MANIFEST DESTINY AND THE ROAD TO WAR 1840-1860 Chapter 10 Manifest Destiny • While sectional tensions were rising during the 1840s, a place where most Americans could agree was on the idea of Expansionism- That God had chosen America to control the Western Hemisphere . Really started with Indian removal- that focused the drive west. Our size and growth (pop doubles every 20 years) seemed to make it obvious- and this was one area Whigs and Democrats alike could support. • John O’Sullivan coined phrase “manifest destiny”- that we would stretch “Sea to Sea” • Yet expansion only exacerbated the tensions, as new territory gained became yet another place to argue over- esp in regards to expansion (or not) of slavery Alexis de Tocqueville Frederick Jackson Turner • French traveler and • Wrote The Significance of admirer of US, wrote the Frontier in American Democracy in America History (1893). Said the (1835). Said individualism west is what forged and equality America’s character- we characterized American were forged by life- that democracy conquering the came from the frontier continent. The Mormon Trail • “Mormon” is the unofficial name for the members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Later Day Saints. • Founded by Joseph Smith in NY (believed he had been given a message from God, and a new testament from the angel Moroni) • Criticized for changing established Christian beliefs, and for their practice of polygamy. • Driven west (Smith killed) led by Brigham Young- to Salt Lake City Utah where they founded a “Community of Saints” (their polygamy kept Utah from statehood until 1896 when it was officially outlawed) The Push to Oregon and California • In Adams-Onis treaty (1819) England and US had gotten Spain/Russia to give up claims- and agreed to share territory. (loosely set at Columbia River) • “Oregon Fever” began in 1843 when land speculator John Jacob Astor widely circulated pamphlets about quality of land to be had there. By 1860 350,000 Americans had traveled the Oregon Trail (2000 miles- 6 month journey, average of 10 deaths per mile) • California Trail: Originally less popular (cross desert etc)…until gold discovered 1849 The Lone Star Republic • Mexico won independence in 1821- and controlled huge territory • Also in 1821- the new gov’t of Mexico sold a large land grant (18,000 acres)to Stephen Austin. By 1835, Austin had organized and sold that land to 27,000 American settlers- who had come to TX with about 3000 slaves to farm cotton. • Mexico was worried so many people were coming- and that they were protestant Americans with no thought of changing culture- Austin wanted autonomy, and eventually independence. • Issue got stickier when Mexico abolished slavery- and Texans had no intention of complying. The Alamo • Pres. Of Mexico sends General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna to force Texans to follow the law. Lay siege to the ALAMO (a mission in San Antonio) March 6 1836, Santa Anna attacks and kills 187 Texans (including Davie Crocket and Jim Bowie) “Remember the Alamo” become the Texan’s war cry. • March 2nd Texas had declared itself and independent nation- and April 21 Sam Houston led Texans to victory at Battle of San Jacinto where Santa Anna was taken prisoner and forced to recognize Texan Independence. When he got home- Santa Anna (and Mexico) repudiated the treaty • Issue tricky for US- the Texans were Americans, but support could bring war with Mexico. Furthermore, if Texas joined US, it would be a slave state Expansionism and the Election of 1844 • John Tyler had taken presidency in 1841 Wm H Harrison died. Tyler was a strange Whig president- he had been a Democrat until Nullification, and he still disliked Tariffs, (Whigs support manufacturing) Internal improvements (ditto) and vetoed legislation to reform the Bank of US (that’s 3). Ejected from his party- Whigs decline to run him in 1844 • But main issue of the 1840s is expansion- which makes presidential campaign far more about foreign policy than domestic Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Abraham Lincoln Franklin Roosevelt George Washington Theodore Roosevelt Harry Truman John Kennedy Thomas Jefferson Dwight Eisenhower Woodrow Wilson Ronald Reagan Lyndon Johnson James Polk Andrew Jackson James Monroe 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Bill Clinton William McKinley John Adams George H.W. Bush John Quincy Adams James Madison Grover Cleveland Gerald Ford Ulysses Grant William Taft Jimmy Carter Calvin Coolidge Richard Nixon James Garfield 29. Zachary Taylor 30. Benjamin Harrison 31. Martin Van Buren 32. Chester Arthur 33. Rutherford Hayes 34. Herbert Hoover 35. John Tyler 36. George W. Bush 37. Millard Fillmore 38. Warren Harding 39. William Harrison 40. Franklin Pierce 41. Andrew Johnson 42. James Buchanan Aroostook War Webster Ashburton Treaty • 1838 there was a border dispute between Canadian lumberjacks and Maine settlers. Lots of posing, no bloodshed- but both sides pulled out their militias, and war certainly seemed possible • 1842 Compromise- split disputed territory. (US got more land, Canada got logging route they wanted) Also settled a disputed bit of upper Minnesota. Improvement in US-British relations Election of 1844 • An expression of Manifest Destiny- Texas and Oregon were the central issues in the campaign. (would enter union with balance of slave/free) • Henry Clay whig candidate – waffles on Texas (costs him presidency) • Martin Van Buren expected democratic candidate, but couldn’t muster support- so Democrats nominate “dark horse” candidate James k Polk. (a protégé of Jackson’s- some historians call him the only other Jacksonian Democrat. “Young Hickory”) • Polk wins 170-105- seen as a mandate for annexation…but Tyler steals Polk’s thunder by annexing before he left office 4 point program • Polk’s platform- all of which he achieved in less than 4 years… • Lower Tariff from 32%-25% (Walker Tariff- which still makes good $$ b/c it happens to be a boom cycle economically) • Restore independent treasury system – 1846 • Acquire California • Settle Oregon Dispute Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Abraham Lincoln Franklin Roosevelt George Washington Theodore Roosevelt Harry Truman John Kennedy Thomas Jefferson Dwight Eisenhower Woodrow Wilson Ronald Reagan Lyndon Johnson James Polk Andrew Jackson James Monroe 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Bill Clinton William McKinley John Adams George H.W. Bush John Quincy Adams James Madison Grover Cleveland Gerald Ford Ulysses Grant William Taft Jimmy Carter Calvin Coolidge Richard Nixon James Garfield 29. Zachary Taylor 30. Benjamin Harrison 31. Martin Van Buren 32. Chester Arthur 33. Rutherford Hayes 34. Herbert Hoover 35. John Tyler 36. George W. Bush 37. Millard Fillmore 38. Warren Harding 39. William Harrison 40. Franklin Pierce 41. Andrew Johnson 42. James Buchanan Polk and Oregon Territory • One of the campaign slogans had been “54’40 or fight”- but with Texas joining the union in 1845- keeping balance was more important, so compromise in Oregon became attractive • Settled along 49 th parallel • Knew treaty would be unpopularso he didn’t spearhead it himself, passed it to Senate for negotiation. • Oregon becomes state 1846- yet still source of sectional tension b/c south got “all” of Texas, but north didn’t get “all” of Oregon The Mexican War 1846-48 • Mexico did not appreciate US annexation (Cut diplomatic relations)….and US isn’t done with territory…they’d really like New Mexico and California too. • Boundary dispute: US says Texas territory goes to Rio Grande, Mexico says it stops at Nueces river. Polk wants to negotiate boundary- and try to buy CA for $30 million- Mexican officials won’t even meet- and Mexican army attacks US troops patrolling disputed area. (btw- Polk sent army there to provoke attack) • Polk asks congress for Dec. of War- controversial. Whigs not sure about land claims…North fears this is to expand slavery Fighting the War • 1st time we have fought (in a big way) on “Foreign” soilchanges the game. • 2 prong attack: • California: wants to be a part of US, declares themselves independent of Mexico (Bear Flag Republic) Capt John C Fremont and Stephen Kearny arrive with US army to defend against Mexican forces (took New Mexico for good measure • Mexico: Largest amount of fighting took place. Feb 1847 Zachary Taylor (becomes overnight hero) defeats Santa Anna at Battle of Buena Vista, but Mex. Gov’t still won’t negotiate…so Polk sends army to take Mexico city…suddenly they are willing to talk. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 • Mexico recognized annexation of Texas (to Rio Grande), and Ceded territory to US based on successes of Fremont, Kearny, and Taylor. • US agreed to pay $15 compensation for land • Mexican Cession (which, including Texas, is even bigger than Louisiana Purchase) will eventually create: California, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah - and bits of Colorado and Wyoming. Results of the Mexican American War • Manifest Destiny….if we want it, we should have it. Many Americans (esp Southerners) wanted to take all of Mexico. Eventually decide there are too many Mexicans there…. • Training ground for civil war- many officers (from both sides) get their military experience here. Not bad in terms of casualties- only 13,000 Americans die, most of those from disease- we decide fighting isn’t all that hard • Lots of resentment from Latin America- US starting to be seen as a bully. Expansionism and slavery • We have all this new land…..Yeah….but what “sort” of land will it be? Slave or Free ? • In a real sense, victory against Mexico makes the Civil War inevitable. War had been popular in the South- most of the acquired territory below Missouri Compromise line, and they have every reason to think it will be open for slavery…. (though lots wouldn’t have worked- way too dry for cotton) NOT so popular in New England (but then neither was manifest destiny) Wilmot Proviso • 1846 David Wilmot (Congressman from PA) proposed that no slavery be allowed in the Mexican Cession • Passed in House -where majority of congressmen are from North, that’s where the population is- but couldn’t pass senate- where states are even (and VP is southern) • Southerners are incredibly resentful- John C Calhoun says you can’t tell settlers where they can take their property…Abolitionists are excited, and tensions are mounting…parties are dividing along sectional (rather than ideological) lines • From this point on – Slavery is attached to EVERY issue- it’s becoming the elephant in the room Election of 1848 and Popular Sovereignty • James K Polk had run in 1844 with a one term pledge, which he kept. • Whigs run Zachary Taylor- hero of Mex. War, and Louisiana slaveholder (though he declared himself neutral on slave issue) • Democrats ran Lewis Cass: expansionist, vague on slavery, who dealt with situation in a clever way by declaring policy of “Popular Sovereignty” … the people who live in the territory should vote and decide slave or free. Resonated as a possible way out of sticky messes. Free Soil Party • Both the Democrats and Whigs seem to be leaving the door open for slavery in territories- and there are a growing number of people who don’t agree. • Free Soil a 3rd party sectional coalition of Northern Whigs and Democrats opposed to expansion of slavery. Nominated Martin Van Buren as President (with Charles Adams, grandson of John as running mate) • Rest of platform was internal improvements, and free land for settlement in the west. • Foreshadowed Republicans, who will come 6 years later • Zachary Taylor wins, but Free Soil has respectable total (300,000 votes- though won not state for electoral) which shows increase of sectionalism Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Abraham Lincoln Franklin Roosevelt George Washington Theodore Roosevelt Harry Truman John Kennedy Thomas Jefferson Dwight Eisenhower Woodrow Wilson Ronald Reagan Lyndon Johnson James Polk Andrew Jackson James Monroe 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Bill Clinton William McKinley John Adams George H.W. Bush John Quincy Adams James Madison Grover Cleveland Gerald Ford Ulysses Grant William Taft Jimmy Carter Calvin Coolidge Richard Nixon James Garfield 29. Zachary Taylor 30. Benjamin Harrison 31. Martin Van Buren 32. Chester Arthur 33. Rutherford Hayes 34. Herbert Hoover 35. John Tyler 36. George W. Bush 37. Millard Fillmore 38. Warren Harding 39. William Harrison 40. Franklin Pierce 41. Andrew Johnson 42. James Buchanan California Gold Rush • 1848 Gold found at Sutter’s Mill (outside Sacramento)- when news got out people began to flood to area from around the State, and by end of year over $6 million in gold had been discovered in various areas in California. • In 1849 over 100,000 people came (either overland or by sea) to try their luck. Most don’t find gold. Some leave- but businesses serving the “49ers” made excellent profits - like Levi Strauss- who made durable work pants for miners. • “Gold Fever” created chaos and lawlessness • To get things under control (they need federal support)California drafted a constitution, and applied to congress for statehood (bypassing territorial phase). Constitution did not include slavery, which upset South Compromise of 1850 • Admission of CA causing an uproar (no slave state available for balance) Henry Clay “the great compromiser” puts together one more deal • California enters as free state • Texas (slave) boundary with New Mexico (will be free) set to give Texas advantage in land • Slave trade (not slavery) will be abolished in Washington DC • A new – tougher- Fugitive Slave law will be enacted • Rest of Mex. Cession will use popular sovereignty. • Famous Debate between Henry Clay/Stephen Douglas vs John C Calhoun (dying of TB). Daniel Webster (also dying) stepped in and helped swing North to accept the Compromise. A “Good” Compromise? • Didn’t really make anyone happy. Zachary Taylor caught between nationalism and the south, dies- replaced by his VP Millard Fillmore, who supports more enthusiastically. Stephen Douglas cleverly introduces sections one at a time- realizing they are more likely to pass that way. (works) • North gets the better side of the deal – CA as free state gives them the majority in Senate. Halt of slave trade in DC a big concession from gov’t that slavery is a problem. • Fugitive Slave law is the only the really designed to make south happy- and it backfires in that if offends many people- and swells the numbers of abolitionists. • Again, if South had left in 1850- they would have had a much better chance of winning. North got 10 more years to expand economically and gain support for union cause (it is southern actions in Kansas etc… that really fire them up) Fugitive Slave Act • Required citizens to assist in recovery of slaves (you could be tried as accessory if you did not). Denied blacks right to trial by jury or to testify in their own defense. • Made both sides angry- North b/c they were forced to agree to it (though not many followed it) and South b/c they knew North was avoiding, and therefore deliberately flouting the law) Impact of Slavery on the Party System • Becoming very difficult to find a “national” candidate- if they have any views they are probably controversial- so Whigs and Democrats split along sectional lines. • Whigs had never been really strong anyway- fell apart with death of Henry Clay and Daniel Webster • Democrats in equally bad shapefirmly split N/S Election of 1852 • Whigs ran General Winfield Scott (another Mex. War general- the only times they have won have been with generals) • Democrats argued over who to run – in the end chose Franklin Pierce who spent a lot of time talking about maintaining the rights of all sections- and supporting the compromise of 1850, including fugitive slave law • Pierce SPANKS Scott 254-42 Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Abraham Lincoln Franklin Roosevelt George Washington Theodore Roosevelt Harry Truman John Kennedy Thomas Jefferson Dwight Eisenhower Woodrow Wilson Ronald Reagan Lyndon Johnson James Polk Andrew Jackson James Monroe 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Bill Clinton William McKinley John Adams George H.W. Bush John Quincy Adams James Madison Grover Cleveland Gerald Ford Ulysses Grant William Taft Jimmy Carter Calvin Coolidge Richard Nixon James Garfield 29. Zachary Taylor 30. Benjamin Harrison 31. Martin Van Buren 32. Chester Arthur 33. Rutherford Hayes 34. Herbert Hoover 35. John Tyler 36. George W. Bush 37. Millard Fillmore 38. Warren Harding 39. William Harrison 40. Franklin Pierce 41. Andrew Johnson 42. James Buchanan Gadsden Purchase 1853 • Pierce another expansionist- and wants to begin construction of a transcontinental railroad (completed 1877) One thought for the best route (south of rockies) would cross a strip of territory that belonged to Mexico- who has not been very friendly since the end of the war. • But money talks- Pierce offers $10 for Mesilla Valley – and Mexico is having economic difficulties (this will become a theme) so they sell • Completes the contiguous US, Last territory added to US other than Alaska and Hawaii Japan • Before 1850 we didn’t deal all that much with Asia- kind of a pain to get there… but California and Oregon created US states on a new ocean- facing an new continent on the other side. • Japanese had been isolationist since 1500s- allowed Dutch 1 ship a year- no trade for anyone else. 1850 US whaling ships in Pacific had been detained, sailors not allowed to return home • 1853 US sent Commodore Matthew Perry (brother of Oliver Perry from 1812) to open trade with Japan- which he does at gunpoint • Successful- sparks Meiji restoration and industrialization of Japanturning them into the superpower of the Pacific- and they don’t forget who forced them to change Cuba- Ostend Manifesto • South really wants to buy it- it’s already slave (sugar) territory- they want to restore political balance. • Polk had offered Spain $100 million for it- Spain refused. Start to get tension and standoffs between Spanish and US ships in Caribbean. • 1854 Spain fired on an American Ship- and people (in south) start calling for war • US issued secret communication (ostend manifesto) to Spain, offering $130 million, and warning if offer not accepted we will take by force. • Manifesto leaked to public- and it freaks the north out so badly government withdraws from issue Kansas Nebraska Act and New Parties • Most important short term cause of the Civil War • 1854 IL senator Stephen Douglas proposed a bill to create “Kansas” and “Nebraska” out of Louisiana Purchase territory- (he wants to see transcontinental RR take a more northern route, and start in his home state of IL) and that the status of slavery in those territories should be determined by popular sovereignty. • Problem is that the territory is above Missouri Compromise line- if this works it is a repeal of the Missouri Compromise. South is thrilled…North is freaking out. • Kansas Nebraska Act passes - but at a terrible cost. Missouri Comp and Comp of 1850 are dead, and political parties dissolve. Whigs shatter entirely, Democrats split North/South Republican Party • Born from the remnants of the Whigs, the Free Soil Party, and those who oppose the Kansas Nebraska act in general. Not allowed to exist in the South. • Item #1- no further expansion of slavery in the territories (notice not fully abolitionist yet) • Quickly becomes the 2 nd national party (held majority of northern Congressional seats in 1854) • “Know Nothing”, or “American” Party- also formed at this time. Nativist, angry about the large #s of German and Irish immigrants who had been arriving since 1840s. Wanted to prohibit further immigration and create literacy and citizenship tests for voting. “Bleeding” Kansas • Douglas had figured that Kansas would be slave, and Nebraska free • But if we are using popular sovereignty, the trick is to have your group (slave or free soil) be in the majority. • New England Emigrant Aid- helped 2000 move to Kansas • 1855 election held for 1 st Kansas legislature- Missourians poured over border to stack the vote. But free soilers repudiate and set up their own gov’t- which was attacked by proslavery groups in 1856 • Overall- more than 200 dead in fighting that goes from 1856 to start of civil war Pottawatomie Massacre • The craziest abolitionist of them all was John Brown (originally from Hudson OH) He felt slave holders weren’t going to change- they needed to be wiped out- it was God’s work. • May 24-25th 1856 He and his sons attacked and killed (with hatchets) a group of 5 men in retaliation for the attack on Free soil Lawrence Kansas • Brown escaped authorities- was seen as a hero to some, a demon to others Brooks Sumner • Charles Sumner- an abolitionist Senator from Massachusettsgave a speech in which he denounced the “crimes committed in Kansas”, condemned south and southerners as a whole, which didn’t amuse the southern senators. • Preston Brooks – congressman from South Carolina, gets up and begins beating him on the head with his metal toped cane- nearly killing Sumner (he was never quite right again) • Brooks resigned, but was overwhelmingly re-electedSouth saw him as a hero (sent him dozens of canes) LeCompton Constitution • Kansas applied for statehood in 1857. Using popular sovereignty, voters were allowed to vote for 2 version of state constitution, one with, and one without slavery. However, if the “no slave” section won, the rights of slaveholders already there would be protected, so Kansas would be a slave state no matter what. • Many “free soilers” refused to vote- so “slave” faction won, and Kansas petitioned for entry as a slave state. But it was so bogus that even the pop. Sov. Guys like Stephen Douglas don’t back it- Kansas denied entry. Election of 1856 • Dissolution/creation of national parties created a re-alignment of voters. • Republicans: their slogan, “free soil, free labor, free men”, obviously designed for north- but also to appeal to many social classes. Nominate John C Freemont (another Mexican war hero) emphatically against expansion of slavery • Democrats: developing two wings, north and south. Recent events had made moderates in the South more radical. Northern Democrats support the idea of popular sovereignty, just keep ticking along. Nominate James Buchanan of PA, had been sec of state under Polk. • Buchanan wins 174-114 • Democrats larger • Southerners threaten to secede if Fremont elected • People feared change….Buchanan is promising to not make changes….. Presidential Rankings: C-Span Survey, 2009 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Abraham Lincoln Franklin Roosevelt George Washington Theodore Roosevelt Harry Truman John Kennedy Thomas Jefferson Dwight Eisenhower Woodrow Wilson Ronald Reagan Lyndon Johnson James Polk Andrew Jackson James Monroe 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. Bill Clinton William McKinley John Adams George H.W. Bush John Quincy Adams James Madison Grover Cleveland Gerald Ford Ulysses Grant William Taft Jimmy Carter Calvin Coolidge Richard Nixon James Garfield 29. Zachary Taylor 30. Benjamin Harrison 31. Martin Van Buren 32. Chester Arthur 33. Rutherford Hayes 34. Herbert Hoover 35. John Tyler 36. George W. Bush 37. Millard Fillmore 38. Warren Harding 39. William Harrison 40. Franklin Pierce 41. Andrew Johnson 42. James Buchanan James Buchannan • The worst president on the list for the same reason he was elected, he did nothing to stop the Armageddon that was coming • Makes no one happy; he doesn’t like slavery, (alienates south) but refuses to act (alienates abolitionists) and does nothing to stand up to those causing issues, like when supporters of slavery in Kansas use blatant fraud to create their constitution (alienates north) • But the final nail is that when the south does decide to secede he does….nothing (felt he had no legal right) a firm hand MIGHT have prevented bloodshed Dred Scott • 1857, two days after Buchanan took office, the Supreme Court took the US a giant step closer to war. • Dred Scott was a slave, whose master moved (with him) to IL for 4 years, then they went back to Missouri. Backed by abolitionists, Scott sued for his freedom on the basis of having lived in free territory. • Chief Justice Roger Taney (Maryland slaveowner) published an inflammatory ruling: • Scott could not sue- he was not a citizen, and living in IL did not make him free • The Missouri compromise is unconstitutional, an popular sovereignty is unnecessary, b/c property is property, and no state or territory had the right to forbid slavery. • North decides that South is trying to impose their will on US, compromise is not possible, slavery will have to end for the argument to be over. Panic of 1857 • Actually less economically intense than either 1819 or 1837, but more psychologically damaging, we were already on the edge. • Caused by too much gold from CA creating inflation, overproduction of grain, and land speculation. • Industrial north hardest hit- cotton econ not particularly damaged. • Become part of Republican platform: • Demand for higher tariffs - passed during war • Demand for free farms (pioneers point out they are risking their lives to develop land, it should be free) Homestead Act passed during the war. Rise of Abraham Lincoln • Originally a Whig, he was not well known outside of Illinois before mid-1850s. A lawyer, state legislator, and had served one term in Congress. • Strong objection to Kansas Nebraska act brought him back into politics, as did his disagreement with Stephen Douglas about the idea of popular sovereignty- Lincoln says the gov’t needs to take a stand. • NOT an abolitionist, had no objections (until later) to Southern states keeping their slaves, but adamantly against the expansion of slavery Lincoln Douglas Campaign • Lincoln challenged Douglas for his Senate seat in 1858. Famous for quote when nominated “A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe the government of this nation cannot endure permanently half slave and half free”. Debates • Challenged Douglas to a series of 7 famous debates that contrasted not only the two candidates ideology, but their overall approach. • Douglas was a great traditional speaker, used lots of big words, passionate long winded appeals, and clever tricks to make his point. Lincoln much more down to earth, folksy, accessible. • Most famous given included Freeport Doctrine: Lincoln asked Douglas if he thought slavery COULD be made illegal after Dred Scott. Douglas said “sort of” they could exclude slavery by not accepting it. • Douglas wins narrow victory- but Lincoln gained national exposure John Brown at Harper’s Ferry • After Kansas, John Brown decided what is needed is a literal war against slavery. • Raised $$ in North and Canada, Oct 16 th 1859 then led a group of 21 on a raid of the federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry Virginia, where he intended to steal guns/ammunition, which he intended to use to create a slave rebellion. (he wants to establish an independent black nation in the south) • 7 federal employees killed in attack, 10 wounded- but Brown et al trapped inside, eventually surrendered to Virginia army captain Robert E Lee. • Brown tried/convicted of treason, Hanged on Dec 2 nd . Became abolitionism martyr - “John Brown’s body lies a mouldering in the grave, but his sole is marching on”. But though many in the north disparaged his acts as extreme, many southerners saw his act a representative of what they could expect if they stayed in the union Anti-Slavery Literature: Uncle Tom’s Cabin • Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe (strongly influenced by reform movement of 2nd great awakening), published in 1852. • Inspired by the fugitive slave law. Portrayal of the “evils” of slavery, as the kindly Tom is tormented, and desperate Eliza is forced to flee or have her child sold away from her. The ultimate abolitionist propaganda • Best seller of 1800s, and had more social impact than any novel in American History. When Lincoln met Stowe in 1862, he supposedly said “So you’re the little lady who started this big war”. “Impending Crisis of the South” • Written by Hinton Helper in 1857 a White non slaveholder from North Carolina. • His argument that the people who suffer most from slavery were the non slave owning whites of the south (b/c they couldn’t compete economically) • Used by Republicans in at beginning of war to help keep border states in the Union Election of 1860 • When democrats met for nominating Southern delegates (fire eaters) end up walking out – and party splits. Important b/c the Democrats had been the last piece of national unity. • Stephen Douglas nominated by Northern Dems • Southern Dems nominate John C Breckenridge- a kentucky moderate (not disunionist) • A new party jumps up in response to crisis, Constitutional Union party (whigs & Know nothings), which nominates John Bell of TN as compromise candidate • Republicans nominate Abraham Lincoln – primarily b/c he hadn’t been around long enough to make enemies. • South warns, if Lincoln wins, they are out…. Secession of the Southern States • South wasn’t kidding about leaving…. They recognized that Lincoln not only meant an end to the expansion of slavery, but a shift in power to the north. (no more balance), and the way they see it, their entire way of life is at stake. Besides, they’re tired of being criticized etc… • December 1860 South Carolina votes (in state legislature) to secede, within 6 weeks, 6 more states: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas, follow • Buchanan does nothing. Said Constitution gave him “no authority” on this matter (NOW we get a strict constructionist!) and favored “peaceful resolution of this unpleasant situation”. • On the other hand, if he had attacked immediately, more of the border states would have probably left, which would have changed the war Confederate States of America • In February delegates meet in 1 st capital of Montgomery Alabama (will later move to Richmond VA). Write a constitution- with firm protection of slavery, and guarantee of supremacy of state’s rights. • Jefferson Davis elected President • Many southerners felt secession would be unopposed- you go your way, we’ll go ours. Figured north needed southern cotton too much, and if war came, all southern debts would be repudiated, which could crash northern econ. • Firmly believed they had the moral high ground- the original 13 states had made the union voluntarily, now some were leaving voluntarily- this is the social contract/natural rights all over again. Crittenden Amendments • Last ditch attempt at compromise proposed by James Crittenden of KY. • Proposed creating a constitutional amendment to extend Missouri compromise line to the Pacific which would include any new territory acquired (Like Cuba) • Lincoln flatly rejected- says in his inaugural address he has no problem with the idea of slavery (has to keep the border states!) but he would not allow states to leave the union, and would do ANYTHING necessary to get them back.