Referencing - University of Central Lancashire

Report
WISER
1
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What is referencing all about? See slide 5-7
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The components of referencing See slide 8
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In-text citation (referencing) See slide 9-11
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The reference list See slide 12 -15
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Style variations within Harvard See slide 16
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FAQs (see following 2 slides for details)
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Further help See slide 34
2
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1) What do I do if I cannot find the date of a
publication? See slide 19
2) When do I need to put page numbers in an intext citation? See slide 20
3) How do I give an in-text citation for a
webpage? See slide 21
4) Do I need to put all the authors’ names or can
I use ‘et al’? See slide 22
5) Should I use single or double speech marks
around a quote? See slide 23
6) What’s the difference between a bibliography
and a reference list? See slide 24
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7) What do I do if the work I am referencing is
not in English? See slide 25
8) Should I put the author’s first name (personal
name) in the reference list? See slide 26
9) What if I got the reference from another book,
not one I read myself? See slide 27-28
10) I have seen references which have a) and b)
in. What is that for? See slide 29
11) I have heard about bibliographic software.
What is that? See slide 30
12) I’ve seen Latin terms used in referencing e.g.
et al, op cit and ibid. What do they mean? See
slide 31
4
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Find an academic text (a book or article). Look
at a few pages of it.
Identify which are the author’s own words and
which are from other sources.
How do you know?
What is the proportion of author’s words to
ideas from other cited authors?
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The aim of a piece of academic writing is to
demonstrate your knowledge and ideas.
To do this you construct an argument on a
given topic.
To make your argument strong, you need to
supply evidence. This can consist of your own
research or the work of other authors.
Your ideas are central and the other authors
are there merely to support you.
It must be clear in your work what is your
‘voice’ and what is the ‘voice’ of the other
authors.
Referencing is the chief means of doing that.
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Look again at the book or article.
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How do you recognise what is a) paraphrased
and what is b) quoted, from other sources?
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What information is provided in the text about
the references used?
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Look at the list of references at the end of the
piece of work.
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
How does this relate to the pages which you looked at?
What information is included?
Are the same details given for each entry?
How do they differ?
Why?
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Note: there are
other referencing
systems e.g.
numbering,
footnoting, MLA,
OSCLA. Harvard is
very common.
Harvard Referencing
(aka Name & Date)
In-text
citations
Quotations
Reference
list
Paraphrasing
The rest of this
material relates to
Harvard Referencing
conventions.
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It is a short indicator of the source of the
material the author has drawn on to back up
arguments.
Full details are available in the reference list.
It consists of author surname + year of
publication e.g. (Pringle 1996).
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The author surname and the year of publication
must both be included. Round brackets are used
e.g. (Bloggs 2011).
Whether the author sits within the brackets or not
depends on whether the name constitutes part of
your sentence. e.g.
◦ Bloggs has reported higher than usual levels of
.... (2011).
◦ Higher than usual levels of .... have been reported
(Bloggs 2011).
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Page numbers are also required if you have used a
direct quote.
◦ Dibden has claimed that ‘universal truth is a mere chimera’
(2009:23).
Page numbers are not needed if you paraphrased.
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Note: the full stop sits after the final bracket.
See Style Variation (slide 16) for different ways to
indicate the page numbers.
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The reference list provides full details of all the
references you drew on.
The purpose is for another reader to be able to
track down those works, from the details you
have provided.
Different types of source will require different
details to be included. Look at the handout which
is available with this powerpoint. (Also see
various referencing guidelines on the WISER
website www.uclan.ac.uk/wiser )
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In alphabetical order (by 1st author
surname)?
Are all necessary details included for each
type of source?
Is the title (of book or journal) in italics (or
underlined or bold)?
Is there consistent use of capital letters and
punctuation?
Author initials or personal names? (not
generally both)
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Atkinson, J. and Meager, N. (1986) Changing patterns of
work – how companies introduce flexibility to meet new
ends. Brighton: IMS/OECD.
J. Atkinson, (1984) Manpower strategies for the flexible
firm. Personal Management, August.
Drucker, P.F. (1988), The coming of the new organisation.
Harvard Business Review, January-February, 45-53.
Geary, J. Employment flexibility and human resource
management. Work, Employment and Society, Vol. 6, No
2, 251-70.
Minzberg, H. Designing Organisations. Prentice Hall.
Kanter, R.M. (1989), 'When giants learn to dance'. New
York: Simon and Schuster.
Dr Scott Lash and Professor John Urry. (1987), The End of
Organized Capitalism. Cambridge and Oxford: Polity and
Blackwell.
In
alphabetical
order?
Initials or
names? (not
both)
Is the title
(of book or
journal) in
italics?
Consistent
use of
capital
letters and
punctuation
?
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Atkinson, J. and Meager, N. (1986) Changing patterns of work
– how companies introduce flexibility to meet new ends.
Brighton: IMS/OECD.
Atkinson, J. (1984) Manpower strategies for the flexible firm.
Personal Management, Vol 54, No 2, 22-34
Drucker, P.F. (1988), The coming of the new organisation.
Harvard Business Review, January-February, 45-53.
Geary, J. (year ??) Employment flexibility and human resource
management. Work, Employment and Society, Vol. 6, No 2,
pages ??
Kanter, R.M. (1989) When giants learn to dance. New York:
Simon and Schuster.
Lash, S. and Urry, J. (1987), The end of organized capitalism.
Cambridge and Oxford: Polity and Blackwell.
Minzberg, H. (year ??) Designing Organisations. Location?? :
Prentice Hall.
 Note: now in alphabetical order
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Page numbers in in-text citations e.g.
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Punctuation
◦ (2001p23) or (2001: 23)
◦ (2002 pp 23-27) or (2003:23-27)
◦ In-text citations: e.g. (2001 p23)
◦ In the reference list: e.g.
(2001, p23)
 James, M. & Jones, C.
 James M & Jones C
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Reference list
◦ Titles (of books and articles) can be in italics, underlined
or bold.
Check whether you have been issued with style guidelines
If in doubt, at least BE CONSISTENT
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1) What do I do if I cannot find the date of a
publication? See slide 19
2) When do I need to put page numbers in an intext citation? See slide 20
3) How do I give an in-text citation for a
webpage? See slide 21
4) Do I need to put all the authors’ names or can
I use ‘et al’? See slide 22
5) Should I use single or double speech marks
around a quote? See slide 23
6) What’s the difference between a bibliography
and a reference list? See slide 24
17






7) What do I do if the work I am referencing is
not in English? See slide 25
8) Should I put the author’s first name (personal
name) in the reference list? See slide 26
9) What if I got the reference from another book,
not one I read myself? See slide 27-28
10) I have seen references which have a) and b)
in. What is that for? See slide 29
11) I have heard about bibliographic software.
What is that? See slide 30
12) I’ve seen Latin terms used in referencing e.g.
et al, op cit and ibid. What do they mean? See
slide 31
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First look carefully at the source you intend to
use. If there is no date is this an indication
that it is not authoritative enough to be
drawing on as support for your argument.
Internet sources are used more and more,
and the date is often not clear. While you
should consider the point above, if you
decide it is indeed a good source but you
cannot find the date, you can use n.d. instead
(= no date)
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Include page numbers when you have used a
direct quote. There is no need to use them
when you have simply paraphrased.
(See slide 20 for the format of page numbers
in an in-text citation)
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Advice often used to be to insert the URL (i.e. the
web address) but as many are long and complex
this is not compliant with the concept of the intext citation being a brief ‘marker’ to indicate the
source, full details of which can be found in the
reference list.
It is best to decide if there is available the name
of a) the author or b) the organisation who
produced this site/ webpage. If so, use that plus
year e.g (WHO 2010). See FAQ1 (slide 19) if you
cannot find a publication date.
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There are some different usages in different
fields. In general, use first author surname + et
al in the in-text citations e.g (Desmond et al
2001). Then list ALL the authors in the reference
list.
In some subjects all authors are required on first
mention in the text. After that, et al can be used.
Check any style guidelines you have been given
to see if this is required. Note, the format above
is more common.
See slide 31 on use of Latin terms.
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It doesn’t matter but be consistent
throughout your essay.
It seems double speech marks are used more
in American style academic writing, and
British style tends to use single.
You may occasionally find you need to use
both types if there is a quote already in the
text you wish to quote.
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They are often used synonymously (i.e. meaning
exactly the same thing).
A reference list (or simply ‘References’) includes ALL
sources you have cited in your essay. There should be
an exact match i.e. do not include anything which
does not have a corresponding in-text citations, and
equally ensure all your in-text citations are listed.
In some fields however you need to supply a
bibliography. This is a list of sources which you drew
on significantly to produce the essay, but have not
actually cited. If this is required, note, you will also
need to supply a reference list.
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There does not seem to be much consistency
about this point.
I would put the original and a translation in
brackets.
If the original language does not use Roman
script (what English and most European
languages are written in), then list the reference
using the English translation, and then note in
brackets what language the original was in
e.g.(original version in Chinese).
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In general only initials are used.
The full first name is not needed to be able to
find a source in a library or on the internet using
the details given in a reference list, so they are
not needed.
A reference list looks neater and demonstrates a
systematic approach if it has a consistent layout.
It is easier to include only initials, unless you
have noted down full names of authors for
everything you have read.
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This is called ‘secondary citation’. You need to
give the references for both sources.
For example, if you read about the work of
Bloggs (1999) in a book written by Smith (2003)
you would put something like:
◦ .. as Bloggs made clear, we should not fail to make clear
the role of the poor in ... (1999, cited in Smith 2003).
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Some styles break up the two references with
brackets, as follows:
◦ .. as Bloggs (1999), cited in (Smith 2003) made clear, we
should not fail to make clear the role of the poor in ...
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Continued on next slide
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This is how it would look if the author name was
not part of the sentence (see slide 10):
◦ .. we should not fail to make clear the role of the poor in
... (Bloggs 1999, cited in Smith 2003).
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In the style which breaks up the two references, it
would be as follows:
◦ .. we should not fail to make clear the role of the poor
in ... (Bloggs1999) cited in (Smith 2003).
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Check any style guidelines you have been given.
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If you have used two sources which are by the same
author, both published in the same year, then the intext citations would look exactly the same, and it
would not be clear which source you were referring
to. Therefore, add a) to one and add b) to the other.
e.g. Bla bla bla bla Jones (2001a). Bla bla bla bla bla
bla bla bla bla bla bla bla (Jones 200b) bla bla bla
bla.
References:
Jones (2001a) The concept of self, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge
Jones (2001b) The consciousness of mind, Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge
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Programmes are available which help you
keep track of all the material you read for
your studies and can then insert your in-text
references and a reference list in the correct
format.
Endnote is one of the most well known
programmes. See LIS (library services) for
more help with using this. If you intend to
continue work in academia, it is highly
recommended to use such software.
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et al
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ibid
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op cit
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and others. Use this
when the work is by
more than 2 authors.
as per the previous
reference
as per the previous
reference to this author
See next slide
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Examples:
◦ As Johnson et al state, there is no evidence that ....
(2002).
◦ There is no evidence that .... (Johnson et al 2002).
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Note the verb form: Johnson et al state (=
they state).
et al is widely used. Ibid and op cit are now
generally less used.
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Make sure you reference any material you
use.
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Be consistent in the format!
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Remember this guide to referencing is not
exhaustive so consult other referencing
guides (e.g. on the WISER website
www.uclan.ac.uk/wiser) or get in touch if you
have further queries (see next slide for
contact details).
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Any feedback on the usefulness (or
otherwise) of this material would be warmly
welcomed.
Please contact me:
Tania Horák
[email protected] or
Ext 3055
(01772 893055)
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