LSA 2013 V1.1 - Faculty of Medicine

Laboratory Safety Awareness
For Staff in Engineering, Science and Medicine
Course Outcomes
At the end of this course you will be able to:
• Participate in safe laboratory conduct
• Select and use appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE)
• Identify , assess and control risks for plant, equipment and
• Develop good housekeeping practices
• Access safety literature including Australian Standards
• - accidents in labs
HS in your area
What do you know about the HS systems for:
• Access to your lab facilities (or other restricted zones)
• Emergencies (evacuation, spills, contamination, fire)
• Chemicals
• Waste
• Protective clothing and equipment
• Managing hazards and risks
• Plant and Equipment
• Training
• Purchasing of laboratory supplies or new equipment
• What documentation exists for these (Government, UNSW,
School, lab, etc. that you know of)
HS729 Laboratory Review form
HS in your area
What HS documents should be in a laboratory or workshop:
• Register of RA’s and SWP’s
• Emergency procedures
• Chemicals register
• SDS’s
• Plant and Equipment register (no longer mandatory)
• Inspection, Testing and Maintenance schedule
• Equipment log books for use and maintenance
• Training records
• Equipment manuals
Safe Conduct
1. Always wear appropriate clothing as well as Personal Protective
2. Never adopt a casual attitude
3. Do not store or consume food or drink
4. Keep the laboratory locked
5. Maintain good housekeeping practices, including cleaning up spills
and disposing of wastes correctly
6. Look after your visitors
Personal Protective Equipment
Selection, use and storage for:
Protective footwear
Protective clothing
Eye protection
Respiratory protection
Hearing protection
Supporting UNSW Documentation:
HS659 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Guideline
Personal Protective Equipment
Group Exercise
• Discuss what you think are the essential pieces of PPCE for your
• What do you consider to be the minimum PPCE to walk in your lab.
• Report back in 5 minutes
Personal Protective Equipment
• The least effective control measure – the hazard still exists.
• Protection in the laboratory for:
• Eyes
• Limb and body
• Hearing
• Respiratory
– PPCE needs to be:
• Suitable, properly maintained, meet standards
• Provided with training
Personal Protective Equipment
•Workers who rely on PPE must understand the functioning, proper
use, and limitations of the PPE used.
•Protects only the wearer, and does not protect anyone else.
•Must be assessed on a case by case basis.
Wearing PPCE outside the lab?
• Hazard present?
• Public exposed – not protected
• Contamination issues
• Fear in others
Protective Footwear
• How could this happen in a lab/workshop?
Protective Footwear - Selection
Step 1: Identify workplace hazards, eg chemicals, slippery floors, falling
objects, flying objects, sharp materials, oily surfaces, hot surfaces.
Step 2: Use Australian Standard 2210 Part 1 to
select the footwear type
select the preferred upper and sole material and sole design
Step 3: Factors to look at include:
chemical resistance
slip resistance
penetration resistance
electrical conductivity properties
anti-static properties
heat resistance
Protective Footwear - Types
Protective Clothing
Lab coats are appropriate for minor chemical splashes and spills
Plastic or rubber aprons are best for corrosive or irritating liquids.
When cleaning and decontamination of reusable clothing is difficult,
disposable outer garments may be useful
Not to be stored on workbenches, backs of chairs etc.
Protective Clothing
Eye Protection
Safety Glasses
lenses are impact resistant and frames are far stronger
should have side shields and should be worn whenever there is
the possibility of objects striking the eye.
not appropriate for dusts, powders or liquids
Chemical Splash Goggles
• worn when there is potential for splash from a hazardous
• chemical splash goggles should have indirect ventilation
• some may be worn over prescription glasses
Eye Protection
Face Shields
Use when working with cryogens or large volumes of hazardous materials,
for protection from splash to face or flying particles
Face shields should be used in conjunction with safety glasses or goggles
Contact Lenses
Contact lenses may be worn in the laboratory
They do not offer any protection from chemical contact
If contaminated with a hazardous chemical, rinse the eyes using an
eyewash and remove the lens immediately
Safety glasses, goggles and Shields should be stored in a drawer/cupboard
(i.e. not on bench) to avoid contamination
Eye Protection
Asian nose bridge Vs Caucasian bridge
Eye Protection
Gloves should be worn if there is a physical, chemical or temperature
For Chemical Hazards consider the following:
• degradation rating
• breakthrough time
• permeation rate
• Compatibility information
For Physical and Temp hazards:
• Leather
• Fabric
• Insulation
• Loop pile
Dexterity – Grip – Size – Length
• Consider double gloving, replace outer glove if splashed
• Wear tight-fitting glove over loose glove to increase dexterity
• Ribbing, granular finish, felt
• Too tight causes fatigue
Inspection – Use – Care – Storage
Inspect before each use, test for pinholes
Wash before removing
Change disposables as soon as contamination occurs
Do not touch other surfaces whilst wearing
Do not store open glove containers near chemicals
Ensure gloves are not stored on top of chemical containers
Respiratory Protection
Initial Hazard Assessment
• This may involve measuring exposure levels.
Respirator Selection
• half-face or full-face air purifying respirator,
• powered air purifying respirator, supplied air respirator or SCBA
• appropriate type of filter or chemical cartridge is selected
Training and Fit-Testing
• Qualitative fit-testing using irritant smoke
• Positive and negative pressure checks
• HS Unit has the tools to undertake fit testing
Respiratory Protection
Class P1
• Filters particles from inhaled air.
Must have a correct fit/seal on face.
Beard/stubble make these ineffective.
Surgical masks
• Filters particles from exhaled air
Fluid resistant to infectious material splash or spatter
Protects others from your microbes
No protection from inhaled dusts unless also rated to P1.
Respiratory Protection
Hearing Protection
Workers exposed to loud or excessive noise must be provided
with hearing protection
Should be:
• compatible with the job
• hygienic
• comfortable
• able to provide audibility of warning noises
• HS708 Noise Management Procedure
Risk Management Form
When do you need to complete a risk management form?
Who needs to write and approve the document?
Things to remember when completing a risk management form:
• Specify type of PPE
• Refer to SDS and Manufacturers Manuals
• Consider hazard types
• Emergency Procedures
• Are all steps of the Activity addressed?
• Additional Controls if needed
• Review timeframes
• Review effectiveness of controls
HS329 Risk Management Procedure
HS017 Risk Management Form
• – assessing risks of toxic chemicals
Safe Work Procedures
The SWP is a control measure identified in the risk assessment and
• Step by step instructions for undertaking the task safely
Specific precautions required
PPCE to be provided and worn
Emergency shutdown
Waste disposal
Authorisation, training and review
HS027 Safe Work Procedure Guideline
HS026 Safe Work Procedure Form
HS701 Personal Protective Equipment signs
Display them near the
equipment. Some
people even have a
photo of the custodian
on it.
Safe Work Procedures
Safe Work Procedures
Plant Safety
• General Guidelines
• Control measures
• Electrical safety
• Gas Cylinders
• Fume Cupboards
Plant Safety
Plant includes all machinery and equipment, both stationary and mobile,
tools and implements used in the laboratory eg:
Computers, manual handling equipment, microscopes, freezers, gas
cylinders, ladders, drying ovens, autoclaves
Injuries that result from unsafe plant range from minor burns and cuts to
traumatic injuries such as broken bones, amputations and death eg:
hit by moving plant,
caught or crushed in plant,
Cuts and bruises from hand tools,
Strain and overuse injuries from poor posture and operating positions
Pipetting ergonomics
Plant Guidelines
• Only use plant for which you have been trained
• Always use safety devices provided
• Wear appropriate clothing
• Wear the PPE provided
• Read the Safe Working Procedure provided
• Lock out/tag out procedure
• Consider safety as a priority in plant design
• Purchase plant with safety devices installed
• Budget for training of staff and students
• Assess competency of staff
• Ensure that maintenance can be done safely
Plant Safety
Plant Safety
Plant Safety
Plant Safety
Plant Safety
Plant Safety
Control Measures for Plant
Guarding – prevents contact with hazardous parts or items ejected
from the equipment.
Operational controls – clear and functioning
Emergency stops and warning devices - test regularly
Mandatory design standards
Operator competencies – SWP, certificates, licences
Registration requirements – design, operational.
Maintenance and repair
Dismantling, storage and disposal
HS327 Plant and Equipment Procedure
HS728 Design and Modification Guideline
AS 2243.6 – Safety in Laboratories Plant and equipment aspects
Working at heights
Management and Supervisors are
responsible for ensuring that:
•Use of ladders should only be considered
if other safer alternatives, such as
scaffolding or elevating work platforms, are
not reasonably practicable
•Risk Assessments are carried out for
activities involving working at heights
•Safe Work Procedures or guidelines are
developed specifically for these activities
•All identified Personal Protective Clothing
and Equipment (PPCE) is available and in
good order before work commences
HS707 Working from Heights Guideline
Plant Safety
Gas Cylinders
• Never transport in a lift with people
• Only keep cylinders “in use” in labs
• Open valve fully then back off 2
• Remove regulator to transport
• Check appropriateness of regulator to • Use trolley for transport and push
the cylinder
trolley in front of you
• Perform leak testing
• Wear PPE to transport
• Don’t store or transport incompatible
cylinders together
• No oil or grease on oxygen
• Ensure valve shut
• Do not drop, roll or drag cylinders
Electrical Safety
Working safely with electricity
Check that laboratory electrical equipment has been
tagged (12 monthly min in labs).
Do not use double adaptors – poorly designed with no
overload protection
Use RCDs on powerboards and extension leads
Powerboards must be correctly mounted and checked to
avoid overloading.
Use extension cords as a temporary measure only
Do not bring untested electrical equipment into the
Electrical Safety
Working safely with electricity
Near potential water leaks or sprays, ensure the GPO is designed to
avoid water ingress. (near distillation or rotary evaporators)
Perform regular visual inspections for damage or discoloration.
Ensure adequate ventilation around powerboards to prevent
Lock out tag out systems, permit to work systems
Management and treatment of electric shock
Electrical Safety
Emergency Shut off and isolation buttons (what do they do):
Electrical Safety
Safely disposing of equipment:
Remove hazardous materials such as radiation sources, harmful
fluids or laser diodes.
Dispose of asbestos containing materials through proper channels.
Decontaminate and cut the cords at the plug end AND at the
equipment end and remove tags (update register).
Electrical Safety
Receiving or passing on of second hand equipment:
Examples of things to be checked are marking of rated voltage, rated
frequency, all controls marked and functioning.
confirm that the item is validated for use in Australia and where relevant
it is fitted with a plug complying with AS/NZS 3112
Ignition Sources
• A source of energy sufficient to ignite combustible dusts, flammable
vapours or gases etc. Examples include:
• (a) a naked flame,
• (b) exposed incandescent material,
• (c) hot surfaces,
• (d) radiant heat,
• (e) a spark from mechanical friction,
• (f) a spark from static electricity,
• (g) an electrical arc,
• (h) any electrical, electronic, mechanical or other equipment.
Other plant topics to discuss
• Glassware
• Under pressure or vacuum
• Storage
• Portable power tools
• Centrifuges
• Location, vibration, competence
• Heating equipment
• Heat guns, ovens, hot plates
• Pressure vessels
• Autoclaves, pressure
• Vacuum apparatus
• Safety screens, cloth tape or
cloth mesh, face protection
• Liquid traps, venting of
exhausts, hazard zones
•UV sources (UV meter)
•Refrigerators (hazard zones)
•Ultrasonic baths (fingers!)
Spill preparedness and response
All laboratories must have:
• Procedures for potential emergencies
• Spill kits
• Training sessions/drills to ensure all lab users know how to respond to an
UNSW Documentation:
HS421 Chemical Spills Guideline
HS301 PCB Spill Response and Disposal Procedure
HS305 Spills Procedure – Mercury
Science Faculty HS site
Medicine Faculty HS site
Spill preparedness and response
• Contain the spill
• Absorb the spill
• Dispose of used materials
• Report the spill
• Restock spill kit
Incident response
Group activity:
• Discuss how you would deal with the following:
– A spill of 200mL of acetone inside a fume cupboard with electrical
equipment operating.
– A spill of sodium hydroxide pellets on the floor.
– A spill of 500mL of strong acid on the bench and a splash of
some of it onto the worker.
– Report back in 5 minutes.
Waste Segregation and Disposal
All waste needs to be segregated into its waste stream according to
the UNSW Hazardous Waste Procedure.
Broken glass
Animal carcasses
Schedule 8
Human tissue
General laboratory waste
HS014 Waste Disposal Form - Chemical – UNSW
HS321 Laboratory Hazardous Waste Disposal Guideline
Waste Disposal
Chemical waste treatment and disposal
• Store the waste correctly – appropriate containers, bunding
Label the waste accurately (contact name, date, inventory)
Segregate the waste – do not mix incompatible chemicals
Submit a chemical waste inventory form to Facilities Mgt via email
Waste Disposal
Options for biological waste treatment and disposal
• Bio-waste to go into a labelled bio-waste bag and put it into the yellow
bins (these are collected by the contractor and autoclaved), or
• Autoclave the labelled bio-waste and put it into the yellow bins, or
• Autoclave the waste AND VALIDATE THE LOAD, then de-identify the
waste by putting it into a robust black plastic bag which goes into the
domestic waste
Note: Chemically decontaminated liquid bio-waste is now chemical waste
and must only be collected by the chemical contractor.
Fume Cupboards
It’s all about the air flow
• Understanding how this equipment works is knowing where the air
goes and how it is treated.
• Is it filtered, ducted, recirculated, cleaned?
• Which way does it go
• Turbulence and obstructions
– Cabinet Choice needs to be risk based
Bench Type Ducted Fume Hood
Used for decanting & mixing:
• Volatile solvents
• Corrosive liquids
• Toxics if inhalation risk exists
• Control of Noxious odours
• It captures, dilutes and exhausts
fumes to external atm.
Use of fume cupboards
Max allowable volumes should be known
– E.g. max flammables 7.5L/m2 of base
Pre use checks to be made
– Clean and free of contamination
– Enough space to work safely?
– Extinguisher handy?
– Chemicals not required are removed
During use
– Minimum possible chemicals present
– Reduced reaction rates
o Sash position is important
 Use PPE to perform the work
 After use requirements too.
Sash position is critical
Traffic is an issue too
Recirculating fume cabinets
• Rely on filtration or absorption
• Discharge directly into the lab
• Suitable for light to moderate
use with a limited range of
Recirculating fume cabinets
Recirculating fume cabinets
• Do Not Use:
– Where more than 50mL of corrosive liquids are involved in a rxn
that generates fumes
– Where acid digestions are carried out
– For perchloric acid digestions
– For infectious organism handling
– For carcinogenic material (Cat 1 & 2) except where chemisorbed
onto the filter
– For radioactive materials exceeding 10x Annual Limit of Intake
for inhalation
– Where temp and humidity may affect filter operation
Recirculating fume cabinets
• Ensure substances used are compatible with filters used
• Do not use for storage
• Do not use after major spills – replace filters
– Treat spills in RFC’s as if they were on the bench!
• Determine filter saturation monthly if not fitted with auto monitors
• Avoid Bunsen use. Keep away from sides (15cm) and the filter
• Keep a logbook of:
o Filter change, substances used, volumes used, hours of
operation, spill records.
• Periodic monitoring of the exhaust
• Check filter efficiency test certificate sticker date (also for BSC’s)
Recirculating fume cabinets
This is NOT a fume cabinet
Do not get them confused
Biological safety cabinets
• These DO NOT filter or absorb any hazardous fumes, vapours or
• They recirculate 70% HEPA filtered air
– This also recirculates the vapours leading to hazardous
– Also not spark proof, so can ignite the vapours
• 30% HEPA air is returned to the lab
Cytotoxic drug safety cabinet
•Intended specifically for handling injectable cytotoxic drugs, but may have wider application in the
handling of other hazardous drugs and materials.
•These applications may require additional precautions.
Cytotoxic drug safety cabinet
Chemical Labelling
Information about chemicals - Labelling
You must label the following if they contain Hazardous
Substances (except if they are used and cleaned immediately):
• Decanted substances
• Mixtures/formulations/preparations
• Research/laboratory samples and finished products
• Reaction intermediates and waste-products
• Substances in enclosed systems e.g. pipes and vessels
containing hazardous substances
HS429 Labelling of Hazardous Substances Guideline
Chemical Safety - Labelling
Group Activity:
A) Discuss what you regard as the minimum amount of
information that should be on a container of decanted chemical:
1. 500mL bottle
2. 5mL vial
B) How often would you consider it necessary to check
and possibly repack or relabel a stored chemical
Chemical Safety - Labelling
Chemical Safety - Labelling
Signal words and/or DG Class–
Chemical and trade names in full
Risk & Safety phrases, UN #
Emergency – spills, fire, leaks, equipment
types to use
First aid
Labelling decanted containers
• Signal words and/or DG Class, UN # – HAZARDOUS, WARNING,
• Chemical name (IUPAC or CAS) or technical names in full
• Risk & Safety phrases
• Emergency – spills, fire, leaks, equipment types to use
• First aid
• Dates?
• GHS?
Safety Data Sheets
• Must be accessible – hard copy or electronic
• Must be no more than 5 years old
• Must be used during risk assessment
• Helps decide on airborne contamination monitoring
• Check for adequacy of emergency and spill procedures
• Can be used as the risk assessment if used as directed
• Should go with an injured person to the doctor or hospital
• Need more information? Use other sources such as...
Chemical Safety - HSIS
Chemical Safety - HSIS
Chemical Safety - HSIS
Safety Literature
UNSW OHS website
Australian Standards
• Available through OHS website
WorkCover NSW website
Safe Work Australia
Safety sign maker
Safety equipment websites
Safety in the Laboratory
Operational aspects:
Staff/students leaving the laboratory
HS098 Chemical Safety System Checklist
HS048aWorkplace OHS Inspection Checklist -Offices, General Labs & Workshops
HS704 Laboratory Decommissioning Checklist
Other HS Training
HS Awareness online
Hazardous Substances
Bio - Safety and Infection Control
Working Safely with HF (theory!)
Radiation Safety Training
Gene Technology for Researchers
• Evaluation Form
• Attendance Register
• Questions?

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