In the home language - WIDA 2015 National Conference

Report
Planned Language
Approach
What Is It?
Why Should We Do It?
WIDA Conference
October 23-24, 2014
Joanne Knapp-Philo, Ph.D.
Robert Stechuk, Ph.D.
PLA
IS
IS NOT
• A way to organize and
support quality teaching
• Comprehensive and
research-based
• For children learning
English and for those
also learning other
languages
• A holistic approach for
teachers
• A curriculum
• Quick and easy to
implement
• Just for Dual Language
Learners
Outcomes
Participants will:
• Gather introductory
information about the
Planned Language
Approach, it’s research
base, rationale, and key
components
Diversity: What do we know?
• The U.S. has been undergoing a profound
demographic transition
– Last quarter of the 20th century and will
continue well into the 21st century
• “Diversity” includes cultures, languages, and
backgrounds
– EHS/HS programs reflect the range of diversity
in the U.S.!
Dual Language Learners
OHS Definition of Dual Language Learners:
• Children –
– Acquire two or more languages simultaneously
(i.e., from birth)
OR
– Learn a second language while continuing to
develop their first language
• See the ECLKC – DLL Home Page for more information
http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/culturallinguistic/Dual%20Language%20Learners
What’s poverty got to
do with it?
• Impacts begin during pre-natal period
• Visible impacts for
infants, e.g., cognition
language
• Extended impacts for
preschool-age, especially
language
• Long-term/crossgenerational impacts
The problem
• A synthesis of the evidence, directed by the
National Research Council, emphasized the
alarmingly high incidence of reading failure in the
United States
• ….Approximately seven in ten low-income
children do not become successful readers by the
end of fourth grade (Snow, Burns, & Griffin, 1998)
• In brief, poverty and school success are strongly
connected; therefore, PLA directly addresses this
connection
Home Language:
A Key Part of Instructional
Design
Children’s Home
Language is the
foundation of their
school readiness,
including their
acquisition of English
Importance of Home
Language
• Children develop
their identity
• Children learn and
develop social skills
and emotional
intelligence
• Children acquire
cultural knowledge
and identity
Children use their Home
Language
• To understand themselves, their families and
others
• To internalize the language they hear when
parents and family members talk
• To think and reflect on information about
themselves, their families, and their
communities
Importance of Home
Language
• In addition, a wide range of cognitive
(thinking) skills are developing within the
Home Language, such as:
– Classification
– Categorization
– Logical/cause-and-effect reasoning
– Narrative abilities (length and complexity)
– Concepts related to spatial relations/math
Importance of Home
Language
• Many studies show that
young DLLs transfer their
knowledge and skills
across languages over
time
• i.e., skills developed in a
child’s Home Language
support reading in English
and school success
Importance of Home
Language
• Uninterrupted development of the Home
Language during the birth to age five period
enables children to continue to develop the
knowledge, skills, and attitudes they already
have
• In addition, we want to maximize the
knowledge and skills that children have as they
enter school
Importance of Home
Language to school success
• Phonological awareness in Spanish predicted
English reading scores (Gottardo et al., 2002)
• Oral language proficiency in Spanish predicted
English reading scores (Miller et al., 2006)
• See the OHS Multicultural Principles, pages 4752, for a more complete discussion of the
research
The Benefits of Being Bilingual
• Shares some reasons
bilingualism is an asset to
individuals, families and our
entire society
• Head Start staff can share
the benefits of being
bilingual with families, find
ways to support children’s
home languages, and
encourage families to keep
their language strong
The Gift of Language
Written for families of
dual language learners
in an attempt to answer
many of their
frequently asked
questions.
Language at Home and in the
Community for Families
Offers eight things
families can do every
day to help their
children learn their
family’s language and
become successful in
school!
Language at Home and in the
Community for Teachers
Ideas to share with
families – similar to
what is written for
families – helps you to
see your role in
encouraging families to
share their language,
culture and traditions.
Reading
• Reading is at the core of school success and
long-term achievement
• Oral language is the foundation for learning to
read
• Specific “predictors” of reading success are
clear
• SOOOO, ECE should give children the
experiences we know they need!
Reading
• Learning to read is a
profound developmental
challenge for children
(National research Council,
1998)
• Less than 4 in 10 school
children are proficient
readers…
Reading
• Children living in poverty are OVER
represented in statistics of reading failure, as
are children who speak a language other than
English….but
• Most reading failure is preventable (National
Research Council, 1998, 1999)
The “Big 5” of language and
literacy development
• Background knowledge
• Oral language and
vocabulary
• Phonological awareness
• Book knowledge and
print concepts
• Alphabet knowledge
and early writing
Background Knowledge
Background Knowledge
includes
• All the information that children learn
and store in memory about themselves,
other people, objects, and the world
around them
• Beliefs, values, rules, and expectations
for behavior developed in different
cultural settings and environments
Background Knowledge
• Developed through children’s daily interactions
and experiences within their family and in
their community
• Developed in one or more languages and can
transfer to another language
• Organized in the child’s mind into concepts
(schemas) that enable children to connect new
information to their existing knowledge
beginning at birth
Background Knowledge
matters for DLLs because
• They may have different experiences
depending on their family’s culture,
language/s, social class, religion, emigration
experiences, etc.
• Children are increasingly able to recognize and
reflect upon aspects of different
environments….this is a great source of
conversation, word learning, and reflective
thinking
Oral Language and
Vocabulary
Oral language experiences
Phonological Awareness
Phonological Awareness
• A key predictor of early reading
• For DLL children, must develop
competence with 2 sound systems
• Children may be able to transfer skills
across language, e.g., segmenting words
into syllables
Book Knowledge and Print
Concepts
Alphabet Knowledge and
Early Writing
When teachers speak the
Home Language
Activities that promote
• Children’s enriched vocabulary
• Levels of executive function
• Specific approaches to
–
–
–
–
learning
letter knowledge
print concepts and
phonological awareness
In the home language
When teachers speak the
Home Language
• High-quality adult child interactions
‒ Extended conversations that build vocabulary
and elaborate upon ideas and information
• Daily book-reading combined with multiple
oral language strategies, e.g.
‒ Talking about the book before and after the
story
‒ Explaining new words during reading, etc.
When teachers speak English
only
• When teachers do not share the same language as
the children they sometimes are “thrown off”
• Teachers have the ability—not only to
communicate—but to have a significant impact
upon children’s development and to effectively
model English
• We want everyone to understand and implement
effective models of English for ALL children
When teachers speak English
only
Language acquisition… does not occur in
isolation, it involves multiple, simultaneous levels
of activity
• Children get (and stay) involved in activities (physical
level) and…
• … They process information mentally as the activity
continues (cognitive level)…
• … Over time, children acquire language as part of
their involvement in the activity (language level)
When teachers speak English
only
Modeling English
1. Get the child involved in an activity that they
enjoy; offer the child choices of activities as
needed…
2. As the activity continues, observe the child’s
actions…
3. Provide language models related to the child’s
ongoing activity (for example, the “self-talk” and
“parallel talk” strategies within the CLASS
instrument)
Other strategies that work
• Tapes with family members telling/reading
favorite stories
• Cultural artifacts suggested by families to make
the environment feel more comfortable
• A quiet space for timeout
• Regular, planned, intentional repetition and
practice
More strategies that work in
Dual Language and English
only classrooms
• Self-Talk
• Parallel Talk
• Open-ended
questions and
props
• Using the L1
Proven ways to promote language
and literacy development for DLLs
When teachers speak
English only
•
•
•
•
Scaffolding
Pair-Think/Buddies
Dialogic Reading
Project Approaches
• Books in Home
Language and English
• Personalized Oral
Language Learning
• Writing Strategies
• And Many More
Language
Policies &
Practices:
Linking individual
classrooms to a
program-wide
approach
• Translation/Interpretation
• Human Resources/
Hiring Practices
• Classroom Language
Models
• Intentional Ongoing
Professional Development
• Program Goals
• Focused Monitoring/
Record Keeping/DataDriven Decisions and
Actions
Program Translation/
Interpretation
Policies and Practices
Definition:
• Translation – written
• Interpretation – spoken
Program Translation/
Interpretation
Policies and Practices
• HR practices clearly state qualifications for
both translators and interpreters
• Specific interview questions for ALL staff that
assesses an applicant’s
‒ Knowledge of L1/L2 and
‒ Attitudes about cultural and linguistic diversity
Human Resources/
Hiring Practices
• Clear job descriptions for translators and
interpreters
• Systems to assure and build staff abilities,
including:
‒ Professionalism
‒ Strong language models for children
‒ Connecting with and supporting families
Human Resources/
Hiring Practices
• Job Descriptions that clearly state the
expectation that teaching staff are high quality
language models in all their languages.
• Ongoing Professional Development and
Coaching that ensures all teaching staff are
good language models
Human Resources/
Staff Development
Practices
• Evaluation practices that ensure all classroom
staff use research-based language and literacy
practices that promote children’s learning
Classroom Language
Models
• A central, research-based teaching design that
takes into account:
‒ languages spoken by the children
‒ languages spoken by the teaching staff
‒ the priorities and resources of the
district/agency
Recommended Classroom
Language Models
• Home Language
• English Language
• Dual Language
• English with Home Language Support
Language Model
Home Language
• ALL the children
speak one home
language, (e.g.
Spanish)
AND
• ALL the teaching
staff speak
Spanish well
Language Model
English Only
• ALL the children
speak only English
AND
• ALL the teaching
staff speak English
well
Language Model
Dual Language
• The children speak English and/or
another common language (e.g.
Mandarin)
• Teaching staff speak English and that
language (e.g. Mandarin)
Dual Language Model #1
Alternate days
In each language, e.g., over a 2-week cycle
throughout the school year
Week 1
Mon
Spanish
Week 2
Mon
English
Tue
English
Wed
Spanish
Thu
English
Fri
Spanish
Tue
Spanish
Wes
English
Thu
Spanish
Fri
English
Dual Language Model #2
Alternate languages
For designated, equal times,
each day throughout the school year
Week 1
Mon
AM
Tue
PM
AM
Wed
PM
AM
Thu
PM
AM
Fri
PM
AM
PM
Hebrew English English Hebrew Hebrew English English Hebrew Hebrew English
Week 2
Mon
AM
Tue
PM
AM
Wes
PM
AM
Thu
PM
AM
Fri
PM
AM
PM
English Hebrew Hebrew English English Hebrew Hebrew English English Hebrew
Language Model
English with home language
support
• Children speak multiple languages
• All teachers are strong language models in
English ( may or may not speak a second
language)
• Instruction takes place in English
• ALL the home languages of the children are
supported in the classroom and through
engaging families in the effort as well
Family Engagement
• Engage families to promote their child’s
ability in their home language throughout
the child’s life
• Provide families with the skills to promote
language and literacy development in home
language
• Gather feedback from families about the best
ways to support them and then follow their
suggestions
Intentional, ongoing
professional development
• Culture of continuous improvement
• On-going mentoring/coaching with the goal of
refining teaching practices
• Processes that track and acknowledge teacher
progress and change in practice
Planned Language Approach
• A cohesive, program-wide approach that
connects content
knowledge,
decision making,
and practices
across
– Program level
– Classroom Level
Sometimes the
questions are
COMPLICATED
and the
answers are
SIMPLE!
--Dr. Seuss
They are worth it!

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