Mandated Reporting: Child Abuse and Neglect

Report
Mandated Reporting:
Child Abuse and Neglect
What is a Mandated Reporter?
 A mandated reporter is anyone
who, by law, must report suspected
child abuse or neglect.
 All fifty states and Puerto Rico have
a law regarding mandated reporters
Who is a Mandated Reporter?
 Audiologist
 Physician Assistant
 Dentist
 Physician
 Clergy
 Psychologist
 Law Enforcement Officer
 Regulated Child Care
 Licensed Counselor
 Licensed Emergency
Medical Care Provider
 Marriage and Family
Therapist
 Medical examiner
 Nurse




Provider
Registered Dental
Hygienist
School Administrator
School Counselor or
Teacher
Social Work Technician
Is There a Need for Mandated
Reporters?
According to Child
Maltreatment 2007
▫ approximately
794,000 children were
found to be victims of
child abuse or neglect
in Federal fiscal year
2007.
▫ The maltreatment rate
was 10.6 per 1,000
children in the
population in 2007.
• According to The
Administration for
Children and Families
(ACF), in 2002,
Michigan’s referral rate
was 47.9%
• Michigan ranks 12th in
the nation
• Montana has the highest
referral rate of 78.1%
• Pennsylvania has the
lowest referral rate of
12.8%
Resources:
http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/pubs/cm02/table2_5.htm
http://www.childwelfare.gov/can/prevalence/stats.cfm
The Need for Mandated
Reporters in Michigan
• In 2007, 123, 149 referrals were made
to Child Protective Services
• Of these cases, 67,756 (55%) were
investigated
• 26% of the investigated cases
confirmed child abuse or neglect
Resource: http://michigan.gov/documents/dhs/DHS-Legislative-Sec514-PA1312007-CPS_227770_7.pdf
United States, Michigan and City of Detroit:
Substantiated Child Abuse/Maltreatment Cases (2001 – 2006)
Rate per 1,000 Children
20
16.7
15
14.0
13.7
12.2
11.2
12
11.1
12.1
13.9
12.1
11
9.8
10
5
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
US
Michigan
Detroit
*Number of substantiated reports of abuse/maltreatment per 1,000 children
Resource: http://www.acf.hhs.gov/
What is Child Abuse?
The Child and Family Resource Council defines
child abuse/maltreatment as
a non-accidental injury to a child which,
regardless of motive, is inflicted or allowed to
be inflicted by the person responsible for the
child's care. Maltreatment includes, but is not
limited to, malnutrition, sexual molestation,
deprivation of necessities, emotional
maltreatment, or cruel punishment.
Types of Child Abuse
•
•
•
•
Neglect
Physical Abuse
Emotional Abuse
Sexual Abuse





Unattended medical needs
Consistent lack of supervision
Consistent hunger, inappropriate dress, poor
hygiene
Distended stomach, emaciated
Significant weight change










Adult/human bite marks, missing clumps of
hair
Unexplained bruises, welts, loop
marks
Unexplained burns
Unexplained fractures, skin lacerations,
punctures or abrasions.
Swollen lips/chipped teeth.
Linear/parallel marks on cheeks and temple
area.
Crescent-shaped bruising.
Puncture wounds.
Bruising behind the ears.
Head injuries










Eating disorders
Failure to thrive
Hyperactive/disruptive behavior
Lags in physical development
Shallow, empty facial appearance
Sleep disturbances and/or nightmares
Speech disorders
Fear or anxiety of certain people or places
Unrealistic fears
Depression






Pain, itching, bruising or bleeding in genital
area
Venereal disease
Frequent urinary or yeast infection
Massive weight change
Pregnancy under 12 years of age
Bed wetting

Do not interview child this may interfere with
possible prosecution
Why Must I File a Report?
 It’s the LAW!
 Act 238 went into effect on October 1, 1975
 The law states:
 Those who have “reasonable cause to suspect child abuse
or neglect shall make immediately…an oral report.”

Within 72 hours after making the oral report, the
reporting person shall file a written report.
 MOST importantly, you may be saving a child’s
life!
How Do I File a Report?
 First, file an ORAL REPORT



Telephone complaint to CPS immediately.
CPS contact numbers can be accessed at
www.michigan.gov/dhs/ under county offices.
You may also locate the telephone number to your local CPS
office in the government page of your phone book under
Department of Human Services.
In Wayne County, call 1-800-716-2234
Filing a Written Report
Submit completed DHS-3200 form within 72 hours (includes weekends and
holidays).
•
The DHS-3200 can be accessed at
www.michigan.gov/documents/fia3200_11924_7.pdf
•
Attempt to provide the following information:
– Alleged victim’s full name, birth date, and race
– Alleged perpetrator’s full name and relationship to alleged victim (if
known)
– Child’s current address
– Context of the disclosure (for example, was the child asked about the
injury or did they volunteer the information?)
– Current address and the address where the alleged incident happened (if
different)
– If the alleged perpetrator lives with the child
– Why you think the child is being maltreated
The Written Report
WHAT HAPPENS NEXT?
1. Intake worker receives report
2. CPS will determine whether to open case for investigation
3. CPS will begin investigation
4. CPS will assess the risk of harm or threat of harm to child
and, based on the assessment, will take certain actions
5. CPS will talk to parents, family members, and perhaps
teachers to gather information
6. CPS will make decision regarding action to take

May not be able to take any action if report is
anonymous or cannot find perpetrator

Recommend community services like counseling or
parent education classes

If significant risk, may put the child in safe place

In most serious situations, the child will be placed in
foster care and eventually moved to another
permanent home, but this is only after a lot of time
and effort are put into getting parents help and
trying to give the parents every possible chance to
positively care for the child.
HOW DOES CPS CLASSIFY ALLEGED
CASES?
Child Protective Services categorizes cases into
five levels
 These levels address reports and provide
directives for future action

EXPLANATION OF CPS LEVELS
 Category
5

No services
recommended.

Following a field
investigation,
CPS determines
that there is no
evidence of child
abuse/neglect
 Category
4

Community
services
recommended.

Though child
abuse and neglect
is not confirmed,
community
services are
recommended.
EXPLANATION OF CPS LEVELS CONT.

Category 3
 Community services
are needed to alleviate
further risk of harm to
the child.

Preponderance of
evidence supports that
child abuse or neglect
occurred. The
structured decision
making (SDM) risk
assessment suggests
low or moderate risk
of future harm to the
child.

Category 2
 Services are required
to maintain child
safety in the
caretaker’s home.

Preponderance of
evidence supports that
child abuse or neglect
occurred. The SDM
tool indicates high or
intensive risk of
future harm to the
child.
EXPLANATION OF CPS LEVELS CONT.
Category
 Court
1
petition is filed.
 Preponderance
of evidence was
found that child abuse or neglect
occurred and the law requires a
court petition, court ordered
services are needed to keep a child
safe in their parent’s home, or a
child is unsafe in the caretaker’s
home
Commonly Asked Questions
• How many children die each year
due to abuse or neglect?
According to Child Maltreatment
2007, an estimated 1,760 children
died as a result of abuse or neglect in
2007.
• Is reporting anonymous?
The identity of a reporting
person is confidential under the
Child Protection Law. The
identity of a reporting person is
subject to disclosure only with
the consent of that person, by
judicial process or to those
listed under Section 5 of the
Child Protection Law
•
At what age can a child legally be
left alone? What is the legal age at
which a child can be left alone?
State child abuse and neglect
reporting laws do not specify the
age at which a child can be left
home alone. No consistent
community standards exist
describing when and under what
circumstances children can be left
alone or in the care of other
children.
Resources: http://faq.acf.hhs.gov
www.childwalfare.gov
http://www.michigan.gov/dhs/0,160
7,7-124-5452_7119_44443-157836-,00.html
Any Questions?

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