Trends, Consequences, and Potential Solutions

Report
Child Poverty in the United States:
Trends, Consequences, and Potential
Solutions
National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities: Seventh Annual Symposium
Zakia Redd, Senior Research Scientist
June 9, 2014
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Presentation Overview
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About Child Trends
Child poverty by the numbers
How poverty harms children
Potential solutions
Discussion
Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
Zakia Redd
About Child Trends
Child Trends is a nonprofit, nonpartisan research center that improves the lives and
prospects of children and youth by conducting high-quality research and sharing the
resulting knowledge with practitioners and policymakers.
We . . .
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take a whole child approach
study children in the real world
want children to flourish
value objectivity and rigor
pursue knowledge development and knowledge transfer
childtrends.org
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
Zakia Redd
Research Areas
EARLY
CHILDHOOD
Poverty
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EDUCATION (K-12)
FATHERHOOD AND
PARENTING
Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
Zakia Redd
FERTILITY AND FAMILY
YOUTH DEVELOPMENT
STRUCTURE
INDICATORS
DATA DEVELOPMENT
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What We Do
• Develop and track data on children and youth
• Help to design, implement, and evaluate youthserving programs
• Analyze and synthesize data and literature
• Provide training and technical assistance
• Design, field, and analyze surveys
• Design and conduct implementation and qualitative
studies
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
Zakia Redd
Partners, Funders, Clients
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
Zakia Redd
“What Works” Resources
LINKS Database
LINKS synthesis
Lifecourse Interventions
to Nurture Kids Successfully:
A continually updated database
of What Works
“What Works” fact sheets
synthesize the lessons learned from
experimentally evaluated
programs in the LINKS database
http://www.childtrends.org/links/
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
Zakia Redd
Performance Management Resources
• Outcomes and Indicators
• Survey and Assessment Tools
http://www.performwell.org
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
Zakia Redd
Self-Sufficiency Research and Resources
• Growing online library with over 3000 research-based
resources focusing on low-income self-sufficiency
• Designed for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers
• Funded by the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation
(OPRE) in the Administration for Children and Families (ACF),
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
https://www.opressrc.org
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
Zakia Redd
What are the demographic and
family background characteristics
of poor children?
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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Poverty Trends among Children
(17 and under)
Percentage of Children Living Below Poverty Thresholds,
Selected Years, 1959-2012
50
Percent
40
30
27.3
22.7
22.3
22.0
19.5
21.8
20
0
1958
16.2
14.0
10
1963
1968
1973
1978
1983
1988
1993
1998
2003
2008
2013
Sources: Poverty level data for 1959-2001: U.S. Census Bureau. Historical poverty tables-People: Current Population Survey. Table 3. Available
at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/data/historical/people.html. Other data 1975-1985: U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. (2002). Trends in the well-being of America's children and youth 2001.
Table ES 1.2.A. Author. Available at: http://aspe.hhs.gov/hsp/01trends/ . Other data for 1990-2000: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population
Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement. Income, poverty and health insurance
in the United States: detailed tables. Available at
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
Zakia Redd
Poverty among Infants and Toddlers
Percentage of Children, Ages Birth through 2, Living in Poverty,
2006-2012*
50
Percent
40
30
21.1
21.0
21.5
22.3
2006
2007
2008
2009
24.5
2010
26.1
25.3
20
10
0
2005
2011
2012
2013
*Year reflects the year that the question was asked. Question was asked regarding the previous 12 months.
Source: CPS Annual Social and Economic Supplement, CPS Table Creator, http://www.census.gov/cps/data/cpstablecreator.html. Data
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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Poverty Trends, Children and Adults
Percent of People in Poverty, by Age, 1959-2012
40.0
35.0
30.0
Percent
25.0
21.8
20.0
15.0
13.7
10.0
9.1
5.0
0.0
1959
1964
1969
1974
1979
Under 18
1984
1989
18-64
1994
1999
2004
2009
65 and older
Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement , (CPS-ASEC),
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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2014
Poverty by Race/Ethnicity
Percentage of Children who are Poor
by Race and Hispanic Origin, 2012
50
37.9
40
Percent
33.8
30
20
13.8
12.3
10
0
Non-Hispanic White
Black
Hispanic
Note: Estimates reflect the new OMB race definitions, and include only those who are identified with a single
race. Hispanics may be of any race.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau. CPS Table Creator (online tool), available at:
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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Asian
Poverty among Children, by Family
Structure and Race/Ethnicity
Figure 3
Percentage of Children in Poverty, by Family Structure,
Race, and Hispanic Origin, 2012
100
Married-couple families
Single-mother families
Percent
80
60
54.5
53.3
47.1
40
36.5
32.7
23.6
20
15.0
11.1
10.3
6.2
0
All races
Non-Hispanic White
Black
Hispanic
Note: Estimates reflect the new OMB race definitions, and include only those who are identified with a single race. Hispanics may be of
any race.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau. CPS Table Creator (online tool), available at: http://www.census.gov/cps/data/cpstablecreator.ht ml .
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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Asian
Learning Disabilities among Children 3-17,
by Poverty Status (2011/12)
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Percentage of Children Ages 3-17 with a Learning Disability,
by Poverty Status, 2011/12
20
15
12.1
10
8
6.9
5
0
National
At/below poverty
Source: Original calculations by Child Trends of National Survey of Children's Health
data 2011/2012.
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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Above 100% FPL
Learning Disabilities among
Adolescents, by Poverty Status (2011/12)
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Percentage of Children Ages 12-17 with a Learning Disability, by
Poverty Status, 2011/12
20
16.3
15
10.2
10
8.7
5
0
National
At/below poverty
Source: Original calculations by Child Trends of National Survey of Children's Health data
2011/2012.
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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Above 100% FPL
ADHD/ADD among Children 3-17, by
Poverty Status (2011/12)
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Percentage of Children Ages 3-17 with ADHD/ADD, by Poverty
Status, 2012 (National Survey of Children's Health)
20
15
9.5
10
7.9
7.4
5
0
National
At/below poverty
Source: Original calculations by Child Trends of National Survey of Children's Health data
2011/2012.
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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Above 100% FPL
ADHD/ADD among Children 12-17, by
Poverty Status (2011/12)
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Percentage of Children Ages 12-17 with ADHD/ADD, by Poverty
Status, 2011/12 (National Survey of Children's Health)
20
15
13.1
10.7
10.1
10
5
0
National
At/below poverty
Source: Original calculations by Child Trends of National Survey of Children's Health data
2011/2012.
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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Above 100% FPL
What are the Consequences of
Child Poverty?
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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5 ways poverty harms children
1. Poverty harms the brain and other body
systems
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Poverty can negatively affect how the body and
mind develop, and alter the fundamental
architecture of the brain.
Children who experience poverty have an
increased likelihood, extending into adulthood,
for numerous chronic illnesses, and for
a shortened life expectancy.
Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
Zakia Redd
5 ways poverty harms children
2. Poverty
leads to poor physical, emotional,
and behavioral health.
• Growing up poor increases the likelihood that children
will have poor health, including
poor emotional and behavioral health.
• Poor children are more likely to experience "food
insecurity," as well as have diets that are
deficient in important nutrients.
• Rates of several chronic health conditions, such as
asthma, are higher among poor children.
• They are less likely to receive preventive medical and
dental care.
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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5 ways poverty harms children
3. Poor children are more likely to live in neighborhoods with
concentrated poverty, which is associated with numerous
social ills.
• Growing up in neighborhoods with concentrated
poverty is associated with negative academic outcomes,
more social and behavioral problems, and poorer health
and physical fitness outcomes.
• Poor children are more likely to live in neighborhoods
where they are exposed to environmental toxins and
crime and violence
• Poor children are also disproportionately likely to
attend schools in districts with fewer resources, with
facilities that are grossly inadequate, and with school
leadership that is more transient.
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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5 ways poverty harms children
4. Poverty can harm children through the
negative effects it has on their families and
the home environment.
• Poor parents report higher stress ,aggravation,
and depressive symptoms than do higher-income
parents.
• Parents with scarce economic resources face difficulty
planning, preparing, and providing for their families
material needs.
• Children in poor families have fewer books and other
educational resources at home, and they are less likely
to experience family outings, activities,
and programs that can enrich learning opportunities
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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5 ways poverty harms children
5. Poverty creates and widens achievement
gaps.
• Young children growing up in poverty, when
compared with higher income peers, fall behind
early.
• Poor children lag behind their peers at entry to
kindergarten, in reading ability at the end of third
grade, and in school attendance in eighth grade.
• Poor children are more likely to drop out of school,
or fail to attain post- secondary credentials.
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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Effects of poverty can be long-lasting
• Effects are more negative and long-lasting for children who
experience deep poverty, persistent poverty, or poverty
during their early years.
• Intergenerational connection: children who grow up in
persistent poverty are more likely to experience poverty as
adults compared to children who do not.
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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What are Potential Solutions?
Prevent or Reduce Poverty
Buffer Negative Effects of Poverty
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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Poverty prevention policy considerations
• Experimental evidence that welfare reform program that
increased family income led to improvements in
children’s social and academic outcomes
• Census analyses provide data on safety net and tax
subsidy programs that help to lift families with children
out of poverty (Supplemental Poverty Measure)
o Earned Income Tax Credits helps to make work pay
o Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP or
Food Stamps)
o Child care subsidies
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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Family support policy considerations
• Voluntary, evidence-based home visiting for new and
expectant mothers at risk for negative child outcomes.
• Two-generation approaches integrate services for parents
and children. Models differ, but often include programs that
provide education, employment or social service supports for
parents and early child care services for children.
• Parenting education and parent-child interaction programs
that are linguistically and culturally sensitive.
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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Promising and evidence-based
program approaches
• High-quality early childhood education has been
proven to improve outcomes for disadvantaged
children.
• Integrated student supports that target academic
and non-academic supports in more than 3,000
schools are promising approaches for improving
educational outcomes.
• Investments in effective teen pregnancy prevention
programs may reduce poverty.
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
Zakia Redd
Promising and evidence-based
program approaches
• Well-implemented, high-quality programs targeting children
and youth can be effective in improving learning outcomes:
• Summer learning programs
• Out-of-school time programs with individualized tutoring
and academic enrichment components
• Volunteer mentoring programs with intensive case
management
• School-based programs targeting social and emotional
learning outcomes
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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Promising and evidence-based
program approaches—best practices
• Program quality matters
o youth engagement, peer interactions, materials and space,
structure and management, intentionality of
programming, staff-youth interactions, etc.
• Participation matters
o Regular participation for longer durations associated with
better outcomes
• Stronger effects for more disadvantaged subgroups
• Performance management and monitoring
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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Recommendations
• With one in five children under age 18 and one in four
children under 5 living in poverty, effective prevention
strategies are needed.
• More research is needed to understand why learning
disabilities are more prevalent among poor children.
• Programs, funders, policymakers should consider piloting,
testing, and expanding effective and promising approaches for
improving children’s educational outcomes.
o When sample sizes permit, more studies should examine
outcomes for subgroups of children with learning
disabilities and ADHD
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
Zakia Redd
Discussion and Questions
Contact Information:
Zakia Redd, M.P.P.
Senior Research Scientist, Youth Development
[email protected]
240-223-9320
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Child Poverty in the U.S.: Trends, Consequences and Potential Solutions
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