Presentation - Wayne Fielder

Report
1861 EAST TENNESSEE
UNIONIST REBELLION
Causes and Effects
&
The people who made it happen
AGENDA
 Migrations that formed Tennessee
 Political Conditions in Tennessee
 Military Situation
 Cloaks and Daggars
 Starts and Stumbles
 Execution
 Lessons Learned
MIGRATIONS
 Settlement along with Watauga River 1770
• James Robertson
• John Sevier
 Jurisdiction
• Virginia
• North Carolina
• If not them, then who?
MIGRATIONS
 Watauga Association Government
• 13 Member Legislative Body
• 5 of those appointed as Commissioners
• 1 of those 5 elected by Commissioners as Chairman who presided over
the Courts.
 Watauga Association 1772
• “They were the first men of American Birth to establish a free and
independent community on the Continent” (Theodore Roosevelt
Winning of the West, p183)
• “…the first written compact for civil government anywhere west of the
Alleghanies." (JGM Ramsey, Annals of Tennessee p107)
MIGRATIONS
 1779 Nashville is founded by James Robertson and other
Wataugans.
 1784 – 1788 State of Franklin
MIGRATIONS
 June 1st 1796 Tennessee Statehood
• Knoxville as Capital
• Constitution seemingly a recitation of all previous wrongs against the
people of Watauga and protections against it.
• Thomas Jefferson, referring to Tennessee’s Constitution said, “"The
most republican of all the constitutions adopted by the states.“
MIGRATIONS
Trade
Easier Farming
More Room!
POLITICS
Political Influence
POLITICS
 Nashville and Middle Tennessee – Explosive Growth.
• 1790 – 1830 Nashville grew 273%
• 1817 Capital of Tennessee moves to Murfreesboro
• 1826 Capital is moved again to Nashville
 Knoxville and East Tennessee – Stagnant Growth
• 1790 - 1830 Knox county grew only 20% after suffering an 18% loss
of population in 1810.
• The removal of the Capital from Knoxville had to rub the people of
East Tennessee the wrong way.
POLITICS
 Tension by the numbers
• February 1861 Secession Convention vote fails by roughly 9,000
votes
• East Tennessee rejects the proposal 33,000 – 7,000
• Many counties rejecting by 80% or greater
 Unionist Conventions
• May 30th Convention in Knoxville
• Report made no friends with their opposition.
• Adjourned to await the outcome of the June 8th vote on Secession
“subject to the call of the President”
POLITICS
 Tennessee secedes from the Union June 8th, 1861
 East Tennessee Unionist Convention President T.A.R. Nelson calls
for a second meeting in Greeneville on June 17th.
• Unionists on the way to Greeneville attacked near Strawberry Plains
by Louisiana Tigers as the passed on the tracks.
• Louisana Tigers ride into Greeneville during the convention and
“committed some minor outrages”.
• Exciting time. Much lively debate, what time they were not dodging
armed and angry Confederate soldiers.
POLITICS
 Greeneville Convention Debate
• Opening Remarks by John Netherland
• T.A.R. Nelson’s Resolutions
• Supported by Rev. William Blount Carter and others
• Oliver P Temple’s Resolutions
• Supported by Horace Maynard and others
• Very heated debates but a final list of 6 Resolutions were passed by
acclamation.
• There is some evidence to suggest that some of the participants were
just ready to go home.
MILITARY SITUATION
 Late summer 1861 in the Western Theatre
 Reverend William Blount Carter leaves Tennessee for Kentucky.
 Kentucky
• A few Union raw regiments still organizing
• Home Guards defending counties, loyalties suspect
• State Militia was forming under orders of Simon B Buckner
 Tennessee
• Confederate Troops travelling by rail to Virginia
• Bridges guarded by Confederate troops
• Union Regiments quietly gathering
MILITARY SITUATION
 September of 1861 in the Western Theatre
 Kentucky
• September CSA General Polk takes Columbus Kentucky
• September had several Infantry and Cavalry organizations in the field.
• Neighboring states began sending troops to Kentucky
 Tennessee
• CS General Zollicoffer moves into Kentucky
• Cumberland Gap occupied by CS Col Churchwell(4th TN) and Rains(11th
TN)
 Reverend Carter goes to Washington
CLOAKS & DAGGERS
 Rev. William Blount Carter’s Plan
CLOAKS & DAGGERS
 Rev. William Blount Carter’s Plan
• President Lincoln agrees to the plan
• Secretary of State Seward offers $2,500 for the cause
• General McClellan will keep the Army of Northern Virginia and
Confederates in Middle Tennessee busy.
 Return trip…
•
•
•
•
Stops at Camp Dick Robinson
Gen. Thomas convinces Gen. Sherman
Date is set for November 8th.
Takes Daniel Fry and William Pickens back with him.
CLOAKS & DAGGERS
 Rev. William Blount Carter’s Lieutenants
Daniel Stover
William Pickens
William Cross
Alfred Madison Cate
David Fry
CLOAKS & DAGGERS
 Colonel Daniel Stover, 4th Tennessee Infantry
Daniel Stover
William Pickens
William Cross
David Fry
CLOAKS & DAGGERS
 Captain David Fry, Co F, 2nd Tennessee Infantry
David Fry
CLOAKS & DAGGERS
 Colonel William Cowan Pickens, 3rd Tennessee Infantry
William Pickens
CLOAKS & DAGGERS
 William Cross
William Cross
CLOAKS & DAGGERS
 Captain Alfred Madison Cate, Co G, 6th Tennessee Infantry
Alfred Madison Cate
STARTS AND STUMBLES
 Reverend Carter had his men set.
 October 16th 1861
 October 21st 1861
 October 28th 1861
 Can’t unring the bell
STARTS AND STUMBLES
 October 16th 1861 – Sherman meets with SecWar Cameron
McClellan
100,000
Fremont
60,000
100
Miles
Sherman
18,000
300+ Miles
100
Miles
STARTS AND STUMBLES
 October 21st 1861 – Battle at Camp Wildcat
Thomas
Zollicoffer
STARTS AND STUMBLES
 October 28th 1861 – Battle at Camp Wildcat
Sherman
AS Johnston
Buckner
CLOAKS & DAGGERS
 Rev. William Blount Carter’s Plan already in trouble…
 But the show must go on…
CLOAKS & DAGGERS
 November 9th, 1861
EXECUTION
 Colonel Daniel Stover, 4th Tennessee Infantry
"Only one of these bridges, the one over the Holston, was
- Daniel Stover
destroyed.
guarded
by Captain
David McClelland's
- B: 14The
NOVother
1826 was
Carter,
Tennessee,
USA William
Pickens
company
of
Confederate
Infantry,
and
the
attempt
at
its
- D: 18 DEC 1864 Nashville, Davidson, Tennessee, USA
destruction
wasMary
therefore
ThereCross
was a guard of two
- Married
Johnsonabandoned..
William
B: 8 May Bridge.
1832 Greeneville,
Greene,
Tennessee,
USA and
men at the- Watauga
These were
easily
overpowered
- D: 19lives
Aprilwere
1883spared
Bluff City,
Sullivan,
Tennessee,
USAwould
captured. Their
on the
promise
that they
Daughter
Andrew
Johnson the bridge. Yet they
not reveal -the
namesofofSenator
the men
who burned
went away and disclosed the names of all whom they recognized.“
East Tennessee and the Civil War, OP Temple, p385
Daniel Stover
David Fry
EXECUTION
 Captain David Fry, Co F, 2nd Tennessee Infantry
Captain David Fry
B: 1825 Tennessee, USA
Bridge successfully destroyed.
D: bef 1880
Captain Fry mustered each
Overall Success in doubt
Married
of his party
into Co F,
5 of the 8 men involved hangedmember
by Confederate
Authorities
Catherine S Goreley 2nd East Tennessee the night
B: 1824 Tennessee,
before. USA
David Fry
EXECUTION
 Jacob and Henry Harmon
Jacob Harmon
B: 2 JUN 1818 Midway, Greene County, Tennessee, USA
17 DEC 1861 Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee, USA
HenryD:Harmon
Married
November
1837
Greene,
Tennessee,
United
States
B:
3 Sept3 1839
Midway,
Greene,
Tennessee,
United
States
Self
D: 17 DecMalinda
1861 Knoxville,
Tennessee, USA
B: 26 Jan 1818 Midway, Greene, Tennessee, USA
D: 30 May 1872 Midway, Greene, Tennessee, USA
Pottertown \ Harmon Cemetery
Greeneville Tennessee
Find A Grave Memorial# 9101540
David Fry
EXECUTION
 Jacob Madison Hinshaw & Henry Fry
Jacob
Jacob
Madison
Hinshaw
Henry
FryM Hinshaw
Private
B:
County,Tennessee,
Tennessee,USA
USA
B: 87 DEC
DEC 1840
1823 Hawkins
Greene County,
Co
F30
D:
County,
Tennessee,
D:
30 NOV
NOV 1861
1861 Greene
Greeneville,
Greene
County,USA
Tennessee, USA
nd
2
Tennessee
Infantry
Married
Married 9 Nov 1843 Greene County Tennessee
Almarinda
Walker
Maria Barbara
Wampler
Long Cemetery
1839Mosheim,
Tennessee,Greene
USA County Tennessee
B:B:11About
Nov 1824
Hawkins County
October
D:D:1018Jun
1899 1913 Hawkins County, Tennessee, USA
Tennessee
Find A Grave# 73702193
Blue Springs Cemetery, Mosheim, Greene County
Tennessee
David Fry
EXECUTION
 Christopher Alexander Haun
Christopher Alexander Haun
Concord Baptist
B: 14 SEP 1821 Greene County, Tennessee, USA
Church Cemetery
D: 11 Dec 1861 Knoxville, Knox County, Tennessee,
USA
Married 29 Dec 1846 Greene, Tennessee
436 Concord Road,
Elizabeth Cobble
B: 1820 Greene, Tennessee, UnitedMohawk,
States TN 37810
D: 10 Mar 1909 Greene, Tennessee, United States
David Fry
EXECUTION
 Harrison Self
Harrison Self
B: 15 Jul 1813 Gap Creek Valley, Greene, Tennessee, United States
D: 23 May 1888 Rush, Indiana, United States
Married
Sarah Camias Cobble
B: 28 Aug 1810 Tennessee, United States
D: 1863 Blue Springs, Greene, Tennessee, United States
David Fry
EXECUTION
 Hugh Andrew Self
Hugh Andrew Self
B: 9 Apr 1845 Blue Springs, Greene, Tennessee, United States
D: 20 Oct 1910 McDonald County, Missouri, USA
Find A Grave Memorial# 49091515
Married 26 Aug 1875 Greene, Tennessee
Owsley Union Cemetery
Happy M Ealy
Longview
(McDonald
B: Oct 1858 Greene,
Tennessee,
USA County)
D: 27 Jan 1924 McDonald
McDonald,County
Missouri, USA
Missouri, USA
David Fry
EXECUTION
 Colonel William Cowan Pickens, 3rd Tennessee Infantry
Colonel William Cowan Pickens
B: 07 MAR 1825 Sevier County,
Tennessee, USA
D: 8 Apr 1872 Sevier, Tennessee,
United States
Eusebia Cemetery,
Married 11 Feb 1847 Blount, Tennessee,USA
Eusebia,
Susan McCammon
Sevier Co
B: 1830 Lowes Ferry, Blount,Tennesse
Tennessee, United States
D: 1886 Blount, Tennessee,
United States
William Pickens
EXECUTION
 Colonel Daniel Mack Ray, 2nd Tennessee Cavalry
Colonel Daniel Mack Ray
B: 27 MAR 1833 Yancey County, NC,
Yates Center
USA
County
D: 1913 Woodson County,Woodson
Kansas, USA
Kansas, USA
Married
Louise A. Farris Plot: Block 11 # 49
Find A Grave
B: Mar 1828 Kentucky
Memorial#
48364879
D: 1900 Woodson
County,
Kansas
William Pickens
EXECUTION
 Other members of the team
- James Montgomery (became Captain in the US
Private James Keelan
Volunteers)
1828 Virginia
- AbeB:Smith
12 Feb 1895 Bristol, Sullivan County,
- B.F.D:
Franklin
Tennessee,
USA(became Lieutenant in the US
- White
Underdown
Married
25 Oct 1846 Knox, Tennessee
Volunteers)
- William
(became Captain in the US
MaryMontgomery
Hoeper
Volunteers)
B: abt 1825 Tennessee
- Elijah Gamble
D: (became Lieutenant in the US
Volunteers)
- "a father and a son - the son objecting to the
mention of either his father's or his own name."
- All men from Sevier County
William Pickens
EXECUTION
 William Cross
There is little information on the fate or identity
of
theother
men
involved
in theassociated
effort
to burn
the 3rd
The
There
is a leaders
William
assigned
Cross
to bridges
with
eventually
the
bridge
at
Loudon.
certain rank
William
Cross
is
found
Tennessee
their
Infantry:
way to A
a similar
in one
of the
mentioned
by Temple.
early Tennessee
Union organizations(Infantry William Cross
and
Soldier's
Cavalry)
Rank
soIn:Major
Col. William Cross may well be
the
Soldier's
man. Rank Out:Colonel
Alternate name:
Chances
Film Number:M392
are the bridge
rollwas
4 heavily guarded and
the
Src:attempt
NPS Soldiers
was abandoned.
and Sailors
EXECUTION
 Captain Alfred Madison Cate, Co G, 6th Tennessee Infantry
Captain Alfred Madison Cate
B: 20 Dec 1822 McMinn County, Tennessee,
USA
D: 13 Sep 1871 Sweetwater, Monroe, Tennessee,
USA
Married 7 Nov 1843 Monroe Tennessee USA
Alfred Madison Cate
Louisa J Walker
B: 1824 Tennessee, United States
D: aft 1900
Buried in Wells Cemetery, Hamilton County,
Tennessee
EXECUTION
 Captain Alfred Madison Cate
 Hiwassee
Thomas
L CatesBridge
B: 3•JunAdam
1833 Thomas
Tennessee, USA
Fort Hill
D:Cemetery
19
Cleveland, Bradley, Tennessee,
• Mar
Jesse1907
F Cleveland
Cleveland
USA• Eli Cleveland
Bradley
County
Married
1860
Tennessee,
United
Statesof A.M. Cate)
• Thomas
L Cate
(Brother
Tennessee, USA
Margaret Hall
Plot: 14, Plot 056B: 28 Dec 1842 Bradley County,
Find A Grave
Tennessee
Memorial# 39704185
D: 25 Jun 1918 Cleveland, Bradley,
Tennessee
EXECUTION
 Captain Alfred Madison Cate
 Chattanooga Bridge
• W.T. CateSheriff
(Brother of A.M. Cate)
William T. Cate
William T• Cate
W.H. Crowder
B: 13 Jan 1830 Tennessee, United States
D: 14 Sep 1882 Tennessee, United States
Married
Hamilton County
Department, Tennessee
Malissa Sheriff's
J Overton
End of Watch:
Thursday,
September
14, 1882
B: abt
1834 Tennessee,
United
States
D: 21 Jun 1864
“Sheriff Cate and Deputy Sheriff John Conway were
shot and killed when a prisoner they were transporting
escaped.”
EXECUTION
 Captain Alfred Madison Cate
 Bridgeport Alabama
• R.B. Rogan
• James D. Keener
LESSONS LEARNED
 The East Tennessee Rebellion was an emotional response.
 The resulting persecution had an enormous impact.
 The Failure of Federal Army Commanders to send that Military
Column provides one of the greatest “What ifs” of the Civil War.
THANK YOU!
Questions?
 Family Group Sheets, links to my Ancestry Trees, this
presentation, and all images are available at my blog:
HTTP://WWW.WAYNEFIELDER.COM

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