Terry Kohlmeier, M.Ed Chase Callard, MA Research Assistants, Dept. of Special Education and Rehabilitation Utah State University UMTSS Conference - June 13, 2013 Terry Kohlmeier – [email protected] Chase Callard – [email protected] Doctoral Students, Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Utah State University Research Assistants: Spanish version of the IGDI’s Language and Literacy Assessment and RIA Pre-K – Dual Language Curriculum The importance of dual language development in bilingual children. The features of bilingual development in instruction. The need for curricula that addresses dual language acquisition. Recommended practices for early literacy instruction with Spanish-English speaking preschoolers. READ IT AGAIN Pre-K! Dual Language Learners Young Dual Language Learners are the most diverse; 47% of children younger than five belong to a racial or ethnic minority group. (The Center for Public Education, 2010). Spanish is the second most common language in the United States, over 21% of school age children (Ages 5-17) population. (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009). In 2010, 56% of language minority children (Ages 3, 4 and 5) were enrolled in full or part day pre-primary and kindergarten programs. (National Center for Education Statistics, 2009) By 2050, of the nation’s children approximately 39% are projected to be Hispanic or Latino (up from 21% in 2009). (US Census, 2010) Dual Language Learners-(DLLs)” to include children from both of these categories who are learning two languages at one time. (deHouwer, 1990; Paradis, Genesee, Crago, 2010; MacLaughlin Simultaneous: Two languages acquired from birth Sequential: The introduction of a second language around the age of 3 years. Additive bilingualism: “Situations where both languages are supported and languages develop in parallel.” Subtractive bilingualism: “Situations characterized by a gradual loss of the first language as a result of increasing mastery and use of the second language.” (Diaz & Klingler, 1999; Paradis,et al., 2010) Stages of Second Language Acquisition in Young SEQUENTIAL Bilinguals (Tabors, 1997) 1. 2. Silent/Nonverbal: Child is listening and observing while “cracking the code” of the new language. Early Production: Telegraphic speech: Children used shortened phrases such as “put paper” to convey “I want you to put the paper on the table.” Formulaic speech: Children use prefabricated chunks before they have any idea of what they mean. 3. Productive Language Use: Child begins to demonstrate an understanding of the syntactic system of the language. They go beyond short phrases and formulas to create their own sentences conveying their own precise meaning. The period in second language development between when the child starts to use the language productively until when he/she achieves competence similar to a native speaker This takes time!!! We should expect that sequential bilinguals will have errors in pronunciation, vocabulary choice, morphology, and grammar as they gradually become more proficient in their L2 It is critical to look at all English language learning students individually There are generally no big categories to capture all students’ language abilities Research indicates these are some of the critical factors in acquiring a second language: SES, maternal education, cognitive ability, level of mastery in native language, motivation, older siblings, age of introduction to L2 What does all of this mean when working with young Dual language learners? How does this effect instruction and teaching practices? It is critical to understand a child’s level of proficiency in their home language and English to better meet their instructional needs. If your program is predominantly in English the child’s team needs to know where to start with the child in English to provide more “comprehensible input” throughout the school day. (What stage of bilingual language development is the child in? If you have bilingual staff the team needs to use native language strategically and intentionally for instruction. Why is it important for the child to maintain their home language when they will most likely only teach in English in school? Why teach in the child’s home language? The child will be surrounded with English speakers and will quickly recognize English as the language with higher status and power in this society. The greatest likelihood is actually that immigrant children will discontinue using their native language (Portes & Hao, 1998). The global economy and increasing diversity Communication with child and family and community so that he/she does not become socially isolated. Maintaining strong native language skills will allow parents to communicate affection, discipline and teach cultural values (Wong-Fillmore, 1991). The Question is not whether or not all children in the United States need to learn English… Of course they do! The Question is how do we best teach young English language learners English, help them to maintain their native language, and produce the best long term academic outcomes? Tier 1 Instruction includes: 1 2 3 4 5 Adult-child shared storybook reading Literacy-enriched play settings Theme-based curriculum Teacher-directed structured literacy curricula like Read It Again – Pre-K! Progress Monitoring How you read books with children is just as important as whether or not you read to to them Engage children in dialogue while reading Ask questions Literacy materials should be available in all areas of the classroom. In addition, every classroom should have a cozy library area where books on multiple topics including fiction and non-fiction are available to children Some examples of embedding books in play areas: Magazines in the housekeeping area, books about building in the block area, science books in a discovery area, etc. Writing opportunities in all areas Books should be chosen that match curriculum themes. Play areas should have materials and activities available based on the theme to provide multiple opportunities for children to interact with and use key vocabulary in both languages Be intentional about how you support vocabulary development in your classroom Talk, talk, talk—use many words and rare words Remember, conversation is two-way! (listening, wait time) (Give me 5 – back and forth) How can we integrate vocabulary development throughout classroom activities Provide a visual for each vocabulary word Use as an instructional tool Words should be changed based on your theme Should be posted and used by students for writing practice or during instruction When schools provide children with quality education in their primary language, they give them two things: knowledge and literacy. The knowledge that children get through their first language helps make the English they hear and read more comprehensible. Literacy developed in the primary language transfers to the second language. The reason literacy transfers is simple: Because we learn to read by reading, by making sense of what is on the page it is easier to learn to read in a language we understand. Once we can read in one language, we can read in general (Krashen, 1999). Support the acquisition of the child’s native language. Strong native language skills will better support English Language and Literacy outcomes. Spanish oral vocabulary and early literacy skills are emerging as a key areas to target in early intervention programs for Spanishspeaking children to support improved long term academic and reading outcomes (Lindsey, et al. 2003; Manis, et al., 2004; Oller & Eilers, 2002; Ordoñez, et al., 2002; Proctor, et al., 2006). A language and literacy curriculum Scientifically-based Teacher friendly Materials, books, notes and lesson plans in hand Resources Myreaditagain.com Systematic and specific approach to building children’s language and literacy skills in 4 key areas: Vocabulary Narrative Phonological Awareness Print knowledge Rhyming Alliteration (Beginning Sounds) Blending (sounds and segments) Print awareness/environmental print Letter names and sounds Book and print rules i.e. front and back of book, reading progression from left to right, where to start reading Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Each lesson is organized around a storybook - This adds to the importance of reading Each lesson has two literacy activities that are designed to address key literacy skills, such as: vocabulary and narrative, or print and rhyming Each lesson has objectives (what do we want the child to learn) and activities for the child to do and a script. (What does the teacher say to the group of children?) Lessons in Spanish = Lessons in English All or some of these strategies can be included to support the dual language learner: • ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Previewing vocabulary – Reviewing vocabulary Using Visuals and Manipulatives Total Physical Response Book Walk-throughs Word wall Embedded Activities in the learning centers Teaching Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students takes: A commitment to helping the child continue development in their native language A systemic belief that bilingualism is valuable and an asset, not a deficit Collaboration between home and school with a focus on the family as native language experts Instructional practices that support the home language and teach English http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/culturallinguistic http://www.myreaditagain.com August, D., Carlo, M., Dressler, C., & Snow, C. (2005). The critical role of vocabulary development for English language learners. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 20(1), 50–57. doi: 10.1111/j.15405826.2005.00120.x August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth. Colorin Colorado. (2007). How to create a welcoming classroom environment. Retrieved from http://www.colorincolorado.org/ educators/reachingout/welcoming Paradis, J., Genesee, F., & Crago, M. (2011). Dual Language Development and Disorders: A Handbook on Bilingualism and Second Language Learning. (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing. Tabors, P. O. (2008). One child, two languages: A guide for early childhood educators of children learning English as a second language (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc.