Building a System of Assessment for All Children

Report
Building a System of Assessment for All Children
Mary McLean, Ph.D.
Head Start National Center on Quality Teaching and Learning
NATIONAL CENTER FOR QUALITY
TEACHING AND LEARNING
http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/ttasystem/teaching
2
Framework for Effective Practice
Supporting school readiness for all children
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AGENDA
 Overview of child assessment requirements for 0-3 and
preschool programs
 Consider requirements for your state/program
 Building a system of assessment for all children
1) Selecting an appropriate tool
2) Assessing children with disabilities and
children who are dual language learners
3) Using assessment to inform teaching
INTRODUCTIONS
OVERVIEW OF ASSESSMENT
REQUIREMENTS
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Purposes of Assessment
• Screening
• Evaluation to determine eligibility for special
education
• Assessment for program planning,
monitoring child progress
• Program evaluation, accountability
Federal Requirements
1993 Government Performance and Results Act
2001 No Child Left Behind
2002 Good Start, Grow Smart (Head Start NRS)
2004 IDEA Improvement Act
2006- Changes to Head Start Regulations
2009 Race to the Top/Early Learning Challenge
IN GOD WE TRUST
FROM EVERYONE ELSE WE REQUIRE DATA
Multiple early childhood systems
State-funded preschool
Child care centers
Early childhood special education
Head Start/Early Head Start
Home visitor programs
From Committee on Developmental
Outcomes and Assessments for Young
Children
• “…early childhood assessment needs to be
viewed not as an isolated process, but as
integrated in a system” (p 303)
• “The states and the federal government often
effect change in the early childhood system by
introducing new programs, local or limited
innovations, and underfunded mandates.”
National Research Council. (2008). Early
Childhood Assessment: Why, and How.
Committee on Developmental Outcomes and
Assessments for Young Children, C.E. Snow and
S.B. Van Hemmel, Editors, Board on Children,
Youth, and Families, Board on Testing and
Assessment, Division of Behavioral and Social
Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The
National Academies Press.
A closer look at federal assessment
requirements for Head Start and
IDEA …..
Assessment in Head Start
• The Head Start Program Performance
Standards (1304 & 1308) define and describe
‘assessment’ as a process that includes:
– Screening
– Developmental evaluation (if needed)
– Ongoing assessment
Program Evaluation
 The Designation Renewal System (DRS) (1307) requires
programs to “aggregate child-level data” and to examine
the summary information for groups of children in the
program –
 This is assessment for the purpose of program evaluation
and to support continuous improvement.
Performance Standard 1307.3 (b)(2)(i)
– (i) Aggregating and analyzing aggregate child-level assessment
data at least three times per year (except for programs operating
less than 90 days, which will be required to do so at least twice
within their operating program period) and
– using that data in combination with other program data to
determine grantees' progress toward meeting its goals, to
inform parents and the community of results,
– to direct continuous improvement related to curriculum,
instruction, professional development, program design and
other program decisions;
Performance Standard 1307.3 (b)(2)(ii)
• (ii) Analyzing individual ongoing, child-level assessment data for all
children birth to age five participating in the program and
• using that data in combination with input from parents and families
to determine each child's status and progress with regard to, at a
minimum, language and literacy development, cognition and
general knowledge, approaches toward learning, physical wellbeing and motor development, and social and emotional
development and
• to individualize the experiences, instructional strategies, and
services to best support each child.
1307.3 (b)(2)(ii)
Newly Revised!
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• School Readiness Plan is developed
• School Readiness Goals are established in the five essential
domains
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• Evidence-based curricula and teaching strategies are adopted
• High quality teacher-child interactions and learning environments
are provided
3
• Valid and reliable assessment instruments are identified
• Assess child progress on an ongoing basis and aggregate and
analyze data 2-3 times per year
4
• Use ongoing assessment data to inform instruction
• Examine data for patterns of progress for groups of children in
order to develop and implement a plan for program improvement
IDEA ASSESSMENT
Eligibility
Progress toward IEP goals and IFSP
objectives
Outcomes assessment
PART C AND B619 CHILD OUTCOMES
Percent of children who demonstrate
improved:
1. Positive social-emotional skills (including social
relationships)
2. Acquisition and use of knowledge and skills
(including language/communication and,
for preschool, literacy)
3. Use of appropriate behaviors to meet their
needs
1. Utilize
on-going,
authentic
assessment
practices.
The Birth to 6 Child Outcome System
2.
Determine
status ratings
at entry and
exit
3. Provide
this
information
to the state.
4. The state collects
this data and
reports to OSEP:
percentages of
children meeting
measurement for
the indicator
5. The state
determines goals
and
improvement
activities.
COSF
Social Emotional
Acquiring knowledge and skills
Actions to meet needs
State Assessment Requirements
Wisconsin - PALS required twice a year for
K4, K5 and Grade 1
Local Assessment Requirements
Milwaukee -
Measures of Academic Progress (MAPS) is
required for K 4 and higher
CHALLENGES
Teachers are overwhelmed
Administrators are overwhelmed
Parents are overwhelmed
Quality of data collected is compromised
Use of data collected is comprised
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WHAT IS REQUIRED IN YOUR
STATE/PROGRAM?
Take a little time to identify the
requirements for your
state/program
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SOLUTIONS?
Collaboration between federal agencies:
U.S. Dept of Education and U.S. Dept. of
Health and Human Services
collaborations”
Birth to Five: Watch Me thrive
RTT/ELC
Preschool For All
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SOLUTIONS?
Communication between state
agencies:
Wisconsin Collaborating Partners
www.collaboratingpartners.com
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SOLUTIONS?
Collaboration between local programs
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SOLUTIONS?
Ongoing professional development
Is there a system of support in place for
teachers, staff and data managers?
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ASSESSMENT FOR ALL CHILDREN
Why, What and How
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WHY
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“WHY” IS A VERY IMPORTANT QUESTION!
“If I knew what you were going to
use the information for, I would
have done a better job of
collecting it”
Data Dialogues - Clayton Early Learning
Denver, CO
www.claytonearlylearning.org/
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WHAT
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Newly Revised!
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What to Assess
IEP/IFSP
Goals
Curriculum
Goals
State Early Learning Foundations
Head Start Child Development
and
Early Learning Framework
Head Start Resources: Curriculum and
Assessment
• Curriculum, Assessment and the Head Start Framework: An Alignment
Review Tool
http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/teaching/docs/Alignment-Guide.pdf
• Choosing a Preschool Curriculum
http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/teaching/docs/preschoolcurriculum.pdf
• School Readiness Goals for Infants and Toddlers in Head Start and Early
Head Start Programs: Examples from the Early Head Start National
Resource Center
http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/ehsnrc/Early%20Head%20Start/earlylearning/curriculum/school-readiness-goals-infants-toddlers.pdf
HOW?
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1) Selecting an appropriate tool
2) Assessing children with disabilities
3) Assessing children who are dual
language learners
4) Using assessment to inform teaching
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SELECTING ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS
What is the purpose of assessment?
What needs to be assessed?
developmental and academic
content?
What is the preferred format?
Direct assessment, observation
(authentic) or interview?
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FORMAT
• Direct assessment – adult administered
instrument
• Authentic assessment through
observation and documentation used to
rate an instrument
• Gathering information from families or
other service providers used to rate an
instrument
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SELECTING ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS
Is the instrument technically adequate?
reliability
validity
Is the data provided appropriate useful
and easy to obtain?
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SELECTING ASSESSMENT
INSTRUMENTS
Is there a system of support in
place for teachers and staff?
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RESOURCES: ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS
• Understanding and Choosing Assessments and
Developmental Screeners for Young Children
Ages 3-5: Profiles of Selected Measures
• http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/hs/dev_s
creeners/reports/screeners_final.pdf
• Resources for Measuring Services & Outcomes in
Head Start Programs Serving Infants & Toddlers
http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/opre/ehs/perf_
measures/reports/resources_measuring/res_meas_ti
tle.html
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SELECTING ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS
Is the instrument appropriate for
assessing children with disabilities?
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CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
DRDP INSTRUMENTS
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ONE DRDP INSTRUMENT – DRDP (2015)
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MEASURES AT-A-GLANCE
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The Measures
Developmental
Domain
Measure
Definition
Developmental
Level
Descriptor
Example
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THE DRDP INCORPORATES NATURALISTIC
OBSERVATION
1. Observe the child interacting with
familiar people
2. Observe in familiar settings, such as
the home, classroom, and child care
3. Observe the child in context of
typical daily routines and activities
4. Look for consistent behavior over
time
5. Objectively describe only what you
actually see and hear
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UNIVERSAL DESIGN
“Assessment tools should be constructed
and selected for use in accordance with
principles of universal design so they will be
accessible to, valid, and appropriate for the
greatest possible number of children.
Children with disabilities may still need
accommodations, but this need should be
minimized” (p. 8)
(National Research Council, 2008)
UNIVERSAL DESIGN
Inclusive population during development
Construct irrelevance
Bias – Differential Item Functioning
Clear instructions
Accommodations
National Center on Educational Outcomes
www.cehd.umn.edu/NCEO
WHAT ARE ADAPTATIONS?
Adaptations are changes in the environment or
differences in observed behavior that allow
children with IFSPs and IEPs to be accurately
assessed in their typical settings
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WHY USE ADAPTATIONS?
To ensure that the
DRDP instruments
measure ability,
rather than disability
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ADAPTATIONS ARE PRESENT
THROUGHOUT THE CHILD’S DAY
Adaptations used for the DRDP
access are those typically present
throughout the child’s day
Make sure any equipment that the
child uses everyday is in place and in
good working order
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DRDP ACCESS ADAPTATIONS
1. Augmentative or alternative communication system
2. Alternative mode for written language
3. Visual support
4. Assistive equipment or device
5. Functional positioning
6. Sensory support
7. Alternative response mode
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SELECTING ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS
Is the instrument useful for assessing
children who are dual language
learners?
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RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
OF DUAL LANGUAGE LEARNERS
1. Assess each child who is DLL in
receptive language and expressive
language in both English and in the
home language.
2. For assessment of the domain areas
that are not language, the child
can demonstrate competencies in
either English or the home
language.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
OF DUAL LANGUAGE LEARNERS
3. If no adults speak the child’s home
language, find a qualified interpreter.
4. Select appropriate assessment tools.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR ASSESSMENT
OF DUAL LANGUAGE LEARNERS
5. Gather information from families about
the child’s language environment, skills
and progress in language and in all
domain areas.
Gathering and Using Language Information
that Families Share
https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/ttasystem/culturallinguistic/docs/dll_background_info.pdf
USING ASSESSMENT INFORMATION
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THE ASSESSMENT-INSTRUCTIONAL CYCLE
(FROM LFA)
Observation
Instruction
Documentation
Interpretation - Hypothesis
Setting
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Using Data
Evaluate Child Progress
To inform teaching of individual
children
Ongoing - as part of teaching
Evaluate Program Progress
To improve the program
Aggregate and analyze three times a
year
Monitor child progress across
domains of the HS Early Learning
Foundations
Review in relation to SR goals and SR
plan at least yearly
To share with families and with
specialists
Share with families and community
CHILD STATUS REPORT
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CHILD PROGRESS REPORT
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AGE REFERENCE STATUS REPORT
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TS GOLD Performance in 2010-11
Performance of 3-year olds in Preschool Rooms By Time
•
•
184 of 744 3-year olds attended at least 160 days
3-year olds who attended at least 160 days experienced 2-4 percentage points more
growth in Social Emotional, Cognitive, Literacy, and Math
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RESOURCES: ASSESSMENT
•
Academy for Educational Development 2006 Introduction Data Analysis
Handbook
http://ece.aed.org/publications/mshs/dataanalysis/WebDataAnalysis.pdf
• Assessing Child Outcomes
http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/tta-system/teaching/eecd/assessment
National Center on Quality Teaching and Learning
15 minute in-service suites
https://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/ttasystem/teaching/center/practice/ISS/ISS-library-T.html
•
• Learning From Assessment Toolkit
http://eclkc.ohs.acf.hhs.gov/hslc/ttasystem/teaching/eecd/Assessment/Ongoing%20Assessment/lfa.html
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THANK YOU!

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