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Report
Topic C1. Reducing emissions and enhancing
removals (land-use change, fire, drainage)
J Boone Kauffman and Daniel Murdiyarso
Topic C1. Slide 2 of 21
Implementing mitigation
(emissions reduction) strategies in
forests
Why it is important to act now?
Intact/Restored ecosystems:
 are more buffered (resistant) to collapse or decline
with a changing climate or other stresses;
 have a higher degree of resilience – the capacity to
recover following stress or disturbance;
 will provide more ecosystem services – e.g.
biodiversity, water quality, aesthetics and carbon
storage;
 may be of value and interest for carbon financing for
climate change mitigation
Topic C1. Slide 3 of 21
Carbon sequestration is an ecosystem
service that has not received value until
recently
Net primary productivity (NPP) - The net
amount of fixed C in organic matter by
photosynthesis after the needs of the plant
have been met. GPP- Respiration = NPP
About 95% of CO2 emissions would
occur if humans did not exist on Earth natural decay of plant materials is
about 220 billion tonnes of CO2 each
year.
Topic C1. Slide 4 of 21
Tropical forested wetlands
are ecosystems that are inundated or saturated by
surface or groundwater at a frequency and
duration sufficient to support a prevalence of
forest vegetation typically adapted for life in
saturated soil conditions (e.g. mangroves,
freshwater swamps, floodplain forests).
Topic C1. Slide 5 of 21
How much carbon can be found
in forests?
Carbon Mg/ha)
Examples of ecosystem C stocks of
tropical forests
2500
2000
1500
1000
500
0
Aboveground
Belowground
Donato et al. 2011, Kauffman et al. In press, Kauffman et al 2003.
Topic C1. Slide 6 of 21
An example of forest carbon stocks:
Tropical forests and mangroves of Costa Rica
1200
1000 Mg/ha
C m as s (Mg/ha)
1000
800
400 Mg/ha
Above ground
Soil 0-1 0cm
Soil 10-20cm
600
Soil 20-30cm
Soil 30-50cm
Soil 50-100cm
400
200
0
Dry
Dry Forest
Moist forest
Moist
Wet
premontane wet trans
wet forest
Premontane wet
premontane rain
Rainforest
lower montane rain
Mangrove
Mangrove
Kauffman et al. (In press).
Topic C1. Slide 7 of 21
Kauffman et al. (2014) Ecological Applications
Topic C1. Slide 8 of 21
We need to determine the pathways and processes of emissions
Topic C1. Slide 9 of 21
Currently, on average, between 1-7% of blue
carbon sinks are being lost annually
Upstream disruptions
Aquaculture
Road development/
hydrological disruptions
Rice/Agriculture
Coastal development
Topic C1. Slide 10 of 21
Currently, the impacts of land use/land cover
change are impacting biodiversity to a much
greater extent than global climate change
Topic C1. Slide 11 of 21
Global loss of blue carbon sinks
(total % loss and annual rate of loss)
Global area (km2)
Global loss
Annual rate of
ecosystem loss
(%)/year
References
Mangroves
137,760-152-361
20% (since 1980s)
30–50% (since 1940s)
0.7–3%
Valiela et al. (2001);
Alongi (2002); FAO (2007);
Spalding et al. (2010)
Sea grass
177,000–600,000
50% (since 1990s)
~7%
Costanza et al. (1997);
Duarte et al.
(2005); Waycott et al.
(2009)
Salt marshes
20,000–400,000
Salt marshes 25%
(since 1800s)
1–2%
Bridgham et al. (2006);
Duarte et al. (2008)
Adapted from Mcleod et al. ( 2011)
Area of the worlds forests = 39 million km (Pan et al. 2011)
Topic C1. Slide 12 of 21
How to determine emissions
from land-use/land-cover
change
•
Gain-loss method
•
Stock difference method
Topic C1. Slide 13 of 21
Stock difference method
ΔC =
(Ct2 – Ct1 )
(t2 – t1)
ΔC = annual carbon stock change in the pool
Ct1 = carbon stock in the pool at time t1
Ct2 = carbon stock in the pool at time t2
C stock at
time 1
C stock at
time 2
Topic C1. Slide 14 of 21
Donato et al. 2012; Hughes et al. 2000; Kauffman et al. 2013; Pendleton et al.
2013; Kauffman et al. In press.
Topic C1. Slide 15 of 21
Gain-loss method
ΔC = ΔCG – ΔCL
C uptake via
growth
ΔC = annual carbon stock change in the pool
ΔCG = annual gain of carbon, tonnes
ΔCL = annual loss of carbon, tonnes
Disturbance
C stock
Harvest
Topic C1. Slide 16 of 21
Example of emissions from peat swamp forests
and oil palm plantations – Tanjung Puting
National Park, Indonesia (Novita 2015)
Peat net annual balance of GHG in the primary forest
and oil palm plantations from tropical peatlands of
Tanjung Puting
Land-use
system
Forest
OP
CO2
15.37±1.
1
14.53±0.
8
CH4
N2O
5.34±1.0
0.13±0.09
0.15±0.2
1.5±0.2
GHG total
20.84 ±
0.5
16.18 ±
0.3
Contribution (%) of CO2, CH4 and N2O to total GHG emissions from primary
forest and oil palm plantations in Tanjung Putting (from Novita PhD thesis
2015).
Topic C1. Slide 17 of 21
In addition to C stocks, there exists unique
biodiversity values in tropical wetlands
Topic C1. Slide 18 of 21
Partial listing of co-benefits or ecosystem services that would be derived from
forests managed under a REDD+ strategy
ECOSYSTEM SERVICE/CO-BENEFIT
Poverty alleviation
Enhanced biodiversity
Tropical storm protection (cyclones)
Water quality
Water quantity
Timing of stream flow
Fisheries habitat protection/enhancement
Non-timber forest products
Ecotourism
Aesthetics
Enhancement of resilience/ adaptation to
climate change
FOREST TYPE
All
All
Mangroves, marshes
All
Upland forest
Upland forests
All, particularly mangroves, riparian zones
marshes
All
All
All
All
Topic C1. Slide 19 of 21
Why are tropical forested wetlands attractive
for REDD+ and other NAMAs?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Conservation of biodiversity
Coastal zone protection
Fisheries
Loss of livelihoods and culture
Erosion
Degradation of adjacent communities (sea
grass and coral reefs)
Carbon emissions/loss of C sinks
Loss of other ecosystem services.
Topic C1. Slide 20 of 21
References
Donato DC, Kauffman JB, Murdiyarso D, Kurnianto S, Stidham M, and Kanninen M. 2011. Mangroves among
the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics. Nature Geosciences 4:293–297. doi: 10.1038/NGEO1123.
Howard J, Hoyt, S, Isensee K, Telszewski M, Pidgeon E (eds.). 2014. Coastal Blue Carbon: Methods for
assessing carbon stocks and emissions factors in mangroves, tidal salt marshes,and seagrasses.
Arlington, Virginia, USA: Conservation International, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of
UNESCO, International Union for Conservation of Nature.
[IPCC] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2003. Good practice guidance for land use, land-use
change, and forestry. Penman J, Gytarsky M, Hiraishi T, Krug Thelma, Kruger D, Pipatti R, Buendia L,
Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K, et al, eds. Japan: Institute for Global Environmental Strategies.
Kauffman JB and Donato DC. 2012. Protocols for the Measurement, Monitoring, & Reporting of Structure,
Biomass and Carbon Stocks in Mangrove Forests. Working Paper 86. Bogor: Center for International
Forest Research.
Kauffman JB, Heider C, Norfolk J, Payton F. 2014. Carbon Stocks of intact mangroves and carbon emissions
arising from their conversion in the Dominican Republic. Ecological Applications 24:518–527.
Pendleton L, Donato DC, Crooks S, Murray BC, Jenkins WJ, Sifleet S, Baldera A, Craft C, Fourqurean JW,
Kauffman JB, et al. 2012. Estimating global ‘‘blue carbon’’ emissions from conversion and degradation
of vegetated coastal ecosystems. PLoS ONE 7(9): e43542.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043542
[UNEP] United Nations Environment Programme. 2014. The Importance of Mangroves to People: A Call to
Action. van Bochove J, Sullivan E, Nakamura T, eds. Cambridge: United Nations Environment
Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge.
Thank you
The Sustainable Wetlands Adaptation and Mitigation Program (SWAMP) is a collaborative effort by CIFOR, the USDA Forest Service, and the
Oregon State University with support from USAID.
How to cite this file
Kauffman JB and Murdiyarso D. 2015. Reducing emissions and enhancing removals [PowerPoint presentation]. In: SWAMP toolbox: Theme C
section C1. Retrieved from <www.cifor.org/swamp-toolbox>
Photo credit
Boone Kauffman/Oregon State University, Daniel Murdiyarso/CIFOR, Nanang Sujana/CIFOR, Rupesh/CIFOR

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