The 3 Appeals: in order to persuade an audience, a writer or speaker will appeal to the logical, emotional, or ethical sensibilities of the audience. What makes the message of this billboard powerful? Logos (logical): A logical appeal is when the writer or speaker appeals to the audience’s logic by using a well reasoned argument. A strong logical appeal has 2 components 1. A claim or assertion 2. Evidence or Reason Let’s identify the difference between a poorly reasoned argument and a well reasoned argument. Which of the following arguments is more of a logical, well reasoned argument? A. Barry Bonds obviously used steroids because he looks more muscular now than he did in his 20s. B. Barry Bonds obviously used steroids because medical records indicate that human growth hormones (HGH) were identified in blood samples taken from Bonds at various times during his career. Logos Here’s what to look for when you’re trying to find logical appeals. • • • • Facts Statistics Research Referring to experts (professors, doctors, lawyers, scientists) • Cause and effect relationships Long story made short: Logical appeals are persuasive, because it’s difficult to argue against hard evidence. Why is this a powerful billboard? What is it meant to do to people who see it? Pathos Emotional Appeals Pathos: a speaker or writer uses pathos by appealing to the audience’s emotions by stirring up strong feelings. When a speaker or writer does this, it is called an emotional appeal. A writer or speaker is essentially persuading the audience by playing with their feelings. Here are some methods used to create Emotional Appeals • Connotative Diction – emotional, highly charged words • Imagery – descriptive writing the reader can see, smell, taste, feel, or hear • Figurative Language – metaphors, similes, personification • Carefully crafted syntax – sentence structure • Personal anecdotes – personal stories about one’s life Connotative Diction - Words that have connotations, or attached feelings, to them. Diction refers to a writer’s or speaker’s word choice. With diction, we are talking about single words. So, when you hear or read connotative diction (words with emotional attachments), other ideas and thoughts pop into your head, because the connotative diction triggered those thoughts. When you hear the following connotative words, what do you think of? Darkness……. minivan terrorist Ethos: Ethical Appeals Ethos in Greek translates to “character”. In effective argumentation (persuasion), effective writers not only possess good character, but they also try to reveal their good character in their speeches. How a person argues or supports a claim can determine whether or not the person has a solid base of personal integrity. Therefore, Ethos is all about a writer or speaker proving that he has good character, that he is trustworthy. The audience should see the speaker or writer as someone just like themselves. Writers must establish credibility with the audience. Would you trust a doctor to perform surgery on you if he did not have a medical license and could not explain what he was going to do to you? If you were in an unfamiliar city and needed directions, would you ask a policeman or a stranger? A persuasive writer must convince the audience that he has the audience’s best interest at heart. That what an ethical appeal does. It shows that the speaker cares more about the audience than he does himself. It’s like he’s saying, “Look at me! I’m a good person! Trust me!” When analyzing ethos, there are 2 questions to ask yourself: • How does the writer or speaker present herself or himself as reliable or good? • How does the speaker or writer aim to build bridges with the audience or opposition? Here are the strategies speakers and writers use to make Ethical Appeals: • They use first person plural pronouns we and us to establish a relationship with the audience. It creates a sense of unity. • Acknowledges opposing vies accurately and fairly • Associates himself or herself with relevant authorities and makes relevant allusions. (I’m a member of the NAACP, and I am here to talk to you about race relations today.) • States qualifications and expertise. (I’ve been working in the field of medicine for 20 years, and I’ve served on the Board of Directors at 4 hospitals….) Remember: Ethical Appeals are basically implying – “Trust me, I’m a good person and I know what I’m talking about.” How does the following advertisement make an effective ethical appeal?