by individuals receiving coaching services and seem to be more involved in the personal coaching market. • Liljenstrand & Nebeker, 2008 Is Coaching Effective? Research on Coaching Effectiveness • Lack of empirical research (Bartlett, 2007; Silver et al., 2009) • But what there is indicates that coaching is effective ▫ Hendrickson et al. (1993) ▫ Haan, Duchworth, Birch, & Jones, 2013 Effective Professional Development • • • • • • • Examine goals and performance Decisions on what needs to be learned Contextualized learning in schools Collaborative problem solving Ongoing and sufficient support Rich information Opportunities to develop theoretical understanding • Training that is part of a comprehensive reform process Hawley & Valli, 1999, as cited in Batt, 2010 Coaching vs. Didactic Training • “Traditional ‘stand-and-deliver’ presentations rarely affect measurable, sustained change in student learning” (Walpole, 2005, as cited by Denton & Hasbrouck, 2009) • “In traditional forms of professional development… teachers are passive participants in the learning. Such modes of professional development have been found to be largely ineffective (e.g., Darling‐Hammond & McLaughlin, 1995). ▫ In contrast, learning though collaboration has been identified as a characteristic of effective professional development (Fullan, 1995)” (Lynch & Ferguson, 2010) Training Methods and Impact Upon Participants Gravois et al., 2002 Training Outcomes Related to Training Components Training Outcomes Training Component Knowledge of Content Skill Implementation Classroom Application Presentation/ Lecture 10% 5% 0% Plus Demonstration 30% 20% 0% Plus Practice 60% 60% 5% Plus Coaching/ Admin Support Data Feedback 95% 95% 95% Joyce & Showers, 2002, as cited in Horner, 2009 Why Do Coaching Models Work? • Coaches… ▫ Have credibility and experience with the target skill(s) ▫ Meet repeatedly (e.g., monthly or bi-monthly) ▫ Respond to needs & strengths ▫ Adjust the intensity according to need ▫ Provide supportive and specific feedback about practices ▫ Offer coaching in context Cappella et al., 2012 Internal vs. External Coaches • Definitions ▫ Internal coaches – “employed in the school where they provide support” School-based and/or full-time at one school ▫ External coaches – “employed outside the schools where they provide support (e.g. by district, region, state)” (Horner, 2009) District-level and/or serve multiple schools Internal vs. External Coaches • Advantages Internal Coach External Coach Knowledge of school • Staff relationships • Regular access Independent • Outside perspective • Multiple schools experience Conflicting roles • Narrow range of experiences Limited knowledge of school • Limited relationships • Less frequent access •Unaware of politics in school • • • Disadvantages Horner, 2009 Special Concerns Associated with External Coaches • Sustainability (Cappella et al., 2012) ▫ Coach needs to get whole school on board in order to have the school sustain the implementation of the program when a particular administrator leaves • Schools will need to be effective in organizing personnel and resources to facilitate assisting, maintaining, and training—both initial training and continuing development Characteristics of Coaches Roles and Skills Coaches • Maintain a defined role so they can… ▫ Facilitate Training & updating in the area in which they provide support Good use of time management Team processes Establishment & maintenance of positive relationships ▫ Communicate Effectively Understand confidentiality & ethics Hasbrouck & Denton, 2005, as cited in Denton & Hasbrouck, 2009; Haan, Duckworth, Birch, & Jones, 2013 Coaches are ▫ Experts in Problem-solving Data collection Goal-setting Intervention development Designing & providing professional development Supporting sustaining, school-wide student success Effective Coaches are… • Team meetings • Activities at trainings • Implementation – ‘Positive Nag’ Facilitators • OTISS expert • Faculty • Administrator • District Coordinator • Community Communicators • Behavioral ‘expert’ •Instructional ‘expert’ Coach • Link to resources Content Knowledge Experts What roles do you hold at your site? • Explicit roles ▫ Job title • Implicit roles ▫ What else am I asked to do • How do these roles support or undermine my ability to Facilitate, Communicate, gain and demonstrate expertise? Coaching • Involves active collaboration and participation to, ▫ Build local capacity Become unnecessary, but remain available ▫ Maximize current competence Never change things that are working Always make the smallest change that will have the biggest impact ▫ Focus on valued outcomes Tie all efforts to the benefits for children • It is not simply group instruction Coaching also… • Emphasize accountability • Measure and report everything • Build credibility through: ▫ Consistency ▫ Competence with behavioral and academic principles/practices ▫ Relationships ▫ Time investment What do you do? • How do you facilitate your team? • How do you communicate with your team? • How do you share information to your team to build their skills? • What do you need to build your coaching skills? Responsibilities of Coaches Role and Function Coaches’ Goals are to • Assist school team with implementation • Ensure fidelity of implementation • Serve as a resource for team Responsibilities • Coaches provide assistance by ▫ Attend site team meetings ▫ Encourage and model effective problem solving within the team ▫ Help develop tools/ resources/ guidelines for future implementers ▫ Provide ideas for fresh or alternative solutions ▫ Acknowledge progress and encourage continuation of effective implementation ▫ Support in the development of plans—specifying goal and steps to achieve goal Responsibilities • Coaches ensure fidelity by ▫ Monitor team progress (implementation, use of database, communication with faculty, etc.) ▫ Review data ▫ Monitor accuracy and consistency ▫ Report to district coordinator • Coaches provide resource by ▫ Providing or securing training in needed areas of implementation ▫ Finding answers to difficult questions ▫ Provide resources, or access to resources Early Implementation Support is Key • • • • • Helps maintain momentum Helps with team process Coordinates information and communication Provide reinforcement thru praise, & celebration Provide or obtain critical information/technical support. • Active problem solving • All staff trainings/orientation • Development and use of data for decision-making Coach must be Problem Analyst • Identify problems early • Use data on a regular basis (every two weeks) to monitor key indicators, and identify problems before they become difficult • Refine a problem statement to a level of precision that will allow functional solutions • Use data to identify possible solutions Questions to Ask • Evaluate performance ▫ How do our data compare with last year? ▫ How does our data on current functioning compare with our goals? Questions to Answer • Do we have a problem? ▫ If a problem is identified, then ask: What is the data we need, to make a good decision? • The statement of a problem is important for teambased problem solving. ▫ Everyone must be working on the same problem with the same assumptions. • Problems often are framed in a “primary” form that creates concern but is not useful for problem-solving. ▫ Frame primary problems based on initial review of data ▫ Use more detailed review of data to operationally define the problem. Expected Outcomes of Effective Coaching • Implementation accuracy & fluency of evidencebased practice • Maximum student outcomes • Durable & generalizable implementation • Implementation-outcome accountability Sugai, 2011 Evaluation of Outcomes • Compare data before and after changes and • Review the identified problem • To determine if ▫ Changes were made consistently? ▫ Changes address the problem? ▫ There was an impact? If so, evaluate changes and impact • Identify next step. (Continue, modify, discontinue etc.) Evaluation of Outcomes • Scoring Rubrics for Implementation ▫ OTISS Fidelity Assessment • Objective measure of overall degree of implementation ▫ It serves as the initial assessment and the measure of progress Facilitating Lasting Change • Clear expectations from the principal/admin that OTISS is important • A community of practice in which teachers feel empowered to seek and provide help to their peers • Research results that clearly link an instructional practice with improved student outcomes • Resources that support implementation (e.g., materials) • Flexibility to modify a practice to fit the needs of teachers and students. • Lather, rinse, repeat… Klingner, 2004 Pros and Cons of Coaching • List the three most challenging aspects of coaching ▫ In general ▫ At your site • List three positive aspects of coaching ▫ In general ▫ At your site • Review the list and ask the groups to discuss strategies for overcoming the challenges. Your Next Step??? • Acknowledge/reinforce principal & team for progress since training • Communicate with the team/leadership & ask • What is planned? • Is assistance needed? • Prompt team to: • • • • Meet & review action plan with staff – are we on track? Review school data Plan update to faculty of progress/outcomes to date Schedule next team meeting • Monitor completion of team action plan • Document team & coaching accomplishments, speed bumps, challenges, solutions Horner’s (2009) “Lessons Learned” • “Implementation cannot be faster than your school staff capacity to implement” • “Teams need to be taught how to analyze and use data” • “Emphasis on directing resources to need and removing competing activities” Examples • • • • Florida’s Positive Behavior Support Project New Hampshire Department of Education Northern Suburban Special Education District University of Oregon Effective Behavioral & Instructional Support Systems References • Bartlett II, J. E. (2007). Advances in coaching practices: A humanistic approach to coach and client roles. Journal of Business Research, 60, 91-93. • Batt, E. G. (2010). Cognitive coaching: A critical phase in professional development to implement sheltered instruction. Teaching and Teaching Education, 26, 997-1005. • Cappella, E., Hamre, B. K., Kim, H. Y., Henry, D. B., Frazier, S. L., Atkins, M. S., & Schoenwald, S. K. (2012). Teacher consultation and coaching within mental health practice: Classroom and child effects in urban elementary schools. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0027725 • Denton, C. A., & Hasbrouck, J. (2009). A description of instructional coaching and its relationship to consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 19, 150175. • Eaken, G. J., & Hagemeier, C. (2011, February). Sustaining positive behavior supports using school psychologists as coaches. Presented at the National Association of School Psychologists Annual Convention in San Francisco, CA. • Gravois, T. A., Knotek, S., & Babinski, L. M. (2002). Educating practitioners as consultants: Development and implementation of the instructional consultation team consortium. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 13, 113-132. • Haan, E, Duckorth, A., Birch, D., & Jones, C. (2013). Executive coaching outcome research: The contribution of common factors such as relationship, personality match, and self-efficacy. Consulting Psychology Journal, 65, 40-57. • Hargreaves, A., & Dawe, R. (1990). Paths of professional development: Contrived collegiality, collaborative culture, and the case of peer coaching. Teaching & Teacher Education, 6, 227-241. References • Hendrickson, J. M., Gardner, N., Kaiser, A., & Riley, A. (1993). Evaluation of a social interaction coaching program in an integrated day-care setting. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 213-225. • Horner, R. (2009, March). The importance of coaching in implementation of evidence-based practices. Presented at the Effective Behavioral & Instructional Support Systems Conference in Eugene, OR. • Klingner, J. K. (2004). The science of professional development. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37, 248-255. • Liljenstrand, A. M., & Nebeker, D. M. (2008). Coaching services: A look at coaches, clients, and practices. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 60, 57-77. • Lynch, J., & Ferguson, K. (2010). Reflections of elementary school literacy coaches on practice: Roles and perspectives. Canadian Journal of Education, 33, 199-227. • Silver, M., Lochmiller, C. R., Copeland, M. A., & Tripps, A. M. (2009). Supporting new school leaders: Findings from a university-based leadership coaching program for new administrators. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 17, 215-232. • Sugai, G. (2011, June). Coaching for implementation: Best practices perspective. Presented at the Kentucky PBIS Institute Conference in Louisville, KY.