here - iftponneri

Report
Shrimp Improvement Systems
The Importance of shrimp
broodstock and PL quality for
successful and sustainable
shrimp farming
Dean M Akiyama
David A Leong
Shrimp Improvement Systems, India
What is the major constraint
for commercial shrimp
farming sustainability?
-
Environment?
Production system?
Feed & Feed Resources?
Disease?
Market demand?
Other?
2
What is the major constraint
for commercial shrimp
farming sustainability?
Shrimp farmer profitability is critical
for continued growth of the shrimp
culture industry.
3
What are the basic foundation
technologies for commercial
shrimp farming?
-
Hatchery: Production of consistent quality seed
Production: Consistent & predictable harvests
Feed: Production of consistent quality feed
Genetics: Production of consistent quality broodstock
and the improvement of commercially important traits
- Disease: Solutions for hatchery and farming
- Market: Access and demand
4
Human Nature
Greed of the farmer always
overcomes the need for control
and predictability of harvests
The chicken industry is a
good model for shrimp. It is
the most advanced and
sophisticated of all animal
production industries.
6
Broiler Production Predictability
• 25 C with 85% humidity??
- Cooling panel (water fall) to lower temperature
- Fan to pull air past water assisted cooling panel
and through house. Also remove excess nitrogen.
Replace litter after every cycle to remove feces and
bacteria
Broiler Production Predictability
•
•
•
•
75% of all chickens can feed at the same time
40 broilers per feeder
8 broilers per water nipple
20 kg per m, not number of birds
Broiler Production Predictability
“Guaranteed” production by Breeder
Company and Local Distributor
• Cycle period:
• Final size:
• FCR:
• Survival Rate:
• Dressing weight:
35 days
2.2 kg
1.5
96%
67%
It is easier to change the
chicken house, than to
change the chicken.
Henry Saglio, Geneticist
10
Controlled Production Systems
PL10 stocked in raceways with minimum 6 ppm DO,
stabile temperature and pH, will reach 35 g in 100
days.
Siblings stocked in pond vs perimeter cages
ADG 0.18 vs 0.25 (39%)
We must always strive to
improve technical
efficiencies and the
reduce the cost of
production. This is a
never ending process.
12
Alternative Species
Vannamei : Chicken : Lowest cost
Monodon : Turkey : Largest
Stylirostris : Duck : Sweetest
Biosecurity by Regions
CPB
SIS has 4 Production Facilities
• SIS Florida; 1998
- Nucleus Breeding Center for Penaeus vannamei, the Pacific
white shrimp. All of SIS P. vannamei stocks originate from
Florida.
- Broodstock multiplication with capacity to produce and ship
about 120,000 commercial broodstock annually.
• SIS Singapore; 2005
- Broodstock multiplication with capacity to produce and ship
about 150,000 commercial broodstock annually.
• SIS Hawaii; 2006
- Nucleus Breeding Center for Penaeus monodon, the black
tiger prawn and Penaeus stylirostris, the blue shrimp.
- Broodstock multiplication with capacity to produce and ship
about 250,000 commercial broodstock annually.
• SIS India; 2012
- Shrimp hatchery for P Vannamei.
Shrimp Improvement Systems
Genetic Program
Major genetic discoveries based on tracking of genetic line
performance from strategic alliances with integrated farms,
hatcheries and processing plants
Shrimp Improvement Systems
Breeding Program
• 15 years of commercial genetic improvement and research.
• Pure lines selected for specific traits over 20 generations.
• Inter- and intra-familiar selection for growth, disease resistance,
reproductive capacity and general hardiness.
• 12 breeding sessions per year, each one with 40 families. 480 fullpedigree families created and evaluated each year.
• Genetic advantage is calculated from the results of field and lab
performance tests and pedigree information.
• The best families from each breeding session are used to generate
families for the next generation.
• Working on lines that exhibit resistance to multiple pathogens; i.e.
TSV and IMNV.
Genetic Family Selection
Original families
in each breeding session
Families divided into two groups
Siblings for disease challenges
& field evaluations
Disease challenge
(off-site)
Discard survivors
(never return to NBC)
SPF siblings maintained at
Nucleus Breeding Center (NBC)
Data from
field evaluations
Top performing families
Top families fast-tracked
to broodstock
Genetically Improved Stocks
To Customers
Phases of SIS Breeding Program
I. MATURATION
II. HATCHERY
III. NURSERY
IV. GROWOUT
~2 Months
1 Month
2 Months
4 to 7 Months
40 g +
0 to PL-20
PL-20 to 8 g
5 to 40 g +
Family selection for
mating rate and
fecundity
Intra and Inter-family
selection for
hardiness
Performance testing
for Growth, Disease
resistance and
general hardiness
Inter and intra-family
selection for Growth
Disease Challenge Facilities
Virus challenge selection primarily for TSV and IMNV
Commercial Farm Microcosm
Testing Facilities
Water from commercial production ponds are pumped through
Microcosm tank system.
Commercial Farm Cage Testing Facilities
Family selections made at commercial farm site
Commercial Farm Cage Testing Facilities
Selected families stocked in commercial production pond
Broodstock Quality
Quality factors for broodstock quality are not
clearly defined but rapidly improving.
- Genetic pedigree most critical
- Virus free (SPF plus)
- Stabile production conditions from PL to harvest
- Age and size
- Minimum 38g female and 35g male
- Acclimation
: 4 weeks for 40hr transport stress
2 weeks for 10hr transport stress
Definition of SPF
• Specific Pathogen Free Stock refers to the
health status of a stock and not a genetic
characteristic. To be SPF a shrimp must be
free of all “known” shrimp virus.
• Specific Pathogen Resistant Shrimp refers to
a Genetic characteristic- being resistant to a
specific pathogen (not general disease).
• All commercial broodstock are SPR to some
degree but all may not be SPF.
Specific Pathogen Resistance (SPR)
• Resistance comes in the genes, it is NOT developed by
exposure to pathogens. Resistance genes are already
present in the genome of the species.
• Selection for disease resistance aims to find and
concentrate these genes in the animal.
• Challenge tests are run on siblings or progeny in order
to gather information. Never on the animals that are
used commercial or breeding broodstock.
• By applying these principles, SIS has broodstock which
are virus free, SPF and SPR.
Routine Disease Monitoring
• INDIA, for every shipment , samples are taken and sent to
University of Arizona.
• Routinely every 3 months, shrimp samples are collected
from SIS facilities.
• Samples are submitted to independent and Government
recognized pathology laboratories.
- Dr Don Lightner, University Arizona; Florida, Hawaii, Singapore
- US Federal Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS); Florida
- Hawaii State Aquatic Veterinarian Service; Hawaii
- Agri Food and Veterinary Authority Of Singapore; Singapore
• Samples are analyzed for all the diseases and viruses as
specified by USMSFP and OIE.
SIS “Virus Free” Status
• Documented 15 year history of certified SPF status.
• Authorized supplier of broodstock and PLs into India,
Indonesia, Thailand, China, Vietnam, Malaysia,
Philippines, South Africa, Brazil, Ecuador, Venezuela,
Belize, Honduras, Panama, Surinam, Jamaica, Puerto
Rico, Cuba and USA.
• Authorized to supply SPF PLs and broodstock to US
growers in Texas, Alabama, and South Carolina.
• Annually certified by State of Florida as compliant with
Best Management Practices.
SIS Critical Performance Criteria
SIS Values
2006
2014
• Maturation
- Nauplii/female/month
• Hatchery
- Survival rate
• Pond Production
- Growth rate
– Survival rate
– CV size
350,000
700-800,000
45%
55-75%
0.14 g/d
70-80%
18%
0.18-0.25 g/d
75-85%
> 12%
Biosecurity is Critical
• Biosecurity is all of the procedures used to
protect living organisms from contracting,
carrying, and spreading diseases.
• These include Isolation of site, Traffic control
of vehicle and people, Sanitation and Disease
surveillance procedures.
• A proven history is the only evidence of
commitment and dedication to biosecurity.
Biosecurity Protocols at Nucleus
Breeding Center
• All shrimp reared indoors, protected from birds, crabs and feral
animals.
• Restrict visitors and then everyone entering facility must change
to SIS clothing and foot ware.
• Vehicle tire bath, footbaths and hand washing stations at entry
into each separate culture area.
• Entire facility encircled by chain link fence and crab barriers.
• Water source is a fossil seawater well. Water is aseptic, except
for some anaerobic sulfur bacteria.
• All effluents are chlorinated and diverted to dispersion wells. No
effluent is released into the environment.
Bio-security: NBC and BMC Level
Biosecurity
NBC - indoors
Water filtration
Biosecurity: Maintaining SPF
INDIA produced broodstocks: F2
• Are local produced broodstocks from a biosecure
facility from maturation to broodstock harvest?
• Without a reliable genetic selection program, what is
the animal performance loss in pond production per
generation? 10%?
• The cost savings of broodstock for the hatchery is
insignificant relative to the risk of farm failure.
• The fastest way to spread and transmit a disease is
through infected broodstock and PLs. Essential to
secure reliable and consistent source of virus free
broodstock and PLs.
Quality Post Larvae
Quality factors for shrimp post larvae are
routine and common industry knowledge.
- Size variation
- Necrosis
- Deformities
- Luminescent bacteria
- Ectoparasites
- Muscle Clarity
- Activity level
- Gut-muscle ratio
- Chromatophores
- Stress tests
However, there are other factors which also
affect PL quality.
Post Larvae Required Age for
Gill Development
PL6 gill development not complete. Depends on
growth rate but between PL8-10.
Gill development required for DO and
osmoregulation : minimize stress.
PL6
Survival
78%
PL10
85%
Effect of PL age for salinity stress test:
30 ppt to 5 ppt for 2 hours
PL Age
Harvested
Tanks
Survival Rate
6
5
52
8
3
77
10
7
94
Gill Development Sequence
Pl-6
Pl-10
Pl-8
Adult
PL quality parameters to Pond
Performance
• 2011 - 2013 pond performance data from 18,000
harvested ponds (2,500-5,000 m per pond)
• Only ponds which were from one broodstock family
and harvested from one hatchery tank were being
analyzed (9,500 ponds)
• Hatchery tanks harvested, 8,500 tanks producing
5-8 million PL10 per tank (55 billion PLs)
• PL length and SD/CV adjusted to PL10 parameters
• Growth rate in hatchery (PL ADG) was the PL
length divided by total time
• Harvested biomass adjusted to 100 days in 1 ha
pond area
Segmentation of Hatchery
Parameters
• Low category fall approximately about 25% of the lowest data
• Medium take approximately 50% of the mid range data High
• High categories were the top 25% of the data
Hatchery Parameter
Low (25%)
Medium (50%)
High (25%)
Hatchery SR (%)
SR < 57.7
57.7 ≤ SR < 81
81 ≤ SR < 100
PL Length (mm)
Lgth < 8.95
8.95 ≤ Lgth < 9.52
9.52 ≤ Lgth < 11.35
ADG (mm/day)
ADG < 0.5688
0.5688 ≤ DG < 0.6175
0.6175 ≤ DG < 0.7129
CV (%)
CV < 4.5
4.5 ≤ CV < 6.68
6.68 ≤ CV < 12.45
Pond performance based on survival
rate in hatchery (2010-13)
Hatchery Parameter
Number of ponds
<58%
2,018
58-81%
4,042
82-100%
2,012
Biomass (MT/ha)
MBW (g)
ADG
Survival (%)
12.40b
18.37b
0.184b
79.4a
12.53b
18.51a
0.185a
79.4a
12.60a
18.59a
0.186a
79.0a
High hatchery SR produces better biomass, MBW and ADG in
ponds but not affect survival rate.
Pond performance based on PL10
length in hatchery (2010-13)
Hatchery Parameter
Number of ponds
<8.95
2,012
8.95-9.52
4,431
9.53-11.35
2,083
Biomass (MT/ha)
MBW (g)
ADG
Survival (%)
12.44b
18.33b
0.183b
79.1a
12.47b
18.39b
0.184b
79.4a
12.74a
18.86a
0.189a
79.4a
PL10 Length does have positive correlation with pond performance but
no affect on survival.
Pond performance based on growth
(ADG) in hatchery (2010-13)
Hatchery Parameter
Number of ponds
<0.57
2,063
0.57-0.62
4,310
0.63-0.71
2,153
Biomass (MT/ha)
MBW (g)
ADG
Survival (%)
12.24c
18.28c
0.183c
78.8b
12.49b
18.43b
0.184b
79.4a
12.85a
18.82a
0.188a
79.5a
Better animal growth rate in hatchery had positive correlation with
pond performance. This correlation was better than PL length
alone.
Pond performance based on CV in
hatchery (2010-13)
Hatchery Parameter
Number of ponds
<4.5
2,146
4.5-6.7
4,185
6.8-12.5
2,140
Biomass (MT/ha)
MBW (g)
ADG
Survival (%)
12.69a
18.60a
0.186a
79.5a
12.66a
18.54a
0.185a
79.2a
12.08b
18.31b
0.183b
79.2a
Better animal CV size in the hatchery had positive correlation to
pond performance but no affect on survival.
Luminescent bacteria affect on
hatchery performance (2010-11)
Hatchery Parameter
Lumbac
No Lumbac
Number of tanks
Flushed tanks (%)
614
14.4%
605
6.0%
Survival (%)
PL10 length (mm)
ADG PL10
CV size PL10
63.19a
9.14b
0.54b
5.38a
62.25a
9.25a
0.55a
5.50a
Compared hatchery tanks were stocked with same family.
Luminescent bacteria affect on pond
performance (2010-11)
Hatchery Parameter
Lumbac
No Lumbac
Number of ponds
2,305
5,933
Harvested biomass (MT/ha)
MBW (g)
ADG
FCR
Survival (%)
10.97b
17.7b
0.177b
1.87b
72.3b
11.44a
18.2a
0.182a
1.82a
74.6a
Conclusion PL Quality Trials
• Hatchery tank survival rate, PL10 length, PL10 ADG,
CV size and luminescent bacteria all affected pond
performance but not pond survival rate.
• Pond survival rate is not a reliable pond performance
parameter because difficult to know exactly how PLs
have been stocked.
• PLs has been estimated to have 10-20% influence on
pond production. Success is highly dependant on
farm management.
• All other parameters such as stress tests, necrosis,
gut muscle ratio, etc…. had no correlation to pond
performance.
• All tested PLs were virus free.
Quality Post Larvae
The production of consistent quality post larvae
requires a “Commitment to Quality” and
discipline to implement a quality assurance
program.
- Virus free: nauplii, PL3, PL8
- Minimum tank survival rate: 30%
- CV size less than 7
- Minimum ADG: 9 mm PL10
- Luminescent bacteria free
Must reject or flush tank if less than standard.
SIS STRENGTHS & VALUES
• Fast growth
• Uniform harvest size
• Resistance to diseases: TSV
and increasingly IMNV
• High fecundity
• Virus free broodstocks for
15 years
Happy Harvesting:SIS Vannamei
Thank You
52

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