Chapter 16: Slavery Divides the Nation*

Chapter 16: Slavery Divides the
Section 1: Slavery in the Territories
The Missouri Compromise
• Missouri Compromise:
– Agreement proposed
in 1819.
– By Henry Clay to keep
the number of slave
and free states equal.
The Missouri Compromise
• Debates about slavery in
new territories.....Yes or
• 1819:
– 11 free states
– 11 slave states
• Missouri wanted to join the
union as a slave state.
• This would give the South
the majority in the Senate!!!
The Missouri Compromise
• Maine wanted to become a
state as well.
• Henry Clay came up with a
• Maine was admitted as a free
state and Missouri as a slave
state....This would keep
everything balanced!!
The Missouri Compromise
• Congress drew an imaginary
line through Missouri....36'
• Slavery was permitted in
Louisiana Purchase territory
south of the line.
• And banned slavery north of
the line.
• Exception: Missouri itself (all
slave state)
Slavery in the West…
• Wilmot Proviso– Law passed in 1846 that
banned slavery in any
territories won by the U.S.
from Mexico.
• Popular Sovereignty:
– Mid-1800's
– Idea that each territory
could decide for itself
whether or not to allow
Wilmot Proviso
• 1848:
– Mexican War adds much land to
the U.S. in the West!
• David Wilmot:
– Member of Congress from Penn.
– Tried to have all new Mexican
territory slave free
– Ban on slavery!
• Called this the Wilmot Proviso
Wilmot Proviso
• Wilmot Proviso:
• Passed by House of
• Senate rejected the
Wilmot Proviso.
• Continued arguments
about slavery!!
Opposing Views
• Southerners: Wanted slavery
• Northerners: Opposed slavery
• In between the two extremes:
• Felt that the Missouri
Compromise line should extend
to the Pacific Ocean.
• Some felt that the new states
should be able to decide for
The Free-Soil Party
• Free-Soil party:
– Bipartisan
antislavery party
founded by the U.S.
in 1848 to keep
slavery out of the
western territories.
Free Soil Party
• Antislavery members that
came from two parties:
• 1. The Northern
• 2. Whigs.
• Goal of party:
– Keep slavery out of
western territories
Election of 1848
• Free-Soil Party:
– Martin Van Buren(Ban on
• Democrats:
– Lewis Cass(popular
• Whigs:
– Zachary Taylor(wins
election)(slave owner)
• Slavery was main issue!!!
The Compromise of 1850
Section 2 Chapter 16
California’s Impact
• 1849:
– 15 free states
– 15 slave states
• California wanted to enter
as a free state.
• Along with possibly :
– Oregon.
– Utah.
– And New Mexico.
• South would be out-voted
by free states in the Senate!
• South wanted to secede
from the U.S.
Clay v. Calhoun
• Clay:
– AKA "The Great Compromiser"
feared the nation would break
• John C. Calhoun(S.C.):
– Refused to compromise
– 1.Wanted slavery in western
– 2. Demanded that fugitive
slaves be returned to their
• If the North did not agree, the
South would part in peace.
The Compromise of 1850
• Five Parts:
• 1. California would enter Union as
a free state.
• 2. Divided the rest of the Mexican
Cession into
– New Mexico and Utah. (popular
• 3. Ended the slave trade in
Washington D.C.
– (Congress would have no power
over slave trade between slave
• 4. Strict fugitive slave law.
• 5. Settled border disputes
between Texas and New Mexico.
Fugitive Slave Act
• Required all citizens to
help catch runaway slaves.
• If anyone let a fugitive
escape....$1,000 fine and
jail time.
• Special courts were created
to handle cases--• NO suspects were allowed
a jury trial!!
• Judges received $10 for
sending the accused
runaway to the South....$5
to set them free.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin
• Antislavery Bestseller:
• Harriet Beecher Stowe
• Tells of an enslaved African
American noted for his kindness.
• His owner whips him to death for
not telling the whereabouts of
two runaway slaves.
• Uncle Tom's Cabin outsold every
book except the Bible in the
years leading up to the Civil War.
• Translated into over 20 different
The Crisis Deepens…
Section 3 Chapter 16
Kansas-Nebraska Act
• Proposed by Senator
Stephen Douglas
• 1854:
– law that established the
territories of Kansas and
– Giving the settlers the right
of popular sovereignty to
decide on the issue of
• This territory stretched from
Texas to Canada.
• President Franklin Pierce
and Stephen Douglas
helped to push it through
Kansas-Nebraska Act
• Southerners were happy with
the Act.
• Northerners were outraged!
• The Missouri Compromise
already banned slavery in
these territories.
• It seemed the KansasNebraska Act would repeal
the Missouri Compromise!
• Northerners openly
challenged the Fugitive Slave
The Crisis Turns Violent
• Most new settlers came
because they wanted land
• Abolitionists moved into
area as well as proslavery
• Border Ruffians– proslavery bands from
Missouri who often battled
antislavery forces in Kansas.
• 1855:
– Kansas held elections to
choose law-makers.
– Border Ruffians crossed the
border into Kansas and
voted illegally.
Two Governments
• Proslavery legislature was
elected and passed laws that
angered Northerners.
• 1. People could be put to death
for helping slaves escape.
• 2. Speaking out about slavery
became a crime punishable by
two years of hard labor.
• The antislavery settlers refused
to follow laws and created their
own legislature and governor!
• Kansas now had TWO separate
Bleeding Kansas
• Nickname of Kansas
because of the guerrilla
warfare that took place
throughout 1856.
• Guerrilla warfare:
– The use of hit-and-run
• Killings at Pottawatomie
– Led by antislavery activist
John Brown sparked
many deaths in Kansas.
Dred Scott Case
• Dred Scott was enslaved in
Missouri for many years.
• He moved with his owner to
Illinois and then to Wisconsin
where slavery was banned.
• They eventually moved back
to Missouri where Scott's
owner died.
• Scott filed a lawsuit and
argued that because he had
lived in free territory, he had
become a free man!
The Supreme Court Ruling..
• Angered Northerners!
• 1. Supreme Court stated that
Scott could not file a suit
because slaves were not
• 2. Slaves were considered
• 3. The Court did not have the
power to outlaw slavery in
any territory--• The Missouri Compromise,
according to the Court, was
• This meant that slavery was
legal in all territories!!!!
The Republican Party Emerges…
Section 4 Chapter 16
The Republican Party…
Developed in 1854.
Northern Democrats.
Antislavery Whigs.
ALL wanted to stop
Election of 1856
• John C. Fremont:
– Republican
– Frontiersman who
helped with California's
– Little political
– Opposed slavery.
Election of 1856
• James Buchanan:
– Democrat:
– “Northern man with
southern principles"
– Hoped to attract people
from the North and
Election of 1856
• Millard Fillmore:
– "Know-NothingParty“
– Wanted to preserve
the Union.
• Buchanan wins the
• The Republicans did
win 1/3 of popular
• This showed that they
had a lot of influence!
• Southerners began to
worry that their
influence was fading!!
Abe Lincoln
Born in Kentucky.
Grew up in Illinois.
Self taught education. (only was
in school for 1 yr.)
Studied to be a lawyer
"Just Folks“: simple man.
Honest-plain spoken.
Opposed the Kansas-Nebraska
Decided to run for Senate
against Stephen Douglas!
Lincoln- Douglas Debates
• Seven debates between
Lincoln and Douglas.
• Slavery was main issue.
• Douglas was a supporter of
popular sovereignty.
• Lincoln opposed slavery in
new territories.
• Douglas won the debates
by a slim margin...
• Lincoln did become very
popular from the debates
(esp. in the North).
John Brown’s Raid
Raids Harpers Ferry, Virginia
Raided a federal arsenal (gun
Captured by Robert E. Lee
10 raiders are killed by Lee's troops
and Brown
is captured!
In court:
Brown was found guilty of murder
and treason (actions against one's
Sentenced to Death!
Martyr: (willing to give up your life
for beliefs).
A Nation Divides
Section 5 Chapter 16
Election of 1860…
• Abraham Lincoln:
– Republican candidate
• Stephen Douglas:
– Northern Democrats
• John Breckinridge:
– Southern Democrats
• John Bell:
– The Constitutional Union
– (Moderate --still looking
for compromise between
the North and South)
Election of 1860 Results…
• Abraham Lincoln wins
the election!!!
• Last Effort to Save Union:
• Senator John Crittenden
– Kentucky.
– Tries to introduce bill that
would extend the
Missouri Compromise line
all the way to the Pacific.
• The South decides to
secede from the Union.
The Confederate States of
Seven states:
– South Carolina.
– Alabama.
– Florida.
– Georgia.
– Louisiana.
– Mississippi.
– Texas.
New President of Confederacy:
– Jefferson Davis of Mississippi.
The confederate troops began to seize
federal property in the South.(forts, post
offices, government buildings)
The Civil War Begins…
• The Confederates
attacked Fort Sumter
on April 11, 1861.
• The Union
commander, Major
Robert Anderson, was
forced to surrender on
April 13, 1861.
• This sparked the
beginning of the Civil
Essay Topics…
• 1. Explain how the
election of 1860 was the
final blow that started
the Civil War. (Provide
• Provide three examples
to support the following
• A series of compromises
delayed the Civil War for
40 years.
• 2. Describe the Dred
Scott Supreme Court
• --Three parts of decision
• --Two major results
• 3. Explain the four major
parts of the Compromise
of 1850.
Essay Topics…
• 4. List two ways in
which the LincolnDouglas debates
helped Abe Lincoln.
• 5. Explain Harriet
Beecher Stowe's novel
Uncle Tom's Cabin.
• --How did North react.
• --How did South react.
• --Impact of the novel

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