Andragogy and the Adult Learner in Online Learning

Report
Andragogy:
The Adult Learner
Online Course Design
______________________________
Renuka Kumar
Associate Professor
Community College of Baltimore County
Maryland
Agenda
_______________________________
•
•
•
•
Pedagogy vs. Andragogy
What is Andragogy?
Why Andragogy?
Five Assumptions of Andragogy
o Define assumption
o Pedagogy vs. Andragogy
o Implications for Online Instruction
o Online Course Design
• Conclusion
• Discussion
2
Pedagogy vs. Andragogy
_______________________________________
• Pedagogy
o The method and practice of teaching.
Focus on teaching.
• Andragogy
o The art and science of helping adults learn.
Focus on learning.
3
What is Andragogy?
_______________________________________
• Set of assumptions about how adults
learn
o 1833 - Alexander Kapp
Plato’s educational theories
o 1920s - Eugen Rosenstock
Theory of adult education
o 1970s - Malcolm Knowles
Popularized in the US
4
Why Andragogy?
_______________________________________
• 7.1 million online students -Fall 2012
• 30% of all students in higher education
• 80% above age 25
5
Five Assumptions of Andragogy
_______________________________________
Characteristics of adult learners:
1. Self-directed
2. Bring experience
3. Ready to learn
4. Problem oriented
5. Motivated to learn
6
Assumption 1
______________________________
Self-Directed
7
Assumption 1 - Self-Directed
_______________________________________
Adult learners:
•
•
•
are increasingly independent.
need to be actively involved in decisions that
affect them.
believe they are responsible for their lives.
8
Assumption 1 - Self-Directed
_______________________________________
• Pedagogy
o The learner is dependent
upon the instructor for
all learning.
o The teacher/instructor
assumes full
responsibility for what is
taught and how it is
learned.
o The teacher/instructor
evaluates learning.
• Andragogy
o The learner is selfdirected.
o The learner is
responsible for his/her
own learning.
o Self-evaluation is
characteristic of this
approach.
Source :
http://www.floridatechnet.org/inservice/abe/abestudent/an
dravsped.pdf
9
Assumption 1 - Self-Directed
_______________________________________
Implications for online instruction
•
•
•
•
•
Curriculum to focus on process – not content
Variety of learning activities
Facilitator - an equal and an expert
Collaborative and welcoming learning environment
Ongoing guidance and support
10
Assumption 1 - Self-Directed
___________________________________________
Online Course Design
• Syllabus should clearly provide:
o
o
o
o
o
o
course expectations.
schedule with due dates.
assignments with grading criteria.
guidelines for online communication.
contact information for the facilitator.
outline response time.
11
Assumption 1 - Self-Directed
___________________________________________
Online Course Design (contd)
• Facilitators should:
o be available online during the first few days.
o welcome each learner individually to the class.
o encourage communication between learners.
o maintain contact with the learners weekly.
o establish a chat room or online “café”.
o provide learning objectives for all assignments.
12
Assumption 2:
______________________________
Bring Experience
13
Assumption 2 - Bring Experience
___________________________________________
• Adults bring life and job experience with
them.
• This experience is a resource for learning.
14
Assumption 2 - Bring Experience
_______________________________________
• Pedagogy
o The learner comes to the
activity with little
experience that could be
tapped as a resource for
learning .
o The experience of the
instructor is most
influential.
Source :
http://www.floridatechnet.org/inservice/abe/abestude
nt/andravsped.pdf
• Andragogy
o The learner brings a
greater volume and
quality of experience.
o Adults are a rich
resource for one
another.
o Different experiences
assure diversity in
groups of adults.
o Experience becomes the
source of self-identify.
15
Assumption 2 - Bring Experience
_______________________________________
Implications for online instruction
• Provide opportunities to use and share their
knowledge and experience.
• Create an environment to freely express opinions
and share ideas.
16
Assumption 2 - Bring Experience
___________________________________________
Online Course Design
• Types of assignments:
o group projects
o reflective activities
o interactive discussions
• Discussion should encourage real-life applications.
• Spur discussion to encourage analytical thinking.
• Provide weekly feedback to discussions.
17
Assumption 3
______________________________
Ready to Learn
18
Assumption 3 - Ready to Learn
___________________________________________
• Adults:
o experience triggers to learn something new
– birth, divorce, loss of job.
o want to learn what they can apply in their reallife situations.
19
Assumption 3 - Ready to Learn
_______________________________________
• Pedagogy
o Students are told what
they have to learn in
order to advance to the
next level of mastery.
Source :
http://www.floridatechnet.org/inservice/abe/abestude
nt/andravsped.pdf
• Andragogy
o Any change is likely to
trigger a readiness to
learn.
o The need to know in
order to perform more
effectively in some
aspect of one’s life is
important.
o Ability to assess gaps
between where one is
now and where one
wants and needs to be.
20
Assumption 3 - Ready to Learn
_______________________________________
Implications for online instruction
• Facilitators should:
o realize that each learner enters the course for a specific
reason.
o acknowledge the range of different backgrounds.
21
Assumption 3 - Ready to Learn
___________________________________________
Online Course Design
●
●
●
●
●
Communicate course expectations clearly.
Provide links to resources.
Ask learners what they need to learn.
Lessons should relate to learners needs and goals.
Accommodate multiple learning styles.
22
Assumption 4
______________________________
Problem-Oriented
23
Assumption 4 – Problem-Oriented
___________________________________________
• Adults are:
o life-centered (task-oriented, problem-centered).
o want to learn what will help them perform daily
tasks or problems.
24
Assumption 4 – Problem-Oriented
___________________________________________
• Pedagogy
• Andragogy
o Learning is a process of
acquiring prescribed
subject matter.
o Content units are
sequenced according to
the logic of the subject
matter.
Source :
http://www.floridatechnet.org/inservice/abe/abestudent/an
dravsped.pdf
o Learners want to
perform a task, solve a
problem, live in a more
satisfying way.
o Learning must have
relevance to real-life
tasks .
o Learning is organized
around life/work
situations rather than
subject matter units.
25
Assumption 4 – Problem-Oriented
___________________________________________
Implications for online instruction
• Curriculum - process based not content based.
• Use real-life examples or situations
• Draw on learner’s personal experiences.
26
Assumption 4 – Problem-Oriented
___________________________________________
Online Course Design
• Use active learning strategies:
o case studies
o problem solving
o simulations
●
●
●
●
Group projects - draw on personal experience.
Present and solve “real world” problems.
Share learning objectives for every assignment.
Create meaningful work (avoid busy work).
27
Assumption 5
______________________________
Motivated to Learn
28
Assumption 5 – Motivated to Learn
___________________________________________
• External motivators
o better jobs and higher salaries
• Internal motivators
o increased job satisfaction, self-esteem
29
Assumption 5 – Motivated to Learn
__________________________________________
• Pedagogy
o Primarily motivated by
external pressures,
competition for grades,
and the consequences of
failure.
• Andragogy
o Internal motivators: selfesteem, recognition,
better quality of life,
self-confidence, selfactualization.
Source :
http://www.floridatechnet.org/inservice/abe/abestude
nt/andravsped.pdf
30
Assumption 5 – Motivated to Learn
__________________________________________
Implications for online instruction
•
•
•
•
Have activities that build self-esteem.
Recognize the need of learners to be appreciated.
Get learner input into lessons.
Inform learners why topic is important.
31
Assumption 5 – Motivated to Learn
__________________________________________
Online Course Design
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use a friendly, first person style of writing.
Incorporate ongoing evaluation from learners.
Offer multiple assessment strategies.
Tell why topic or link is important.
Provide practical information with examples.
Recognize learners contributions once a week.
Offer a variety of learning support.
32
Conclusion
___________________________________________
• Andragogy should be used as a starting point.
• Know needs, backgrounds, and expectations of
learners.
• Create learner centered educational environment.
•
Develop course that allows adult learners to be:
o actively engaged
o motivated
o able to gain and share experiences , and
o collaborative.
33
Conclusion (contd)
_______________________________________
• Pedagogy vs. andragogy
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VhydhDa0BGU
34
References
_______________________________________
• Blondy, L. (2007). Evaluation and Application of Andragogical Assumptions
to the Adult Online Learning Environment. Journal of Interactive Online
Learning 6 (2).
• Burge, L. (1988). Beyond Andragogy: Some Explorations for Distance
Learning Design. Journal of Distance Education 3 (1): 5–23.
• The Learning House, Inc.(2012) . Online College Students 2012. Retrieved
from
http://www.learninghouse.com/files/documents/resources/Online%20Col
lege%20Students%202012.pdf
• Florida Tech (n.a.). Pedagogy vs. Andragogy. Retrieved from
http://www.floridatechnet.org/inservice/abe/abestudent/andravsped.pdf
• Perret, Joe (2008). Andragogy and Online Teaching. Retrieved from
faculty.piercecollege.edu/perretjd/powerpoint/andragogy.pdf
• Sheldon, L. (2013). Andragogy: Welcoming Adult Learners and their Experiences.
Retrieved from www.gcc.mass.edu/.../files/.../TLSD-Andragogy-April-13Sheldon.pptx
35
Discussion
______________________________
36

similar documents