manifest destiny and war

Report
MANIFEST DESTINY AND
THE ROAD TO WAR
1840-1860
Chapter 10
Manifest Destiny
• While sectional tensions were rising during the 1840s, a place where
most Americans could agree was on the idea of Expansionism- That
God had chosen America to control the Western Hemisphere .
Really started with Indian removal- that focused the drive west. Our
size and growth (pop doubles every 20 years) seemed to make it
obvious- and this was one area Whigs and Democrats alike could
support.
• John O’Sullivan coined phrase “manifest destiny”- that we would
stretch “Sea to Sea”
• Yet expansion only exacerbated the tensions, as new territory
gained became yet another place to argue over- esp in regards to
expansion (or not) of slavery
Alexis de Tocqueville
Frederick Jackson
Turner
• French traveler and
• Wrote The Significance of
admirer of US, wrote
the Frontier in American
Democracy in America
History (1893). Said the
(1835). Said individualism west is what forged
and equality
America’s character- we
characterized American
were forged by
life- that democracy
conquering the
came from the frontier
continent.
The Mormon Trail
• “Mormon” is the unofficial name for the members of the
Church of Jesus Christ of Later Day Saints.
• Founded by Joseph Smith in NY (believed he had been given a
message from God, and a new testament from the angel
Moroni)
• Criticized for changing established Christian beliefs, and for
their practice of polygamy.
• Driven west (Smith killed) led by Brigham Young- to Salt Lake
City Utah where they founded a “Community of Saints” (their
polygamy kept Utah from statehood until 1896 when it was
officially outlawed)
The Push to Oregon and California
• In Adams-Onis treaty (1819) England and US had gotten
Spain/Russia to give up claims- and agreed to share territory.
(loosely set at Columbia River)
• “Oregon Fever” began in 1843 when land speculator John
Jacob Astor widely circulated pamphlets about quality of land
to be had there. By 1860 350,000 Americans had traveled the
Oregon Trail (2000 miles- 6 month journey, average of 10
deaths per mile)
• California Trail: Originally less popular (cross desert etc)…until
gold discovered 1849
The Lone Star Republic
• Mexico won independence in 1821- and controlled huge
territory
• Also in 1821- the new gov’t of Mexico sold a large land grant
(18,000 acres)to Stephen Austin. By 1835, Austin had
organized and sold that land to 27,000 American settlers- who
had come to TX with about 3000 slaves to farm cotton.
• Mexico was worried so many people were coming- and that
they were protestant Americans with no thought of changing
culture- Austin wanted autonomy, and eventually
independence.
• Issue got stickier when Mexico abolished slavery- and Texans
had no intention of complying.
The Alamo
• Pres. Of Mexico sends General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to
force Texans to follow the law. Lay siege to the ALAMO (a mission
in San Antonio) March 6 1836, Santa Anna attacks and kills 187
Texans (including Davie Crocket and Jim Bowie) “Remember the
Alamo” become the Texan’s war cry.
• March 2nd Texas had declared itself and independent nation- and
April 21 Sam Houston led Texans to victory at Battle of San Jacinto
where Santa Anna was taken prisoner and forced to recognize
Texan Independence. When he got home- Santa Anna (and Mexico)
repudiated the treaty
• Issue tricky for US- the Texans were Americans, but support could
bring war with Mexico. Furthermore, if Texas joined US, it would be
a slave state
Expansionism and the Election of 1844
• John Tyler had taken presidency in 1841 Wm H
Harrison died. Tyler was a strange Whig president- he
had been a Democrat until Nullification, and he still
disliked Tariffs, (Whigs support manufacturing)
Internal improvements (ditto) and vetoed legislation
to reform the Bank of US (that’s 3). Ejected from his
party- Whigs decline to run him in 1844
• But main issue of the 1840s is expansion- which
makes presidential campaign far more about foreign
policy than domestic
Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Abraham Lincoln
Franklin Roosevelt
George Washington
Theodore Roosevelt
Harry Truman
John Kennedy
Thomas Jefferson
Dwight Eisenhower
Woodrow Wilson
Ronald Reagan
Lyndon Johnson
James Polk
Andrew Jackson
James Monroe
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Bill Clinton
William McKinley
John Adams
George H.W. Bush
John Quincy Adams
James Madison
Grover Cleveland
Gerald Ford
Ulysses Grant
William Taft
Jimmy Carter
Calvin Coolidge
Richard Nixon
James Garfield
29. Zachary Taylor
30. Benjamin Harrison
31. Martin Van Buren
32. Chester Arthur
33. Rutherford Hayes
34. Herbert Hoover
35. John Tyler
36. George W. Bush
37. Millard Fillmore
38. Warren Harding
39. William Harrison
40. Franklin Pierce
41. Andrew Johnson
42. James Buchanan
Aroostook War
Webster Ashburton Treaty
• 1838 there was a border
dispute between Canadian
lumberjacks and Maine
settlers. Lots of posing, no
bloodshed- but both sides
pulled out their militias, and
war certainly seemed
possible
• 1842 Compromise- split
disputed territory. (US got
more land, Canada got
logging route they wanted)
Also settled a disputed bit of
upper Minnesota.
Improvement in US-British
relations
Election of 1844
• An expression of Manifest Destiny- Texas and Oregon were
the central issues in the campaign. (would enter union with
balance of slave/free)
• Henry Clay whig candidate – waffles on Texas (costs him
presidency)
• Martin Van Buren expected democratic candidate, but
couldn’t muster support- so Democrats nominate “dark
horse” candidate James k Polk. (a protégé of Jackson’s- some
historians call him the only other Jacksonian Democrat.
“Young Hickory”)
• Polk wins 170-105- seen as a mandate for annexation…but
Tyler steals Polk’s thunder by annexing before he left office
4 point program
• Polk’s platform- all of which he achieved in less than 4 years…
• Lower Tariff from 32%-25% (Walker Tariff- which still makes
good $$ b/c it happens to be a boom cycle economically)
• Restore independent treasury system – 1846
• Acquire California
• Settle Oregon Dispute
Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Abraham Lincoln
Franklin Roosevelt
George Washington
Theodore Roosevelt
Harry Truman
John Kennedy
Thomas Jefferson
Dwight Eisenhower
Woodrow Wilson
Ronald Reagan
Lyndon Johnson
James Polk
Andrew Jackson
James Monroe
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Bill Clinton
William McKinley
John Adams
George H.W. Bush
John Quincy Adams
James Madison
Grover Cleveland
Gerald Ford
Ulysses Grant
William Taft
Jimmy Carter
Calvin Coolidge
Richard Nixon
James Garfield
29. Zachary Taylor
30. Benjamin Harrison
31. Martin Van Buren
32. Chester Arthur
33. Rutherford Hayes
34. Herbert Hoover
35. John Tyler
36. George W. Bush
37. Millard Fillmore
38. Warren Harding
39. William Harrison
40. Franklin Pierce
41. Andrew Johnson
42. James Buchanan
Polk and Oregon Territory
• One of the campaign slogans had been “54’40 or fight”- but
with Texas joining the union in 1845- keeping balance was
more important, so compromise in Oregon became attractive
• Settled along 49 th parallel
• Knew treaty would be unpopularso he didn’t spearhead it himself,
passed it to Senate for negotiation.
• Oregon becomes state 1846- yet
still source of sectional tension b/c
south got “all” of Texas, but north
didn’t get “all” of Oregon
The Mexican War 1846-48
• Mexico did not appreciate US annexation (Cut
diplomatic relations)….and US isn’t done with
territory…they’d really like New Mexico and
California too.
• Boundary dispute: US says Texas territory goes to Rio Grande,
Mexico says it stops at Nueces river. Polk wants to negotiate
boundary- and try to buy CA for $30 million- Mexican officials
won’t even meet- and Mexican army attacks US troops
patrolling disputed area. (btw- Polk sent army there to
provoke attack)
• Polk asks congress for Dec. of War- controversial. Whigs not
sure about land claims…North fears this is to expand slavery
Fighting the War
• 1st time we have fought (in a big way) on “Foreign” soilchanges the game.
• 2 prong attack:
• California: wants to be a part of US, declares themselves
independent of Mexico (Bear Flag Republic) Capt John C
Fremont and Stephen Kearny arrive with US army to defend
against Mexican forces (took New Mexico for good measure
• Mexico: Largest amount of fighting took place. Feb 1847
Zachary Taylor (becomes overnight hero) defeats Santa Anna
at Battle of Buena Vista, but Mex. Gov’t still won’t
negotiate…so Polk sends army to take Mexico city…suddenly
they are willing to talk.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848
• Mexico recognized annexation of Texas (to Rio Grande), and
Ceded territory to US based on successes of Fremont, Kearny,
and Taylor.
• US agreed to pay $15 compensation for land
• Mexican Cession (which, including Texas, is even bigger than
Louisiana Purchase) will eventually create: California, Arizona,
New Mexico, Nevada, Utah - and bits of Colorado and
Wyoming.
Results of the Mexican American War
• Manifest Destiny….if we want it, we should have it. Many
Americans (esp Southerners) wanted to take all of Mexico.
Eventually decide there are too many Mexicans there….
• Training ground for civil war- many officers (from both sides)
get their military experience here. Not bad in terms of
casualties- only 13,000 Americans die, most of those from
disease- we decide fighting isn’t all that hard
• Lots of resentment from Latin America- US starting to be seen
as a bully.
Expansionism and slavery
• We have all this new land…..Yeah….but what “sort” of land
will it be? Slave or Free ?
• In a real sense, victory against Mexico makes the Civil War
inevitable. War had been popular in the South- most of the
acquired territory below Missouri Compromise line, and they
have every reason to think it will be open for slavery….
(though lots wouldn’t have worked- way too dry for cotton)
NOT so popular in New England
(but then neither was manifest
destiny)
Wilmot Proviso
• 1846 David Wilmot (Congressman from PA) proposed that no
slavery be allowed in the Mexican Cession
• Passed in House -where majority of congressmen are from North,
that’s where the population is- but couldn’t pass senate- where
states are even (and VP is southern)
• Southerners are incredibly resentful- John C Calhoun says you can’t
tell settlers where they can take their property…Abolitionists are
excited, and tensions are mounting…parties are dividing along
sectional (rather than ideological) lines
• From this point on – Slavery is attached to EVERY issue- it’s
becoming the elephant in the room
Election of 1848 and Popular Sovereignty
• James K Polk had run in 1844 with a one term pledge, which
he kept.
• Whigs run Zachary Taylor- hero of Mex. War, and Louisiana
slaveholder (though he declared himself neutral on slave
issue)
• Democrats ran Lewis Cass: expansionist,
vague on slavery, who dealt with situation
in a clever way by declaring policy of
“Popular Sovereignty” … the people who
live in the territory should vote and decide
slave or free. Resonated as a possible way
out of sticky messes.
Free Soil Party
• Both the Democrats and Whigs seem to be leaving
the door open for slavery in territories- and there are
a growing number of people who don’t agree.
• Free Soil a 3rd party sectional coalition of Northern
Whigs and Democrats opposed to expansion of slavery. Nominated
Martin Van Buren as President (with Charles Adams, grandson of
John as running mate)
• Rest of platform was internal improvements, and free land for
settlement in the west.
• Foreshadowed Republicans, who will come 6 years later
• Zachary Taylor wins, but Free Soil has respectable total (300,000
votes- though won not state for electoral) which shows increase of
sectionalism
Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Abraham Lincoln
Franklin Roosevelt
George Washington
Theodore Roosevelt
Harry Truman
John Kennedy
Thomas Jefferson
Dwight Eisenhower
Woodrow Wilson
Ronald Reagan
Lyndon Johnson
James Polk
Andrew Jackson
James Monroe
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Bill Clinton
William McKinley
John Adams
George H.W. Bush
John Quincy Adams
James Madison
Grover Cleveland
Gerald Ford
Ulysses Grant
William Taft
Jimmy Carter
Calvin Coolidge
Richard Nixon
James Garfield
29. Zachary Taylor
30. Benjamin Harrison
31. Martin Van Buren
32. Chester Arthur
33. Rutherford Hayes
34. Herbert Hoover
35. John Tyler
36. George W. Bush
37. Millard Fillmore
38. Warren Harding
39. William Harrison
40. Franklin Pierce
41. Andrew Johnson
42. James Buchanan
California Gold Rush
• 1848 Gold found at Sutter’s Mill (outside Sacramento)- when
news got out people began to flood to area from around the
State, and by end of year over $6 million in gold had been
discovered in various areas in California.
• In 1849 over 100,000 people came (either overland or by sea)
to try their luck. Most don’t find gold. Some leave- but
businesses serving the “49ers” made excellent profits - like
Levi Strauss- who made durable work pants for miners.
• “Gold Fever” created chaos and lawlessness
• To get things under control (they need federal support)California drafted a constitution, and applied to congress for
statehood (bypassing territorial phase). Constitution did not
include slavery, which upset South
Compromise of 1850
• Admission of CA causing an uproar (no slave state available
for balance) Henry Clay “the great compromiser” puts
together one more deal
• California enters as free state
• Texas (slave) boundary with New Mexico (will be free) set to
give Texas advantage in land
• Slave trade (not slavery) will be abolished in Washington DC
• A new – tougher- Fugitive Slave law will be enacted
• Rest of Mex. Cession will use popular sovereignty.
• Famous Debate between Henry Clay/Stephen Douglas vs John
C Calhoun (dying of TB). Daniel Webster (also dying) stepped
in and helped swing North to accept the Compromise.
A “Good” Compromise?
• Didn’t really make anyone happy. Zachary Taylor caught between
nationalism and the south, dies- replaced by his VP Millard Fillmore,
who supports more enthusiastically. Stephen Douglas cleverly
introduces sections one at a time- realizing they are more likely to
pass that way. (works)
• North gets the better side of the deal – CA as free state gives them
the majority in Senate. Halt of slave trade in DC a big concession
from gov’t that slavery is a problem.
• Fugitive Slave law is the only the really designed to make south
happy- and it backfires in that if offends many people- and swells
the numbers of abolitionists.
• Again, if South had left in 1850- they would have had a much better
chance of winning. North got 10 more years to expand economically
and gain support for union cause (it is southern actions in Kansas
etc… that really fire them up)
Fugitive Slave Act
• Required citizens to assist in recovery of slaves (you could be
tried as accessory if you did not). Denied blacks right to trial
by jury or to testify in their own defense.
• Made both sides angry- North b/c they were forced to agree
to it (though not many followed it) and South b/c they knew
North was avoiding, and therefore deliberately flouting the
law)
Impact of Slavery
on the Party System
• Becoming very difficult to find a
“national” candidate- if they have
any views they are probably
controversial- so Whigs and
Democrats split along sectional
lines.
• Whigs had never been really
strong anyway- fell apart with
death of Henry Clay and Daniel
Webster
• Democrats in equally bad shapefirmly split N/S
Election of 1852
• Whigs ran General Winfield Scott
(another Mex. War general- the
only times they have won have
been with generals)
• Democrats argued over who to run
– in the end chose Franklin Pierce
who spent a lot of time talking
about maintaining the rights of all
sections- and supporting the
compromise of 1850, including
fugitive slave law
• Pierce SPANKS Scott 254-42
Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Abraham Lincoln
Franklin Roosevelt
George Washington
Theodore Roosevelt
Harry Truman
John Kennedy
Thomas Jefferson
Dwight Eisenhower
Woodrow Wilson
Ronald Reagan
Lyndon Johnson
James Polk
Andrew Jackson
James Monroe
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Bill Clinton
William McKinley
John Adams
George H.W. Bush
John Quincy Adams
James Madison
Grover Cleveland
Gerald Ford
Ulysses Grant
William Taft
Jimmy Carter
Calvin Coolidge
Richard Nixon
James Garfield
29. Zachary Taylor
30. Benjamin Harrison
31. Martin Van Buren
32. Chester Arthur
33. Rutherford Hayes
34. Herbert Hoover
35. John Tyler
36. George W. Bush
37. Millard Fillmore
38. Warren Harding
39. William Harrison
40. Franklin Pierce
41. Andrew Johnson
42. James Buchanan
Gadsden Purchase 1853
• Pierce another expansionist- and wants to begin construction of a
transcontinental railroad (completed 1877) One thought for the
best route (south of rockies) would cross a strip of territory that
belonged to Mexico- who has not been very friendly since the end
of the war.
• But money talks- Pierce offers $10 for Mesilla Valley – and Mexico is
having economic difficulties (this will become a theme) so they sell
• Completes the contiguous US, Last territory added to US other than
Alaska and Hawaii
Japan
• Before 1850 we didn’t deal all that much with Asia- kind of a pain to
get there… but California and Oregon created US states on a new
ocean- facing an new continent on the other side.
• Japanese had been isolationist since 1500s- allowed Dutch 1 ship a
year- no trade for anyone else. 1850 US whaling ships in Pacific had
been detained, sailors not allowed to return home
• 1853 US sent Commodore Matthew Perry (brother of Oliver Perry
from 1812) to open trade with Japan- which he does at gunpoint
• Successful- sparks Meiji restoration and industrialization of Japanturning them into the superpower of the Pacific- and they don’t
forget who forced them to change
Cuba- Ostend Manifesto
• South really wants to buy it- it’s already slave (sugar) territory- they
want to restore political balance.
• Polk had offered Spain $100 million for it- Spain refused. Start to get
tension and standoffs between Spanish and US ships in Caribbean.
• 1854 Spain fired on an American Ship- and people (in south) start
calling for war
• US issued secret communication (ostend manifesto) to Spain,
offering $130 million, and warning if offer not accepted we will take
by force.
• Manifesto leaked to public- and it freaks
the north out so badly government
withdraws from issue
Kansas Nebraska Act and New Parties
• Most important short term cause of the Civil War
• 1854 IL senator Stephen Douglas proposed a bill to create “Kansas”
and “Nebraska” out of Louisiana Purchase territory- (he wants to
see transcontinental RR take a more northern route, and start in his
home state of IL) and that the status of slavery in those territories
should be determined by popular sovereignty.
• Problem is that the territory is above Missouri Compromise line- if
this works it is a repeal of the Missouri Compromise. South is
thrilled…North is freaking out.
• Kansas Nebraska Act passes - but at a
terrible cost. Missouri Comp and Comp
of 1850 are dead, and political parties
dissolve. Whigs shatter entirely,
Democrats split North/South
Republican Party
• Born from the remnants of the Whigs, the Free
Soil Party, and those who oppose the Kansas Nebraska act in
general. Not allowed to exist in the South.
• Item #1- no further expansion of slavery in the territories
(notice not fully abolitionist yet)
• Quickly becomes the 2 nd national party (held majority of
northern Congressional seats in 1854)
• “Know Nothing”, or “American” Party- also formed at this
time. Nativist, angry about the large #s of German and Irish
immigrants who had been arriving since 1840s. Wanted to
prohibit further immigration and create
literacy and citizenship tests for voting.
“Bleeding” Kansas
• Douglas had figured that Kansas would be slave, and
Nebraska free
• But if we are using popular sovereignty, the trick is to have
your group (slave or free soil) be in the majority.
• New England Emigrant Aid- helped 2000 move to Kansas
• 1855 election held for 1 st Kansas legislature- Missourians
poured over border to stack the vote. But free soilers
repudiate and set up their own gov’t- which was attacked by
proslavery groups in 1856
• Overall- more than 200 dead in fighting
that goes from 1856 to start of civil war
Pottawatomie Massacre
• The craziest abolitionist of them all
was John Brown (originally from
Hudson OH) He felt slave holders
weren’t going to change- they needed to be wiped out- it was
God’s work.
• May 24-25th 1856 He and his sons attacked and killed (with
hatchets) a group of 5 men in retaliation for the attack on
Free soil Lawrence Kansas
• Brown escaped authorities- was seen as a hero
to some, a demon to others
Brooks Sumner
• Charles Sumner- an abolitionist Senator from Massachusettsgave a speech in which he denounced the “crimes committed
in Kansas”, condemned south and southerners as a whole,
which didn’t amuse the southern senators.
• Preston Brooks – congressman from South Carolina, gets up
and begins beating him on the head with his metal toped
cane- nearly killing Sumner (he was never quite right again)
• Brooks resigned, but was
overwhelmingly re-electedSouth saw him as a hero
(sent him dozens of canes)
LeCompton Constitution
• Kansas applied for statehood in 1857. Using popular
sovereignty, voters were allowed to vote for 2 version of state
constitution, one with, and one without slavery. However, if
the “no slave” section won, the rights of slaveholders already
there would be protected, so Kansas would be a slave state
no matter what.
• Many “free soilers” refused to vote- so “slave” faction won,
and Kansas petitioned for entry
as a slave state. But it was so
bogus that even the pop. Sov.
Guys like Stephen Douglas
don’t back it- Kansas denied
entry.
Election of 1856
• Dissolution/creation of national parties created a re-alignment of
voters.
• Republicans: their slogan, “free soil, free labor, free men”,
obviously designed for north- but also to appeal to many social
classes. Nominate John C Freemont (another Mexican war hero)
emphatically against expansion of slavery
• Democrats: developing two wings, north and south. Recent events
had made moderates in the South more radical. Northern
Democrats support the idea of popular sovereignty, just keep
ticking along. Nominate James Buchanan of PA, had been sec of
state under Polk.
• Buchanan wins 174-114
• Democrats larger
• Southerners threaten to secede if Fremont elected
• People feared change….Buchanan is promising to not make
changes…..
Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
Abraham Lincoln
Franklin Roosevelt
George Washington
Theodore Roosevelt
Harry Truman
John Kennedy
Thomas Jefferson
Dwight Eisenhower
Woodrow Wilson
Ronald Reagan
Lyndon Johnson
James Polk
Andrew Jackson
James Monroe
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
Bill Clinton
William McKinley
John Adams
George H.W. Bush
John Quincy Adams
James Madison
Grover Cleveland
Gerald Ford
Ulysses Grant
William Taft
Jimmy Carter
Calvin Coolidge
Richard Nixon
James Garfield
29. Zachary Taylor
30. Benjamin Harrison
31. Martin Van Buren
32. Chester Arthur
33. Rutherford Hayes
34. Herbert Hoover
35. John Tyler
36. George W. Bush
37. Millard Fillmore
38. Warren Harding
39. William Harrison
40. Franklin Pierce
41. Andrew Johnson
42. James Buchanan
James Buchannan
• The worst president on the list for the same
reason he was elected, he did nothing to
stop the Armageddon that was coming
• Makes no one happy; he doesn’t like slavery, (alienates south)
but refuses to act (alienates abolitionists) and does nothing to
stand up to those causing issues, like when supporters of
slavery in Kansas use blatant fraud to create their constitution
(alienates north)
• But the final nail is that when the south does decide to secede
he does….nothing (felt he had no legal right) a firm hand
MIGHT have prevented bloodshed
Dred Scott
• 1857, two days after Buchanan took office, the Supreme
Court took the US a giant step closer to war.
• Dred Scott was a slave, whose master moved (with him) to IL for 4 years,
then they went back to Missouri. Backed by abolitionists, Scott sued for
his freedom on the basis of having lived in free territory.
• Chief Justice Roger Taney (Maryland slaveowner) published an
inflammatory ruling:
• Scott could not sue- he was not a citizen, and living in IL did not make him
free
• The Missouri compromise is unconstitutional, an popular sovereignty is
unnecessary, b/c property is property, and no state or territory had the right
to forbid slavery.
• North decides that South is trying to impose their will on US, compromise
is not possible, slavery will have to end for the argument to be over.
Panic of 1857
• Actually less economically intense than either 1819 or 1837,
but more psychologically damaging, we were already on the
edge.
• Caused by too much gold from CA creating inflation,
overproduction of grain, and land speculation.
• Industrial north hardest hit- cotton econ not particularly
damaged.
• Become part of Republican platform:
• Demand for higher tariffs - passed during war
• Demand for free farms (pioneers point out they are risking
their lives to develop land, it should be free) Homestead Act
passed during the war.
Rise of Abraham Lincoln
• Originally a Whig, he was not well known outside
of Illinois before mid-1850s. A lawyer, state
legislator, and had served one term in Congress.
• Strong objection to Kansas Nebraska act brought him back
into politics, as did his disagreement with Stephen Douglas
about the idea of popular sovereignty- Lincoln says the gov’t
needs to take a stand.
• NOT an abolitionist, had no objections (until later) to
Southern states keeping their slaves, but adamantly against
the expansion of slavery
Lincoln Douglas Campaign
• Lincoln challenged Douglas for his Senate seat in 1858.
Famous for quote when nominated “A house divided against
itself cannot stand. I believe the government of this nation
cannot endure permanently half slave and half free”.
Debates
• Challenged Douglas to a series of 7 famous debates that
contrasted not only the two candidates ideology, but their
overall approach.
• Douglas was a great traditional speaker, used lots of big
words, passionate long winded appeals, and clever tricks to
make his point. Lincoln much more down to earth, folksy,
accessible.
• Most famous given included Freeport Doctrine: Lincoln asked
Douglas if he thought slavery COULD be made illegal after
Dred Scott. Douglas said “sort of” they could exclude slavery
by not accepting it.
• Douglas wins narrow victory- but Lincoln gained national
exposure
John Brown at Harper’s Ferry
• After Kansas, John Brown decided what is needed is a literal war
against slavery.
• Raised $$ in North and Canada, Oct 16 th 1859 then led a group of 21
on a raid of the federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry Virginia, where he
intended to steal guns/ammunition, which he intended to use to
create a slave rebellion. (he wants to establish an independent
black nation in the south)
• 7 federal employees killed in attack, 10 wounded- but Brown et al
trapped inside, eventually surrendered to Virginia army captain
Robert E Lee.
• Brown tried/convicted of treason, Hanged on Dec 2 nd . Became
abolitionism martyr - “John Brown’s body lies a mouldering in the
grave, but his sole is marching on”. But though many in the north
disparaged his acts as extreme, many southerners saw his act a
representative of what they could expect if they stayed in the union
Anti-Slavery Literature: Uncle Tom’s Cabin
• Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe (strongly influenced by reform
movement of 2nd great awakening), published in 1852.
• Inspired by the fugitive slave law. Portrayal of the “evils” of slavery,
as the kindly Tom is tormented, and desperate Eliza is forced to flee
or have her child sold away from her. The ultimate abolitionist
propaganda
• Best seller of 1800s, and had more social impact than any novel in
American History. When Lincoln met Stowe in 1862, he supposedly
said “So you’re the little lady who started this big war”.
“Impending Crisis of the South”
• Written by Hinton Helper in 1857 a White non slaveholder
from North Carolina.
• His argument that the people who suffer most from slavery
were the non slave owning whites of the south (b/c they
couldn’t compete economically)
• Used by Republicans in at beginning of war to help keep
border states in the Union
Election of 1860
• When democrats met for nominating Southern delegates (fire
eaters) end up walking out – and party splits. Important b/c
the Democrats had been the last piece of national unity.
• Stephen Douglas nominated by Northern Dems
• Southern Dems nominate John C Breckenridge- a kentucky
moderate (not disunionist)
• A new party jumps up in response to crisis, Constitutional
Union party (whigs & Know nothings), which nominates John
Bell of TN as compromise candidate
• Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln – primarily b/c he
hadn’t been around long enough to make enemies.
• South warns, if Lincoln wins, they are out….
Secession of the Southern States
• South wasn’t kidding about leaving…. They recognized that Lincoln
not only meant an end to the expansion of slavery, but a shift in
power to the north. (no more balance), and the way they see it,
their entire way of life is at stake. Besides, they’re tired of being
criticized etc…
• December 1860 South Carolina votes (in state legislature) to
secede, within 6 weeks, 6 more states: Mississippi, Florida,
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas, follow
• Buchanan does nothing. Said Constitution gave him “no authority”
on this matter (NOW we get a strict constructionist!) and favored
“peaceful resolution of this unpleasant situation”.
• On the other hand, if he had attacked immediately, more of the
border states would have probably left, which would have changed
the war
Confederate States of America
• In February delegates meet in 1 st capital of
Montgomery Alabama (will later move to Richmond VA).
Write a constitution- with firm protection of slavery, and
guarantee of supremacy of state’s rights.
• Jefferson Davis elected President
• Many southerners felt secession would be unopposed- you go
your way, we’ll go ours. Figured north needed southern
cotton too much, and if war came, all southern debts would
be repudiated, which could crash northern econ.
• Firmly believed they had the moral high ground- the original
13 states had made the union voluntarily, now some were
leaving voluntarily- this is the social contract/natural rights all
over again.
Crittenden Amendments
• Last ditch attempt at compromise proposed by James Crittenden of
KY.
• Proposed creating a constitutional amendment to extend Missouri
compromise line to the Pacific which would include any new
territory acquired (Like Cuba)
• Lincoln flatly rejected- says in his inaugural address he has no
problem with the idea of slavery (has to keep the border states!)
but he would not allow states to leave the union, and would do
ANYTHING necessary to get them back.

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