HOW TO WRITE A SOCIAL STORY

Report
HOW TO WRITE
A SOCIAL STORY
Created By:
Teressa Feierabend, LSSP
Presented By:
Trudie Dewey
Carol Gray Website,
Carol Gray,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vjlIYYbVIrI
Why Write Social Stories,
Using Social Stories™ is a cost-effective way to
provide a student with an autism spectrum
disorder an unlimited amount of information
about social events and social expectations.
It is an individualized approach, but Social
Stories™ can be used for different students.
A TRUE SOCIAL STORY,
There are many “social stories” available on the
internet and other sources that are not true
Social Stories™.
To be a true Social Story™, the story must meet
the criteria presented today.
BEFORE WE BEGIN,
AUDIENCE – the student or child
AUTHOR – parent or teacher
STORY – social story
TEAM – parents and professionals working
together on behalf of the child
The 10.1 Criteria,
1. One Goal
2. Two-Part Discovery
3. Three Parts and a Title
4. FOURmat
5. Five Factors Define Voice and Vocabulary
6. Six Questions Guide Story Development
7. Seven Types of Sentences
8. A Gr-eight Formula
9. Nine Makes It Mine
10.Ten Guides to Editing and Implementation
Criterion 1: One Goal,
The goal of a Social Story is to share
accurate information using a process,
format, voice, and content that is
descriptive, meaningful, and physically,
socially, and emotionally safe for the
Audience. Every Social Story has an
overall patient and reassuring tone.
TM
TM
Criterion 1: One Goal,
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders
perceive social events differently.
Social Stories™ help students with Autism
Spectrum Disorders understand social
events and social expectations.
Criterion 1: One Goal,
Is the goal of a Social Stories™ to get the
Audience to do what the Author or Team
wants him/her to do?
•
Yes • No
Criterion 1: One Goal,
NO: The most common
misconception is that the goal
of a Social Story™ is to change
the Audience’s (i.e., student)
behavior.

Criterion 1: One Goal,
 Not understanding social events and
expectations can result in frustration
and/or maladaptive behavior.
 We use the Social Story™ to address
the student’s difficulty understanding
social situations.
Criterion 1: One Goal,
Improving understanding of
social events and expectations
can improve behavior.
Criterion 1: One Goal,
Every Social Story™ has an
unfaltering respect for its
Audience, regardless of the
topic.
Criterion 1: One Goal,
The physical, social, and
emotional safety of a Story is
an Author’s first concern.
Criterion 1: One Goal,
Don’t write a socially unsafe
story.
Mrs. Barnes, a first grade teacher, writes a
story for Adam, age six. She includes the
following statements about her class:
“We’re all friends here. Friends cooperate
with friends.”
Criterion 1: One Goal,
Two “friends” from his class approach him,
and tell him to pull down his pants.
Working from the information in the story,
that these two classmates are friends and
friends cooperate with one another, Adam
complies with their request. He’s confused
as they turn, laughing, and walk away.
Criterion 1: One Goal,
Adam’s story was inaccurate. Classmates in
a classroom are not all friends. Mrs.
Barnes did not write a Social Story . With
all good and noble intentions, she wrote a
socially unsafe story.
TM
Criterion 1: One Goal,
Carol Gray states that the most frequent
Author mistakes are statements in a story
that threaten emotional safety.
Examples:
“I often interrupt”
“Sometimes, I hit other children”
“I often don’t listen when people are talking to
me and that’s rude.”
Criterion 1: One Goal,
Self-deprecating statements or
negative references to the
Audience are not allowed in a
Social Story™.
Criterion 2: Two-Step
Discovery,
Keeping the goal in mind, Authors (i.e.,
teachers and parents)
1. Gather accurate information
1. Then, identify the topic and types of
information that will be shared in the
STORY.
Criterion 2: Two-Step Discovery,
A child with an autism spectrum disorder
(ASD) may frequently perceive social
events differently.
Here, the Author attempts to understand how
the situation from the Audience’s point of
view.
Criterion 2: Two-Step Discovery,
Ex.
Andrew, a student in Mrs. Clark’s first-grade
class, struggled in math. Only once had
he raised his hand for help. As his
consultant, I was curious as to why
Andrew had given up on the hand-raising
process. I decided to try drawing a
picture with Andrew to learn more.
We drew about what happened
when Andrew raised his hand.
Criterion 2: Two-Step Discovery,
While doing so, Andrew said, “I’m never
going to raise my hand again. My teacher
doesn’t know anything about math.” I
asked why he felt that way. “Well, I raised
my hand. Mrs. Clark came over and said,
‘Okay, Andrew, what’s the first number?’
Mrs. Gray, she doesn’t even know her
numbers!”’ The story topics became
clear.
Criterion 2: Two-Step Discovery,
One described what his teacher knows. It
included copies of her diploma and firstgrade math assignments that she had
completed. The second Story explained
why teachers ask questions when they
already know the answers.
Criterion 3: Three Parts
and a Title,
A Social Story has a title and introduction
that clearly identifies the topic, a body that
adds detail, and a conclusion that
reinforces and summarizes the
information.
TM
Criterion 3: Three Parts
and a Title,
TITLE
BODY
CONCLUSION
Criterion 3: Three Parts
and a Title,
TITLE & INTRODUCTION (Introduce)
BODY (Describe)
CONCLUSION (Reinforce the most
important concepts in a Social Story .
TM
Criterion 3: Three Parts
and a Title,
INTRODUCTION
Includes a clear topic sentence.
Ex. “If I lose a toy, people can help.”
May include a sentence to gain attention:
Ex. “My name is Jeremy.”
Criterion 3: Three Parts
and a Title,
BODY
Adds further description/explanation.
Ex. “Mom or dad knows how to find my
toy. We will try to think and look.”
Criterion 3: Three Parts
and a Title,
CONCLUSION
Refers the Audience back to the beginning. It
restates the original purpose with the
benefit of additional information.
Ex. “People can help me look for my
toy.”
Criterion 3: Three Parts
and a Title,
My name is Jeremy.
If I lose a toy, people can help.
Mom or dad knows how to find
my toy. We will try to think and
look.
People can help me look for my toy.
Criterion 3: Three Parts
and a TitleACTIVITY,
Directions: Considering the 3rd Criterion,
complete the sentence below:
A Social Story must have a minimum of
___ sentences.
TM
3
LET’S REVIEW,
Name the first 3 criteria:
1. One Goal
2. Two-Part Discovery
3. Three Parts & a Title
Criterion 4: FOURmat!,
A Social Story has a format that clarifies
content and enhances meaning for
the Audience.
TM
Criterion 4: FOURmat!,
The “format” refers to how the text and
illustration are tailored to the needs of
the Audience.
Criterion 4: FOURmat!,
Must consider:
1. The length of the Story
2. Sentence structure
3. Vocabulary
4. Font style/size
5. Organization
Criterion 4: FOURmat!,
Age and Ability
Younger Child
• Story needs to be brief!
• Will contain 3 to 12 short sentences
(eliminate commas to create 2 short
sentences rather than 1 long
sentence)
Criterion 4: FOURmat!,
Repetition, Rhythm, and Rhyme
Ex. “On the playground, I may play on the
swings, I may play on the slide, I may play
on the monkey bars, or I may play
something else.”
Ex. Feeling angry is okay. It’s
important what I do and say.”
Criterion 4: FOURmat!,
Repetition, Rhythm, and Rhyme
Consider the Audience when deciding. Some
Audiences may regard them as “babyish”
and insulting.
Never risk insulting the Audience!
Criterion 4: FOURmat!,
ILLUSTRATION
Using visual arts to support the meaning of
text (e.g., actual objects, photos, videos,
drawings, PowerPoint presentations,
figures, charts, and diagrams).
Criterion 4: FOURmat!,
ILLUSTRATION
Use caution. Don’t use anything that
misleads or confuses the Audience.
Criterion 5: Five Factors
Define Voice and Vocabulary,
A Social Story has a patient and supportive
“voice” and vocabulary that is defined by
five factors:
1. First- or Third- Person Perspective
2. Positive and Patient Tone
3. Past, Present, and/or Future Tense
4. Literal Accuracy
5. Accurate Vocabulary
TM
Criterion 5: Five Factors Define
Voice and Vocabulary,
First- or Third- Person Perspective
Many Social StoriesTM are written in a
first-person voice, as though the
Audience is describing the situation,
event, or concept.
This presents information from an
Audience vantage point.
Criterion 5: Five Factors Define
Voice and Vocabulary,
Take care not to “put words into the mouth” of
the Audience, when it is not representative
of the Audience’s experience.
Ex. “I will like recess.”
Even though a Story is written in the
first-person voice, it is likely it will contain
both first- and third-person perspective
statements.
Criterion 5: Five Factors Define
Voice and Vocabulary,
A Social Story that is written from a thirdperson voice, similar to a newspaper
article, is called a Social Article.
TM
Social Articles may use columns, advanced
vocabulary and/or Times New Roman font
to minimize any “babyish” or insulting
quality in the text. They are for an older
or more advanced Audience.
Criterion 5: Five Factors Define
Voice and Vocabulary,
POSITIVE AND PATIENT TONE
A Social Story uses positive language. A
person with an autism spectrum disorder
(ASD) is more likely to be challenged,
corrected, and re-directed far more
frequently than his or her peers.
TM
Criterion 5: Five Factors Define
Voice and Vocabulary,
POSITIVE AND PATIENT TONE
A Social Story keeps the self-esteem of the
Audience safe.
TM
Examples like “I have difficulty listening to my
teacher” or “Sometimes when I am angry, I
hit people” provide little usable
information.
Criterion 5: Five Factors Define
Voice and Vocabulary,
POSITIVE AND PATIENT TONE
Authors never use the Audience voice in
reference to his or her negative behavior.
Instead, an Author may describe a specific
negative behavior in general, without
“pointing a finger” at the Audience.
Criterion 5: Five Factors Define
Voice and Vocabulary,
PAST, PRESENT, AND/OR FUTURE TENSE
People readily use information from their past
to build self-esteem, solve problems, and
anticipate likely outcomes.
So, Authors may include references to the
past, and use the past, present,
and/or future tense in a STORY.
Criterion 5: Five Factors Define
Voice and Vocabulary,
ACCURATE VOCABULARY
Accurate vocabulary refers to words that
most efficiently represent the Author’s
intended meaning.
Criterion 5: Five Factors Define
Voice and Vocabulary,
ACCURATE VOCABULARY
Two considerations:
1. Positive verbs are preferable to negative
counterparts.
Ex. “I will try not to run in the hallway.”
“I will try to walk in the hallway.”
Criterion 5: Five Factors Define
Voice and Vocabulary,
ACCURATE VOCABULARY
Two considerations:
2. Verbs are notorious for the subtle but
critical contrasts between them.
“Dad will get the milk at the store.”
“Dad will buy milk at the store.”
(Get milk may be shoplifting).
Criterion 5: Five Factors Define
Voice and
VocabularyACTIVITY,
Directions: Which of the sentences may be used in a Social
StoryTM?
___ I shouldn’t run in the house.
___I will keep the paint on the paper.
___You’ll have fun at recess.
___Veterinarians know a lot about
dogs, cats, and other animals.
5. ___ Because our plans are up in the air,
this is no time to decide on an itinerary.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Criterion 5: Five Factors Define
Voice and Vocabulary,
I shouldn’t run in the house.
Many times, it’s important to run in
the house.
I will keep the paint on the paper.
I will try to keep the paint on the
paper.
You’ll have fun at recess.
At recess, I may play on the swings.
I may play with ball. Or, I may
decide to play something else.
Because our plans are up in the air,
this Is no time to decide on an
itinerary.
When Dad knows the dates for his
vacation this year, our family will
plan a trip to California.
LET’S REVIEW,
Name the first 5 criteria:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
One Goal
Two-Part Discovery
Three Parts & a Title
FOURmat
Five Factors Define Voice and
Vocabulary
Criterion 6: Six Questions
Guide Story Development,
A Social Story answers six relevant
questions:
1. Where - describing the context
2. When - time-related information
3. Who - relevant people
4. What - important cues
5. How - basic activities, behaviors
6. Why – reasons and/or rationale behind
them
TM
Criterion 6: Six Questions Guide
Story Development,
A single, opening sentence can answer many
“wh” questions:
“My family (who) is going (what) to the beach
(where) today (when).
Criterion 6: Six Questions Guide
Story Development,
This may be followed with a brief statement
that answers how the trip to the beach will
occur: “We’ll ride in our car to the beach.”
or a sentence that explains why this activity is
planned:
“Many families have fun when they
visit the beach.”
Criterion 6: Six Questions Guide
Story Development,
A Social Story succinctly identifies who is
involved, where and when a situation
occurs, what is happening, how it
happens, and why.
TM
While not all “wh” questions are answered
in every Story, they are all considered.
Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social
Story Sentences,
TM
There are 7 possible types of sentences that
may be used in a Story.
Descriptive Sentences are the only required
sentences; all of the others are optional.
Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social
Story Sentences,
TM
DESCRIPTIVE SENTENCES
Descriptive sentences are factual and objective.
They describe:
1. Context
2. The relevant but often unspoken
aspects of a situation, person,
activity, skill, or concept.
Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social
Story Sentences,
TM
DESCRIPTIVE SENTENCES
The best place to start when learning to write Descriptive
Sentences is to pretend that you are looking through the
lens of a camera.
Describe:
• What you see.
• And, the information the camera doesn’t record –
what many people mistakenly assume that
Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social
Story Sentences,
TM
DESCRIPTIVE SENTENCES EXAMPLES:
“There are many vacation days during the
year.”
“Some vacations are long, and others are
short.”
“Wrapping hides a gift, and helps to
Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social
Story Sentences,
TM
PERSPECTIVE SENTENCES
Authors may make mistakes when guessing the
Audience perspective. For this reason,
Perspective Sentences are rarely used to
describe the internal status of the Audience.
The only exception is when the Audience’s
own references to positive thoughts
or feelings are used. Ex. “I often say,
Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social
Story Sentences,
TM
PERSPECTIVE SENTENCES
A Social StoryTM Article may contain Perspective
Sentences.
Perspective Sentences are statements that accurately
refer to, or describe, a person’s internal state,
or their knowledge, feelings, beliefs,
opinions, motivation, or physical
condition or health.
Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social
Story Sentences,
TM
PERSPECTIVE SENTENCES
“May people think that nice surprises are fun.”
“Adults may think it’s polite to wait a while
before opening a gift.”
“May students want to help our substitute
teacher, Mr. Jackson.”
Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social
Story Sentences,
TM
SENTENCES THAT COACH
• Can coach the Audience
• Can coach the team
• Can self-coach
Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social
Story Sentences,
TM
SENTENCES THAT COACH THE AUDIENCE
• I will try to follow Mrs. Wakefield’s directions.
• I may choose to play on the swings. Or, I
may choose another recess activity.
• I will try to keep the paint on the paper.
Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social
Story Sentences,
TM
SENTENCES THAT COACH THE TEAM
• Mrs. Franklin will try to give me more time to
Complete each science test.
• My mom will be with me in the doctor’s
office.
• Mom or dad will be with me in the
water.
Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social
Story Sentences,
TM
SENTENCES THAT SELF-COACH
• When someone says, “I changed my mind,” I can
think of a caterpillar turning into a butterfly.
• To help me stay calm, I may try thinking about the
next fun activity. For example, I may think about
“After the test, it’s time for recess.”
• I can use a paper chain to help me keep
track of the number of days until my
birthday.
Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social
Story Sentences,
TM
AFFIRMAATIVE SENTENCES
• Stress an important point
•
Refer to a law or rule
•
To reassure
Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social
Story Sentences,
TM
AFFIRMAATIVE SENTENCES
• People wake up. Sometimes they are happy to
wake up. Other times they would like to be able to
sleep longer. That’s Life on Planet Earth.
• Sometimes a student is absent. This is okay. The
teacher will help them get their assignments so
that they can finish their schoolwork.
• To stay safe, children take turns going
down the slide. This is very important.
Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social
Story Sentences,
TM
PARTIAL SENTENCES (Fill-in-the-blank
format)
Used to:
Check comprehension
Encourage the Audience to make guesses regarding
the next step in a situation
Make guesses about the response of
another individual
Makes guesses about his/her responses
Criterion 7: Seven Types of Social
Story Sentences,
TM
PARTIAL SENTENCES (Fill-in-the-blank
format)
• Wrapping hides a gift, and helps to keep it a
_____________.
• Many people think that nice surprises are
____________.
• To stay safe, children take turns going
down the slide. This is very important.
Criterion 8:
A GR-EIGHT Formula,
The Social Story Formula is an equation that
defines the relationship between the different
types of sentences in a Social Story.
Criterion 8: A GR-EIGHT Formula,
The Social Story Formula
# of Sentences that DESCRIBE
# if Sentences that COACH
≥ 2
Social Stories™ that describe = Descriptive + Perspective +
Affirmative Sentences
Criterion 8: A GR-EIGHT Formula,
The Social Story Formula contributes to the
patient and unassuming quality of the Social
Story.
Reminds Authors to take the time to share
information, including the information that
we often assume “everyone knows.”
Criterion 9: Nine Makes It Mine,
Whenever possible, a Social Story is tailored to
the individual preferences, talents, and
interests of its Audience.
We all choose to read materials which interest
us. We don’t want to read information we
find confusing or frustrating.
•
Criterion
9:
Nine
Makes
It
Mine
,
One grandmother embroidered a Social Story
about what love means on a quilt for her grandson’s
bed.
• A mother pasted a Social Story about buying new
shoes on the top of a shoe box, placing phots of the
exact shoes her child would try on in the store
the next day.
• For a child who is interested in the US
Postal System, Social Stories can be
mailed with postmarks from different
locations.
Criterion 9: Nine Makes It Mine,
• Don’t take this one too far. Whenever an
idea is “over the top” it threatens the Social
Story goal of safety and meaning.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Criterion 10: Ten Guides
to Editing and Implementation,
Edit!
Plan for Comprehension
Plan Story Support
Plan Story Review
Plan a Positive Introduction
Monitor!
Organize Stories
Mix and Match Stories to Build Concepts
Story Re-Runs and Sequels
Recycle Instruction into Applause
Criterion 10: Ten Guides
to Editing and Implementation,
1. Edit!
This will catch regrettable errors and helps to
ensure that the Story follows all criteria.
Criterion 10: Ten Guides
to Editing and Implementation,
2. PLAN FOR COMPREHENSION
Look one last time at the text and illustration
keeping comprehension in mind. Might want to
develop questions to go with the Story.
Once the Audience is familiar with the
Story, consider adding Partial
Sentences.
Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and
Implementation,
3. PLAN STORY SUPPORT
Include resources and instructional techniques
to support the Story. Might want to put the
Story on a PowerPoint or create a poster that
Can be used in the classroom which
contains an important phrase from
the Story.
Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and
Implementation,
4. PLAN STORY REVIEW
Review the Story patiently and with a positive
attitude. Review the story in a comfortable
setting with a positive tone.
Never, never, never force review of
a Story or use a Story as a consequence
For misbehavior.
Criterion 10: Ten Guides
to Editing and Implementation,
5. PLAN A POSITIVE INTRODUCTION
Social Stories are introduced in the same
matter-of-fact and unassuming quality as its
text.
The Author can begin with “This is a story
That I wrote for you!”
For young children, might want to
sit side by side with the story in the front of
both.
Criterion 10: Ten Guides
to Editing and Implementation,
6. Monitor!
Once a Story is in place, monitor its impact.
Watch the Audience’s response to make sure
the Story was interpreted as intended.
Criterion 10: Ten Guides
to Editing and Implementation,
7. Organize Stories
One Story does lead to another. Keep the
Stories organized. Consider using a 3-ring
binder with a personalized clear plastic cover.
Criterion 10: Ten Guides
to Editing and Implementation,
8. Mix and Match Stories to Build Concepts
There will be many topics to write about. It is
uncommon for an Audience to acquire many
Stories within a short time!
May want to sort stories by topic.
Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and
Implementation,
9. STORY RE-RUNS AND SEQUELS
It may be the case that Stories are not “retired”.
Long after it’s been set aside, a Story may be
introduced like a re-run on television.
Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and
Implementation,
9. STORY RE-RUNS AND SEQUELS
It may be the case that Stories are not “retired”.
Long after it’s been set aside, a Story may be
introduced like a re-run on television.
Criterion 10: Ten Guides to Editing and
Implementation,
9. STORY RE-RUNS AND SEQUELS
For example, a story about friendship at age six
may be retrieved and updated with information
about friendship at age six may be retrieved
and updated with information about friendship
at age eight.
Criterion 10: Ten Guides
to Editing and Implementation,
10.RECYLE INSTRUCTION INTO APPLAUSE
Social Stories may be “recycled” too. A Story
that originally introduces new skills may later be
recycled into a Story that applauds their
mastery.
This is easy to do if the Stories are
saved on a computer.
LET’S REVIEW,
Name the first 10 criteria:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
One Goal
Two-Part Discovery
Three Parts & a Title
FOURmat
Five Factors Define Voice and Vocabulary
Six Questions Guide Story Development
Seven Types of Social Story Sentences
A GR-EIGHT FORMULA
Nine Makes It Mine
Ten Guides to Editing and Implementation
LET’S PRACTICE,
•
• You have been given a handout with four
different scenarios.
• Choose one of these scenarios.
• Write a Social Story to address the
situation.
•
•
LET’S PRACTICE,
Andrea is a first grade student with Asperger’s Disorder. She becomes very upset
on days her teacher, Mrs. Smith, has a substitute. Write a Social Story explaining
why teachers have substitutes. Mrs. Smith has triplets.
•
Jack is an eight-year-old with high-functioning autism. He has had great difficulty
with campus safety drills. He covers his ears and runs. Write a Social Story that
explains why principals schedule drills.
•
Alyssa is a 12-year-old student with Asperger’s Disorder. Her mother has tried for
years to get Andrea to take a shower appropriately. However, Andrea simply turns
the water on and stands under it for a few minutes. Then she steps out of the
shower and dries off. Write a Social Story explaining how to take a shower in ten
steps.
•
Caitlyn is a first grader with high functioning autism. She has
great difficulty when there are changes in her daily schedule.

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