Follow health safety and security procedures SITXOHS001B

Report
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Workplace illness and injury
Every year in Australia, around 700 workers die and some
300,000 are injured because of workplace illness and injury.
Because of this very serious problem laws are very strict on
workplace safety in Australia.
As well as the problems or costs for the person who is
injured there are also many other problems and costs that
occur when people are injured or suffer illness at work.
Human cost
Social cost
Economic cost
Organisational costs
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Policies and procedures
What is the difference between a policy and a
procedure?
A policy is a statement about an issue in the workplace
and says what the business intends to do about that issue.
A procedure sets out step-by-step instructions on how to
deal with an activity in the workplace.
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Warning signs
Most workplaces will have warning signs around the
building, on the walls and above doors, to warn staff and
customers of hazards or to give instructions about the
business.
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Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Some tasks we do can be dangerous if we do not protect
ourselves, such as when we are using chemicals or
dangerous equipment.
You may need to use PPE when:
Using a chemical to clean cooking equipment
Are working in transport areas such as a storeroom with
forklifts
When using power tools to carry out maintenance work
When cleaning using any chemicals
When disposing of glass into bins
When working where heavy items are
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Reporting Unsafe Conditions
Sometimes managing a large organisation can be difficult
and a manager cannot be everywhere all at once.
These may include:
Broken or damaged electrical appliances or cords.
Uneven floors or broken tiles.
Damage or missing machinery guards (slicer/ mixer).
Blocked fire exits.
Chemical spills.
Unsafe shelving.
Dangerous work practices.
Areas with poor lighting.
Damaged equipment.
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Activity 1
Case Study
Mary needed some cleaning cloths, which were in a carton
on the top shelf of the storeroom. She could not find the
ladder so she used the lower shelves to climb up.
Suddenly, one of the shelves did not take her weight and
broke. As she fell, she grabbed another shelf to stop herself
from falling. Because the shelves were free standing and not
anchored into the floor or fixed onto the wall, the movement
started the shelves falling – they landed on top of her. Paul
raced to stop the shelves falling but was too late. He injured
his arm in his effort to save Mary.
Mary ended up in hospital and is now a paraplegic, while
Paul was off work for six weeks with a broken arm.
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Activity 1 (cont.)
1. What will Mary’s life be like after the injury?
2. Give 3 ways this accident could be avoided
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Unsafe working conditions and practices
Accidents don’t usually just happen. They are often a
combination of factors that are the cause of the accident.
Unsafe working conditions and practices can lead to injury,
illness or even death.
Hazards
Obstructions
Spills
Poor maintenance
No safety guards on machinery or equipment
Poor lighting
Incorrect storage
Unsafe shelving
Incorrect use of equipment
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Common hospitality injuries
Injuries
Burns and scalds
Falls
Possible causes
Hot fat or boiling liquids, open flames, hot pipes, steam vents, electricity,
chemicals, hot equipment and inattentive staff.
Slippery floors, incorrect shoes, obstructions in doorways, bad lighting,
cluttered walkways, carrying large loads, cords over floors, loose floor
coverings, unmarked steps and inattentive staff.
Sprains and strains
Incorrect lifting, heavy loads, falls, using equipment incorrectly or any
unnatural movement.
Machine injuries, e.g.
Not using safety guards, untrained or inattentive staff, not following safety
electrical shocks, parts of directions or ‘how to use’ instructions, faulty equipment or incorrect
the body caught in
equipment for the job.
machines
Chemical injuries, e.g.
burns, lung damage, eye
damage
Mixing chemicals, incorrect storage, decanting incorrectly, not using
protective gear, and chemical spills.
Cuts and abrasions
Not using safety guards, blunt knives, inattentive staff, opening cans or
bottles, broken glass, cleaning sharp equipment or sharp edges on benches and
falls.
Careless staff. It is important to pay attention to what you are doing and to ask
for help if you do not know, or are not sure how to do a job or use a particular
piece of equipment.
All of the above
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Inert gases form beverage systems
Carbon dioxide (CO2) and Nitrogen (N) are two gases used
by hospitality beverage systems to carbonate beers and soft
drinks. These gases are usually stored in large gas
cylinders.
If these gas cylinders are stored in a ‘confined space’ such
as a cellar or cool room then a leak from one of those
cylinders can cause a build up of these gases and be a
danger to anybody entering the confined space.
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How dangerous is CO2
In normal air carbon dioxide is around 0.03% concentration.
At 2% concentration it will double the rate of breathing.
At 3% concentration blood pressure rises and hearing is
impaired.
At 5% concentration a person may be rendered
unconscious and death can occur within 3 minutes.
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How to avoid this problem:
Store these gas bottles in open air areas not confined
spaces with low air flow.
Have staff trained and aware of the danger.
Install a gas monitor alarm.
With every cylinder change install new O rings.
Store gas cylinders upright with chains to hold them
upright.
Don’t have too much in stock; a low stock lowers the risk.
Have inspections of system and monitoring alarm.
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Activity 2
Study the cartoons. Some represent hazards, others,
accidents.
Identify which is which, what might cause the problem, and
if the problem is a hazard, how you would remove it from
the workplace?
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WORKPLACE
HAZARD/ACCIDENT
TYPE OF INJURY
CAUSED BY
SOLUTION
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WORKPLACE
HAZARD/ACCIDENT
TYPE OF INJURY
CAUSED BY
SOLUTION
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WORKPLACE
HAZARD/ACCIDENT
TYPE OF INJURY
CAUSED BY
SOLUTION
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Accident prevention for the workplace
Use a dry oven cloth, not a dirty wet tea-towel when carrying or
using hot pots, plates or dishes.
Use goggles and masks (PPE) when handling cleaning chemicals,
or any chemicals that may have strong fumes, which may burn your
eyes or throat.
Use gloves when handling chemicals. Some chemicals can cause
bad burns.
You should NEVER lift and pour chemicals from a large container
into a smaller one.
If you have to transfer chemicals from large containers into smaller
containers, you should use pumps or taps.
When lifting, always keep your back straight and knees bent and lift
with your legs.
Make sure you are trained how to use the equipment properly and
safely at your workplace.
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Knife safety
Never attempt to catch a falling knife.
Never put knives in the water of a wash up sink
Keep knives sharp
Hand the handle to the other person when passing a knife.
When walking with a knife always hold the knife blade
down.
Don’t throw or play with knives.
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Maintenance
Do not use faulty equipment. Electric shock is still one of the
most common causes of injury in industry.
All power points and cords should be repaired by qualified
service people.
Safety guards that are broken or missing should be
replaced immediately.
Never try to repair equipment yourself. Remember, you are
not an electrician, plumber or a qualified tradesperson..
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Storage
Correct storage for all products is essential whether they are
chemicals, food, beverage or equipment.
Heavy items always should be placed on low/bottom
shelves. Lighter items can be placed higher.
All shelves should be within comfortable reach, or safe
ladders and steps should be available and USED.
Shelving should be safe, secure and strong enough for the
type of goods to be stored on them.
Chemicals should always be stored in separate areas that
are well ventilated and well away from any major source of
heat, because some chemicals react to heat and may
explode.
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Always make sure chemicals are labelled clearly, and follow
the instructions for storage.
Be very careful when transferring chemicals into other
containers and always make sure the new container is labelled.
Chemicals should never be stored near food or beverages.
Chemicals should never be mixed as this may cause an
explosion and injury.
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Lighting
Bad lighting is dangerous, causing people to fall and cut
themselves or trip over obstacles they cannot see.
It also causes eye strain as you try to concentrate on what
you are doing and this makes your job harder.
If there is poor lighting in the work area, it is important to
look at how it can be improved.
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Spills and obstructions
Spills are also a major cause of accidents in the workplace.
If you spill it, clean it up as soon as possible.
If you did not spill it, still clean it up.
Major spills from large drums of liquid, overflows, etc...
may need more than one person to clean up.
Check what type of spill it is by reading the instructions on
the container.
Use safety equipment
Ask someone else to help for two reasons.
Place a ‘slippery floor’ sign at the place of the spill.
Let other staff and customers know that the floor is wet and
slippery.
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Reporting machine faults
Do not expect your Manager or Supervisor to know that the
equipment does not work.
If you use the equipment, you must inform them when
something is not working or in need of repair.
Large premises usually have a system where all repairs are
reported to the supervisor who fills in a maintenance
request and sends it on to the Maintenance department.
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Activity 3
Look around your workplace and identify ten possible
hazards. Explain how these hazards can be managed to
ensure less risk of causing a workplace injury:
HAZARD
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
HOW TO
REMOVE/AVOID
THE HAZARD
HOW TO PREVENT
ACCIDENTS IN THE
FUTURE, e.g. Train staff,
repair machinery
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How to lift and carry
It is important that your work area is laid out correctly.
This will depend on:
Where and how equipment is laid out.
The height of the equipment or work benches.
The size and weight of mobile equipment.
How far you have to carry equipment or goods.
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There are many safe ways of moving large, bulky or heavy
equipment:
Cartons or objects that are large and heavy should always
be lifted by two people onto a trolley for moving over a long
distance.
If the carton or object is being lifted from the floor to a table,
then two people should lift it together.
Large bulky equipment should be treated with care.
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How to lift properly
Bend the knees and keep your back straight!!
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How to sit and stand
Some hospitality workers may work in an office environment.
Working all day at a computer or sitting in an uncomfortable
chair, can also lead to workplace injuries.
Office workstations
An office workstation may consist of:
The computer system - including monitor and keyboard.
The desk.
The chair.
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Standing at a workstation
Basically the same principles apply.
The desk should be at the right height to enable you to
stand erect without having to slouch over or reach up to the
keyboard.
When keying in data, the keyboard should be at a level to
allow your upper arms to hang freely by your side, with the
forearms horizontal to the desk and the elbows at a 90
degree angle.
The top of the monitor should be at eye level, though here
too, this is not always possible when stationed behind a
desk.
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The office working environment
Lighting
Temperature
Air conditioning
Appropriate posture
Preventing RSI
Exercise
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Activity 4
CASE STUDY
The Four Star Hotel received complaints from guests
involving personal articles being taken from their rooms.
Hotel management did a security check and found that keys
were being left out, after staff were finished with them, and
had not been locked in the security cupboard as per
procedure.
Staff had also noticed a stranger wandering around the hotel
in the staff areas, but none of them had reported this. This
person had taken the keys and gone through the rooms. The
person then had returned the keys to the office while it was
unattended and left.
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Activity 4 (cont.)
The Accounts department had also decided they were too
busy to bank today, so they placed the day’s takings in a
locked cupboard until the next day, because the Supervisor
who had the key to the safe had gone home.
The Duty Manager was also busy and decided he would ring
the next day to have the fire extinguishers checked. He
knew one was empty as they had had a small fire in the
laundry two weeks ago and it was used then.
List the security problems here
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Possible security solutions
Robbery
Never keep large amounts of cash on the property.
Clear the cash registers and bank regularly. If your
workplace operates outside banking hours then there are
ways to keep the cash secure, such as floor safes and timeswitched safes.
Do not walk to the bank at a regular time, or routine
direction.
Do not carry large amounts of cash in a shopping bag or
money bag.
If large amounts of cash are banked daily, such in a large
hotel or very busy restaurant, have the cash collected by a
security service.
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Key control
If keys are lost or stolen, it can cost thousands of dollars to
replace the locks and master keys to storerooms, guest
rooms or other areas.
Do not leave keys lying around.
Do not let others use them.
Do not lend or give them to other staff members.
If you lose them, report it straight away.
If there is a theft from those areas, you will be held
responsible.
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Security
Most workplaces have procedures which cover security and
they can be any or all of the following:
Security cards with ID and position of employees.
Specified areas of staff access according to their jobs.
Specific rules as to how certain jobs are performed.
Sign in/out books or time clocks
Specific evacuation procedures.
Specific behaviour standards of staff and behaviour
expectations of clientele.
OH&S procedures
Lock up procedures.
Cash-handling procedures.
Any other procedures to ensure security of staff, guests and
their property.
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Undesirables
The method of removing drunks or drug-affected and other
suspicious or unusual characters is usually set by the
manager.
Lost and found
Any property that you find must be handed in to your
supervisor, manager or security as soon as possible.
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Activity 5
For the security problems identified in the previous activity
give a solution to each
SECURITY PROBLEM
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
POSSIBLE SOLUTION
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EMERGENCY SITUATIONS
Bomb threats
Fire
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Classes of fire
A
B
C
D
E
F
Ordinary combustibles
Such as wood and paper.
Flammable and combustible liquids
Such as petrol, methylated sprits, kerosene.
Flammable gasses
Such as LPG, natural gas.
Flammable metals
Such as Sodium, magnesium potassium. Special advice should be
sought.
Electrical fires
Such as electrical fuse boxes, wiring, and electrical appliances.
Cooking fats and oils
Such as deep fryers, woks with oil, oil in pans and pots.
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Equipment
Fire extinguishers and fire blankets must be available and
in full working order.
Exit doors should be clearly marked and free of
obstruction.
Smoke or fire alarms must be installed.
In large and well organised establishments, regular training
is conducted in emergency evacuation procedures.
Never use the lift in the event of a fire. Lifts all have signs
that clearly state ‘in the event of fire do not use lift’.
Follow the normal emergency procedures for your
establishment.
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Fire blankets
If the fire is small and contained, and it is SAFE to do so, try
to extinguish the flames by using the fire extinguisher or fire
blanket.
You can use the fire blanket to wrap around a person on fire
to put out the flames, or to wrap it around yourself as
protection when you evacuate the area.
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Fire extinguishers
Water type
Water type extinguishers will have a solid red appearance.
They are used for the following fires:
Suitable
Not considered effective
Dangerous if used
Class A
Class B and C
Class E and F
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Vaporising liquid type
Vaporising liquid type extinguishers will have an appearance
of red with a yellow band.
They are used for the following fires:
Suitable
Limited effectiveness
Not considered effective
Class A and E
Class B and C
Class F
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Dry chemical powder type
Dry chemical powder type extinguishers will have an
appearance of red with a white band. There are two types of
dry chemical extinguishers ABE and BE and each type has
different uses.
ABE extinguishers are used for the following fires:
Suitable
Not considered effective
Class A, B, C and E
Class F
BE extinguishers are used for the following fires:
Suitable
Limited effectiveness
Not considered effective
Class B, C and E
Class F
Class A
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Carbon dioxide type
Carbon dioxide type extinguishers will have an appearance
of red
with a black band.
They are used for the following fires:
Suitable
Limited effectiveness
Class E
Class A, B, C and F
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Foam type
Foam type extinguishers will have an appearance of red with
a blue band (some older extinguishers of this type may have
an appearance of solid blue).
They are used for the following fires:
Suitable
May be used
Limited effectiveness
Not considered effective
Dangerous if used
Class B
Class A
Class F
Class C
Class E
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Wet chemical type
Wet chemical type extinguishers will have an appearance of
red with an oatmeal band (some older extinguishers of this
type may have an appearance of solid oatmeal).
They are used for the following fires:
Suitable
May be used
Not considered effective
Dangerous if used
Class F
Class A
Class B and C
Class E
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Operation
Quick consideration needs to be given before making the
decision to fight a fire.
In Australia the way to use a portable fire extinguisher is
called the PASS system; this can be described by the
following
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Fire procedures
Call Reception or Switchboard and report the fire.
Tell them the:
Location.
Size of the fire.
Type of fire, i.e. electrical, oil, chemical, general.
If there are any injuries.
If you do not have a main switch or reception Dial 000.
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Someone will ask what service you need – tell them you
have a “FIRE”.
They will then put you through to the Fire Service.
Give the following information:
Your name.
Address, location of the fire.
Type of fire.
Size of the fire and if it has spread or is contained in one
area.
If anyone is injured and how many.
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What next?
Listen for any instructions.
Get out of the area and close all doors and windows
behind you.
If others are in the area, warn them of the fire.
Help them if it does not place you or others in greater
danger.
Notify your supervisor or manager.
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Evacuation procedures
Always follow your Supervisor’s instructions or your
establishment’s fire evacuation procedures, to ensure you
go to the correct assembly area.
Managers and supervisors will need to check all staff
and, if possible, whether all guests have been evacuated
and accounted for.
Do not leave the area until told to.
Do not go back into the building until the fire brigade or
police say it is safe.
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Emergency procedures
Medical
Make sure there is no danger to you or the victim, then tell
your supervisor/manager of the emergency. The situation
may be:
A person has a heart attack.
A person slips and falls.
A person collapses.
A person is severely cut by machinery.
A person has been affected by chemicals.
A person is injured in a fight.
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Call an ambulance
Check that you know the address where you are so you
can tell the ambulance.
Keep the victim calm and get help.
Dial 000. Someone will ask what service you need – tell
them “an ambulance”. They will then put you through to the
ambulance service who will ask you some questions.
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If the person is conscious, ask questions and get
information such as:
How did this happen?
Are they in pain and where is the pain?
Has it happened before?
Are they on medication?
Who is their next of kin or is there someone they should
notify?
If the patient is NOT conscious:
Do not disturb or move the patient unless the injured
person is in further danger. Call for help.
Check if the person has a medical bracelet or lock with
information, e.g. diabetes, heart condition, epilepsy, etc...
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Chemical spills and toxic fumes
If there is a large spill of chemicals or you are experiencing
strong fumes:
Tell your supervisor/manager of the emergency.
You may then be required to dial 000. Someone will ask
what service you need – tell them what the problem is –
either toxic fumes or a chemical spill. They will usually put
you through to the fire service who will ask you some
questions.
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Give them all the information you can such as:
Address of the spill location.
Type of chemical (if known).
Is there a risk of fire?
Is anyone hurt and how many?
Evacuate the area.
Ask everyone to move to a safe area in an orderly fashion.
Keep people together so that you can account for everyone.
Most chemicals have toxic fumes. Depending on the
amount of chemical spilled, you may need to evacuate the
whole building or just the area.
If possible open the windows and doors to allow the fumes
to escape.
If there is a danger of fire, evacuate and leave it to the
professionals to deal with.
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Evacuation procedures
DIAL 000 or notify the main switchboard.
Check that no one else is in the area.
If there is no danger to yourself, assist injured people.
Leave via the nearest emergency exit.
Do not use the lifts.
Go directly to the designated Assembly Area or Meeting
Point.
Remain there until your manager or supervisor has
checked that everyone is present.
Do not leave this area until you are told to leave by your
Supervisor or the police.
Do not go back into the building until the police or fire
brigade tell you it is safe to do so.
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Participate in WHS practices
WorkHealth and Safety is the responsibility of everybody not
just the boss.
You must play your part in the process and be part of the
team that makes a safe workplace for everybody.
Most large workplaces will have some formal consultation
processes such as Health and Safety Representatives and
an Work Health and Safety Committee.
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Your Responsibilities
It is your responsibility to ensure that your immediate work
area is free from hazards and is a safe environment for you
and others to work in.
You will need to inform and consult your supervisor and
manger of any areas or issues you see in your immediate
work area and help them fix the problem to make the
workplace safe for everybody.
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Activity 6
In Australia
1. What telephone number do you dial to call the fire
brigade?
2. What telephone number do you dial to call the police?
3. What telephone number do you dial to call the
ambulance?
4. Give three questions to ask a person in a medical
emergency if they are capable:
5. Name two situations which you would say are a medical
emergency
6. Give four things you should do in an evacuation
7. Give three things you should do for a chemical spill
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Work health and safety law
Workplace safety is called ‘Work Health and Safety’ or
‘WH & S’.
The laws for Work Health and Safety in Australia are very
strict and are made up of three parts. Work health and
safety legislation is covered by both State and Federal
legislation.
ACTS OF PARLIAMENT are laws made by elected
parliaments and these are the most important. Each state in
Australia has its own laws, they are very similar but not
exactly the same.
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REGULATIONS are the rules that deal with certain issues
in greater detail than are contained in the Act of parliament;
CODES OF PRACTICE are standards set by the industry
for the industry.
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FOLLOW HEALTH,
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Employer responsibilities and Duty of care
The following points outline employer responsibilities:
1. An employer MUST provide a safe workplace for
workers and visitors.
2. Employers MUST train workers how to use equipment
and work in a safe manner.
3. Employers MUST know and abide by the laws, including
Acts, regulations and codes of practice.
4. An employer may be required to set up an Work Health
and Safety Committee – this is particularly for larger
workplaces.
5. An employer MUST consult and discuss safety issues
with the workers.
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6. Employers MUST also maintain an injury register. This is
compulsory in order to forward claims to the insurance
agency with which the employer has its workers’
compensation policy.
7. An employer MUST provide safety equipment such as
masks, goggles and gloves when using chemicals; ear
protectors if using very noisy equipment; protective clothing
must be provided in some workplace.
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FOLLOW HEALTH,
SAFETY AND SECURITY
PROCEDURES
Employee responsibilities and Duty of care
An employee has a responsibility to the employer under
current legislation to work safely by following all safety
directions of supervisors or managers.
1. Work in a manner that is safe to fellow workers.
2. An employee cannot refuse to follow safe work practices
that have been set up in the workplace, e.g. Refusal to
wear goggles and a mask when using corrosive
chemicals, like oven cleaners, is to behave in a wilful and
dangerous manner, which will endanger your health.
3. Report any injury or illness as soon as possible to the
supervisor or manager.
4. Use all safety equipment provided correctly for the jobs it
is supplied for.
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5. Report all faulty equipment.
6. Refrain from damaging or removing safety guards, etc...On
equipment employees use, or interfering with the safe
operation of any machinery or equipment used at work.
7. Refrain from interfering with or getting in the way of
someone who is trying to assist any person who may be
hurt or in danger.
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Activity 7
CASE STUDY
John is a new employee. His Supervisor has trained him
how to safely and correctly move and stack all the heavy
cartons to the storeroom, when they are delivered. A trolley
is provided for this.
John decided that the cartons were not that heavy, so he
stacked one on top of the other and picked them up. He
could not be bothered to go into the storeroom to collect the
trolley.
As he started to stand up he felt a pain in his back. He
continued to lift the cartons and carry them to the store.
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FOLLOW HEALTH,
SAFETY AND SECURITY
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Activity 7 (cont.)
The cartons were too high for him to see over them and next
thing he knew he was falling.
RESULT: One broken leg and an injured back, three days
after starting a new job.
1. What are the employer’s duties of care?
2. What are John’s duties of care?
3. What duties of care where broken and by who?
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FOLLOW HEALTH,
SAFETY AND SECURITY
PROCEDURES
These PowerPoints are designed to match Version
2.3 of the student resource.

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