Write

Report
Welcome and Good Morning!
(207) 878-1777
e-mail: [email protected]
web: kaufmanpsychological.org
1
From Brain to Pen to
Paper . . .
The Neuropsychology of Writing
& Best Practice Instructional
Recommendations
2
Myths to be exploded across
these two days . .


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‘Writing is just a written extension of
oral language.’
‘If kids can speak well and use a
pencil, they should be able to write
well.’
‘Most kids who fail to write up to their
potential lack motivation – they’re
lazy.’
What’s at stake . .
We’d need only to try and imagine the
enormous changes in the cultural
development of children that occur as a result
of mastery of written language and the
ability to read – and thus becoming aware of
everything that human genius has created in
the realm of the written word.
-- Lev Vygotsky
4
What’s at stake . .
According to a 2006 survey, 81 percent of employers
describe recent high school graduates as “deficient
in written communications” such as
memo, letters, and technical reports (Casner-Lotto &
Barrington, 2006). As a result, private companies are
spending an estimated $3.1 billion per year—and
state governments are investing another $200
million—to provide writing instruction to their
employees (National Commission on Writing, 2004;
2005).
5
What’s at stake . .
The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP, or
“the Nation’s Report Card”) writing exam was last given in
2002; it measured the writing skills of fourth, eighth, and
twelfth graders and translated their scores into three levels
of proficiency: basic, proficient, and advanced. Across the
22–29 percent of students scored at
the proficient level, and only 2 percent were found to write
three grades, only
at the advanced level (Persky et al., 2003). In other words,
70–75 percent of students were found to be writing
below grade level.
6
Two-Day Agenda
Day 1 (March 21)
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8:30 Welcome/Introduction
8:45 Why Writing Can Be So Bloody
Difficult and the Skill Components of
Writing
10:00 (Morning Break)
10:15 The Neuropsychology of
Writing I (Attention/Executive
Functioning & Memory Processing)
12:00 Lunch
1:00 Strategies & Implications for
Instruction I
2:00 (Afternoon Break)
2:15 More Strategies
3:00 General Discussion/Q & A
Day 2 (March 22)
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8:30 Quick Review of Yesterday . .
8:45 The Neuropsychology of Writing
II (Dyslexia/Dysgraphia)
10:00 (Morning Break)
10:15 The Linguistic and GraphoMotor Elements of Writing
12:00 Lunch
1:00 Strategies & Implications for
Instruction II
2:00 (Afternoon Break)
2:15 More Strategies
3:00 General Discussion/Q & A
3:30 Adjourn
7
Part 1
Why writing can be
so bloody difficult . .
8
Although many students
acknowledge that writing
is important and directly
related to success in
school and life, the
thought of writing often
evokes feelings of stress,
anxiety, dread, and
avoidance.
L. M. Cleary
9
Now try to remember . . .
10
The enemy . . .
11
“I love being a writer. What I
can’t stand is the paperwork”
Peter De Vries
My writing speed is
akin to head stone
carving . . .
Gloria Steinham
12
And from Gene Fowler
Writing easy – All you do is sit
staring at a blank sheet of paper
until drops of blood form on your
forehead . . .
13
Writing . .
From the early formation of letters to crafting an essay,
writing involves perhaps more sub skills than any other
academic task. To write well requires combining multiple
physical and mental processes in one concerted effort to
communicate information and ideas. For instance, we must be
able to move a pen or press a key, precisely and fluidly to
produce letters, remember the rules of grammar and syntax,
place out thoughts in an order that makes sense, and think
ahead to what we want to write next. This combination of
tasks makes writing the highest form and more complex use
of language.
-- Mel Levine
Writing
This combination of tasks
makes writing the highest
form and more complex
use of language.
-- Mel Levine
The simple truth: Writing, from a
neurobehavioral perspective, is
incredibly complex and hard!!
Involves the fluid and simultaneous (!!)
coordination of the following core skill
areas:
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word knowledge, retrieval, and sequencing
working memory, sustained attention,
planning, organization
spelling, punctuation, and grammar
visual/spatial functioning
fine-motor/grapho-motor functioning
higher order reasoning/cognition
16
Key Distinctions Between Spoken
and Written Comprehension
Written:
Spoken:
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Casual
Makes use of common slang
and colloquialisms
Supported by the speaker
(the speaker fills in any
knowledge gaps the listener
might have)
Can be understood in the
absence of strategies
Oakhill & Cain, 2007



Often more formal/structured
Makes use of words and styles
that are not common in the
speech of children and teens
Written language does not
gauge the reader’s
comprehension and fill in
gaps/resolve confusion
Comprehension of writing is
often dependent on strategic
processing.
Thus, written language is not
‘speech written down.’
17
Activity 1
Please . .
. . list all the skill elements
(mechanical/conventional,
spontaneous/ideational/exec
utive) of the writing process.
18
To become competent
writers, students must:
1. Become proficient in spelling, punctuation, and grammar;
2. They must learn to write in various styles and formats
(depending on the particular situation/audience);
3. They must build strong vocabularies and deep reservoirs of
background knowledge;
4. They must learn to cope with writer’s block and develop the
stamina needed to get through long and difficult
assignments (writers’ resiliency);
5. They must learn strategies (such as preparing outlines,
soliciting feedback, and writing/revising multiple drafts that
help them to organize their writing projects and complete
them successfully.
19
The Five Stages of the Writing
Process
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Prewriting (brainstorming, planning,
sequencing/organizing, etc.)
Drafting (writing the initial draft)
Revising (content-oriented
revision/correction)
Editing (proofreading and mechanical
revision/correction)
Publishing (preparation of the final draft in
its final form)
20
Vicki Spandel’s 6 + 1 Traits
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Ideas/Content
Organization
Voice (personal tone/flavor; personality)
Word Choice (specificity/exactness of language)
Sentence Fluency (rhythm/flow of language)
Conventions (mechanics; e.g., spelling, punctuation,
capitalization)
+ 1 Presentation
final piece on paper)
(the visual/verbal presentation of the
21
Writing Ability & the Neurodevelopmental Functions:
Spatial-Motor
Comprehending the spatial relationships
involved in letter/word production;
coordinating small muscles of
the fingers needed to form letters
Attention
Memory
Maintaining concentration &
self-monitor work quality
Fluid recall of letters,
rules, and ideas;
simultaneous holding of
all of this in working
memory
Executive Functioning
Generating ideas & taking a
stepwise approach to planning,
organizing, and revising work
WRITING
Language Production
Using words and constructing
sentences correctly
22
Attention
Controls
Neuromotor
Functions
Executive Skills
Language
Memory
(LTM)
23
Breakdowns in one or more of
these processes can lead to . .
Dysgraphia: A disorder of written expression
– there are ‘language-based’ and ‘nonlanguage-based’ types of dysgraphia (4 –
17% of the population, Hooper et al., 1994)
A ‘shadow syndrome’ of a writing
disorder: ‘Sub-clinical‘ elements of a
writing disorder that make the writing
process arduous/tedious (??% of the
population – certainly LOTS of kids . .)
24
Activity 2
Please . .
. . Pick a kid and complete
the first part of the Personal
Case Study Form.
25
Graham & Harris (2005) have
found . .
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Most elementary teachers advocate
structure/routine in teaching the writing
process (i.e., ‘Writer’s Workshop’ programs)
BUT, many teachers rely on informal (or
incidental) teaching methods to teach
planning, drafting, editing, and publishing
Bottom line: Many (most?) teachers fail to
explicitly teach writing process strategies
26
Another instructional problem
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Eclectic instructional methodologies
from class to class and grade to grade
Leads to a lack of continuity in writing
process instruction
Leads to kids getting mixed writing
messages
27
Another key research finding
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Younger kids and LD
kids rely on ‘knowledge
telling’ as a writing
strategy.
I think kids should choose
their own pets, because
This approach is limited whatever pet they want
to content generation
their mother can just get it
(‘This is what I know
for them.
about this topic’)
Involves little planning
(kids are just ‘winging
it’ or making it up as
they go)
Third grader with LD
(Graham & Harris, 2005)
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29
BREAK TIME!!
30
Neuropsychology of Writing I:
Brain Overview
Executive
Functions,
Memory, and
Writing
31
DA’ BRAIN: Its two hemispheres
and four lobes
32
Left versus Right Hemispheres
Sequential
Processing
Simultaneous
Processing
Factual
Processing
Synthetic
Processing
Verbal
Processing
Emotional
Content
Routine and
‘OverLearned’
Info
Processed
Here!
Novel
Info
Processed
Here!
33
Input vs. Output Regions of the
Cortex
Output
&
Self-Direction
Input
&
Sensory Processing
& Storage
34
Executive Functioning and Writing:
A basic fact well-known to teachers . .
SO MANY KIDS WITH ATTENTION
DEFICITS HATE TO WRITE!
35
Executive
Functioning
Refers to the ability to
regulate and direct one’s
emotions/behavior and to
plan, initiate, attend to, and
organize tasks
Impact on writing is huge
36
Pre-Frontal Cortex: Site of
Attention and Executive Function
37
Frontal Lobe Specifics
(Adapted from Hale & Fiorello, 2004)
Prefrontal Cortex
(Dorsolateral)
Motor Cortex
Planning
Strategizing
Sustained Attention
Flexibility
Self-Monitoring
------------------------------Orbital Prefrontal
Impulse Control
(behavioral inhibition)
Emotional Modulation
38
Executive functioning and
writing
No academic task
requires more
executive
functioning
efficiency than
writing
Writing, after all, is all
about self-direction and
self-regulation of the
product on the page
For younger children
and older kids with
limited grapho-motor
skill, there are fewer
cognitive resources
left to the complex
task of organizing and
developing thoughts
on paper.
39
A Key Fact
Kids with EF weakness tend to
struggle with identifying text
structure when they read.
Logical extrapolation
Difficulty identifying text structure (e.g,.
somebody-wanted-but-so) also impacts the
writing of kids with EF weakness!!!
40
Task Persistence and
Frustration Tolerance
Two essential
EF’s related to
the writing
process!!
41
Recursive Writing Cycle (With Developmentally
Appropriate Levels of EF)
Pre-Writing Phase
Adequate EF skill allows:
• Task Analysis
• Schema/Prior Knowledge Activation
• Brainstorming
• Thought Sequencing/Organization
• Adequate writing confidence and
motivation to engage in writing
Revision/Editing Phase
Writing Phase
Adequate EF skill allows:
Adequate EF (particularly WM) skill and
mechanical automaticity allows:
• Deep processing of one’s writing (such
that content revision is possible)
• Awareness/recognition of one’s error
patterns
• Careful scrutiny of written work and
correction of all (or at least most) errors
• Persistence and motivation to continue
• Fluent transfer of ideas to text
• Simultaneous processing of ideational
and mechanical aspects of writing
• Revising and editing of text as it is produced
(revising ‘on the fly’)
• Persistence and motivation to continue
42
Recursive Writing Cycle
(As Impacted by Executive Dysfunction)
Pre-Writing Phase
EF weakness contributes to:
• Poor task analysis (‘What are we
supposed to again?’)
• Little to know brainstorming or thought
organization (just jumps into
writing, using ‘knowledge telling’ approach)
• Minimal writing confidence (desire to avoid
writing)
Revision/Editing Phase
EF weakness contributes to:
• Superficial processing of one’s text
• Disregard of mechanical and content
errors
• Very limited motivation to revise and
extend writing
• Limited persistence/frustration tolerance
(very limited willingness to revise/edit)
Writing Phase
EF weakness land a lack of mechanical skill
Automaticity contribute to:
• WM easily overloaded by simultaneous
ideational and mechanical writing demands
• Minimal writing
• Writing that includes numerous content and/or
mechanical errors
• Very limited ability to revise/edit ‘on the fly’
• Limited persistence and frustration tolerance
(desire to be done as soon as possible)
43
Activity 2
1. Please take a moment to
consider and jot down one or
a few of the key
instructional implications
of the impact of attention/EF
weakness on the writing
process.
2. Briefly share/discuss your
thoughts with those seated
around you.
44
Memory and Writing
45
The Three Primary Levels of
Memory:

Short-Term Memory (STM): The briefest of memories

Working Memory (WM): The ability to ‘hold’

Long-Term Memory (LTM): Information and
– information is held for a few seconds before being
discarded
several facts or thoughts in memory temporarily
while solving a problem or task – in a sense, it’s STM
put to work.
experiences stored in the brain over longer periods of
time (hours to forever)
46
The Brain’s Memory Systems
47
Directed Attention
Short-Term Memory
Auditory/Verbal
Visual/Nonverbal
Working Memory
(‘Cognitive Workspace’)
LEARNING
Long-Term Memory
Declarative
Adapted from
CMS Manual
Procedural
Retrieval
48
Working Memory: Some kids
have got ‘leaky buckets’
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
Levine: Some kids
are blessed with
large, ‘leak proof,’
working memories
Others are born with
small WM’s that leak
out info before it
can be processed
49
Activity 3
A Working Memory Brain Teaser!
I am a small parasite. Add
one letter and I am a thin
piece of wood. Change one
letter and I am a vertical
heap. Change another letter
and I am a roughly built hut.
Change one final letter and I
am a large fish. What was I
and what did I become?
50
Writing definitely requires . .
Memory of the future!!
51
How Large is the Child’s
Working Memory Bucket?
Case 1: Rachel Recallsitall
Case 2: Nicky Normal
Case 3: Frankie
Forgetaboutit
52
Large working memory capacity allows
for lots of simultaneous processing!
Simultaneous Processing
‘Cognitive
Band Width’
Large
WM
Lots
S
e
q
u
e
n
ti
al
P
r
o
c
e
s
si
n
g
Little
Small
WM
53
Free Recall versus Cued Recall of
Information

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Free recall of
previously learning
information occurs
in the absence of
explicit cueing
Cued recall occurs in
the presence of
explicit memory
prompts
54
A Key Point:
Many kids have a hard time
searching their own memories
for the language and other info
they need when writing.
55
Is it any wonder so many kids
meltdown in writing contexts?


Not understanding their
memory and executive
functioning deficits, kids
come to view themselves
as “stupid,” and to view
writing tasks as horribly
frightening and arduous.
So the presentation of a
writing prompt leads to
‘ka-boom!’
56
LUNCH TIME!!!
57
STRATEGIES &
IMPLICATIONS
FOR
INSTRUCTION I
58
IMPLICATIONS FOR
INSTRUCTION
Best Practice Recommendations
59
Activity 4
On your own, or, if you’d prefer,
with your neighbor or in a small
group, brainstorm what you
consider the essential
instructional implications of
working memory and executive
functioning challenges for
developing writers at the grade
level(s) you teach.
60
Seeing molehills as mountains
Annoying,
but doable
Impossible!
61
Core Strategy Principle 1:
THE EXPLICIT TEACHING
OF THE WRITING
PROCESS IS GOOD.
62
Explicit Teacher Modeling and
Gradual Release of Responsibility
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Teacher modeling of writing
strategies in whole group
settings makes the implicit
explicit for all kids
Best to also model likely
problems/mistakes and
ways to cope with them!!
Gradual release (teacher
models, small group
practice, individual practice)
can be very effective for
kids with EF weakness
63
Core Strategy Principle 2:
Acknowledge with students that
writing can be hard (and then
show them ways to make it
easier!)
64
Self-Regulated Writing
Instruction (SRSD) (Graham & Harris)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Develop background knowledge
(teacher)
Discuss the strategy (teacher)
Model the strategy (teacher)
Memorize the strategy (students)
Support the strategy (teacher)
Independent performance (students)
(Harris et al., 2008)
65
I always do the first line
well, but have trouble with
the others . .
-- Moliere.
66
So, the overall ‘best practice’
writing recommendation is . .
EXPLICITLY TEACH THE
WRITING PROCESS
•Elaborate and build on this in a consistent manner
from grade to grade
•Younger kids and LD kids won’t plan on their own:
they need lots of explicit modeling and practice
•Kids should always be required to do some bit of
structured planning before they write (‘gather your
thoughts’)
67
Explicit Teacher Modeling and
Gradual Release of Responsibility



Teacher modeling of writing
strategies in whole group
settings makes the implicit
explicit for all kids
Best to also model likely
problems/mistakes and
ways to cope with them!!
Gradual release (teacher
models, small group
practice, individual practice)
can be very effective for
kids with EF weakness
68
A Core Recommendation: Build
Writing Fluency with Power Writing

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A daily fluency building technique
Consists of brief timed writing events
In each one-minute interval, students
are told to write as much as they can
about a specified topic
The one-minute intervals are
performed up to 3 times in a row
Usually kids are told to include one or
more key words in their writing
Kids graph their progress (accuracy
and length)
Fisher & Frey, 2007
69
Recommendations for
Students with
Attention/Executive
Functioning Needs
70
Key phrase to remember for
ADHD/EFD Kids
‘Surrogate
Frontal
Lobe’
71
An essential EF-related writing
fact:
Picking, deciding,
choosing, and
selecting are all
executive skills!
72
And so . .
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Picking
Remove the picking challenge!
Decide for them (as practical) by limiting
choices
Help kids develop possible writing topics
well in advance of the need to write (see
attached ‘Like-Hate’ and ‘Usual-Unusual’ T
Chart’ examples)
73
Helpful metaphor to teach prewriting: Gather Your Thoughts
idea
idea
idea
idea
idea
idea
Then Write
74
Rubrics/Heuristics Rock!

P.O.W.

C-S.P.A.C.E.
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Stop and L.I.S.T.
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B.O.T.E.C.

Step Up To Writing
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Somebody Wanted . . But . . . So . . .
75
Graphic Organizers: A double
edged sword . . .

Great way to build previewing and planning skill (story
webs, story maps, Venn diagrams, etc.)

But, they are often perceived by ADHD kids as “MORE
WORK” (“I have to do that and then write?!”)


If these are used, consider allowing kids to hand them in
as a completed product or give them lots of support in
their use.
Consider using the Peggy McPhee approach instead, which
relies on giving kids a series of specific prompts/questions
to answer (eliminates the blank page phenomenon)
76
77
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P.O.W.
(Graham & Harris)

Pick my idea

Organize my thoughts
1. ___________
2. ___________
3. ___________

Write and say more
79
C-SPACE






(Harris et al., 2008)
Characters
Setting (time and place)
Purpose (What the main character tries to do . .)
Action (What is done to achieve the goal)
Conclusion (Results of the action)
Emotions (The main characters’ reactions and
feelings)
80
TREE
(Harris et al., 2008)

Topic (topic sentence)

Reasons (at least 3)

Explain (each reason)

Ending (wrap it up)
81
STOP & LIST (Graham & Harris, 2005)
(Goal setting, brainstorming, organization)




Step 1: Stop (students should set goals for
their writing; e.g., writing a funny story to
share during circle time)
Step 2: LIST (Brainstorm ideas and list them
out)
Step 3: Sequence (Organize the ideas into a
logical sequence and then number them)
Step 4: Write (‘By the number’s)
82
Bashir and Singer’s
EmPower approach
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




Evaluate
Make a Plan
Organize
Work
Evaluate
Rework
83
84
85
B.O.T.E.C.

Brainstorm

Organize

Topic Sentence

Examples

Conclusion
86
STAR Organizer Strategy
(Kaufman’s adaptation . .)
1.
2.
Who?
Why?
What?
1. How does story
start?
2. What happens
next?
3. Then what
happens?
Main Idea
4. Then what
happens?
When?
How?
Where?
5. Then what
happens?
6. How does story
end?
87
Somebody . . Wanted . . But . . So
(Jane Kennedy)
Heuristic for . . .

Story analysis

Story writing
Introduction
___ Title
___ Author
___ Character
___ Setting
Problem:
___ Wanted
___ But
___ Detail
Solution:
___ So
___ Detail
___ In the end
88
89
Consider Using the Step Up to
Writing program (or something like it)
• Developed by Maureen
Auman
• Published by Sopris West
• Great way to help
ADHD/EFD kids learn how to
construct and organize
paragraphs and essays
• Wonderfully concrete and
explicit!
90
GO!
Write a topic sentence
Slow Down!
Give a reason, detail, or fact
Stop!
Explain – give an example
Go Back!
Remind the reader of your topic
91
What Makes a Great Teacher?
A good teacher does two things. She
makes the classroom nice. A good
teacher has lots of books for us to look
at and posters on the wall. A good
teacher also teaches us new
things. She lets us learn about other
countries and experiments in science.
Teachers are the most important part
of school.
92
Reasons for Learning to Swim
Learning to swim is an essential skill for all children. One reason
to learn to be a strong swimmer is safety. If you are in a
dangerous situation, such as in a sinking raft or boat, you can
swim to shore. If you are a good swimmer, you can also help
save others who may be drowning. Being able to spend time
with others is another reason for learning to swim. Birthday
and school year-end parties are often located around the pool.
Many people plan their vacations for warmer climates so that
happy hours may be spent splashing in the ocean. The heat of
summer makes us all want to cool off by enjoying water
sports, such as waterskiing, diving, and surfing. Learning to be
a great swimmer can clearly make your life safer and more
enjoyable.
93
STEP UP TO WRITING (IN ACTION!)
94
Defeating the dreaded ‘blank page’
phenomenon: Providing kids with
specific prompts/sentence starters
Original assignment:
Pick your favorite fairy tale
and develop a
‘fractured’ version of it.
Make sure you also
make at least three
illustrations and show in
your writing how the
main characters resolve
an essential conflict
Modified assignment:
List the five main characters in
Cinderella
Where does the story take place?
What was Cinderella’s main
problem? What was she doing
to cope with it?
What might be some funny ways to
change the story?
How would one of those changes
change the ending?
95
Reading & Writing Sourcebooks (a strong, scaffolded,
literacy skill development curriculum)
Wonderfully scaffolded (for both
reading and writing)
Clearly links the writing process to
the reading comp process
Focuses (concretely) on pre-writing
(“Gathering Your Thoughts”)
(Houghton Mifflin)
Keeps writing anxiety low
(assignments are limited in
length, but have a clear
instructional intent)
96
Reading & Writing Sourcebook
in Action
GATHER YOUR THOUGHTS
Directions:
1. Think about 4 special people who have
had a positive impact on your life (write their
names in the red boxes).
2. Then narrow your focus. Which one do you want to
write about? Write that person’s name in the first green box.
3. Write three reasons why that person has been special to
you (in the big green boxes).
97
GATHER YOUR THOUGHTS
Person:
Person:
Person:
Person:
Person I will write about:
He/she is special because:
He/she is special because:
He/she is special because:
98
A Really Special Person in My Life . . .
Directions:
1. Write a paragraph of at least 5 sentences describing
the special person mentioned in your organizer. Be sure to say
the person’s name in the first sentence and how you know them.
Also make sure to include the 3 (or more) details from your
organizer (the reasons that this person is special to you), and
include an ending sentence that sums up how you feel about this
person today.
2. When you’ve finished, use the Writer’s Checklist (C.O.P.S.)
to help you revise.
Adapted from the Reading & Writing Sourcebook)
99
The acronym editing strategies:
S.C.O.P.E. and C.O.P.S.
SCOPE
COPS
S – Spelling ok?
C – First words, proper names, and
nouns capitalized?


O – Syntax (word order) correct?
P – Punctuation marks where
needed?
E – Do all the sentences express a
complete thought?
Capitalization
Organization (or
‘order’ or
‘appearance’)

Punctuation

Spelling
Concern: Are these rubrics too focused on surface features of text?
100
More Accommodations/ByPass Strategies for EFD Kids





Let ‘em dictate first
drafts of longer pieces
Assist the student with
organizing/ordering
brain stormed ideas
Break assignments down
into smaller chunks
Lots of check in’s an
attentional prompts
Allow the student to
work on a keyboarding
device
101
102

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