Perry Flynn [email protected] Lynne Loeser [email protected] Assessment Service Providers Eligibility & Present Level LRE Goals CCSS A Variety of Assessment Tools Observations Benchmark testing Universal screening results Classroom work samples Language samples Checklists Standardized assessments Dynamic Assessment (RtI / MTSS) Social and Developmental History Prevention Intervention SLD Determination 4 5 Interventions are the gateway to special education for every one For mild artic, voice, fluency, language SLPs may provide interventions even in a pull out situation and “fix” kids and determine them not eligible for special education. SLPs may not mix students receiving interventions with those receiving special education 6 At the level of the Common Core/ differentiated instruction At the level of supplemental supports At the level of intensive interventions In Special Education Intensive Support Supplemental Support Differentiated Core 7 Progress Monitoring 1-2x per week Assessment Progress Monitoring 1-2x per month Intensive Supplemental Core Universal Screening for ALL students 3x per year Diagnostic Assessment (dynamic assessment) Student Needs 4 Amount of Resources needed to solve problem Special Education Sea of Ineligibility General Education Severity of Problem Slide created by Dale Cusumano, Ph.D 10 Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIATIII) Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement (KTEA 3) Others to gather additional specific information: Key Math 3 Test of Early Reading Ability (TERA), TEMA, TEWL CTOPP Expressive: CELF Language Sample OWLS Receptive: CELF TAPS Assessment Service Providers Eligibility & Present Level LRE Goals CCSS Specific Learning Disability (SLD) Speech Language Impaired (SI) Specific Learning Disability with Speech-Language Impaired as a related service Speech-Language Impaired primary with some services/ collaboration provided by the LD specialist SLD primary and SI as secondary area of eligibility HOW do you determine? That is THE question! “a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.” “…does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of intellectual disability, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.” “…a specific learning disability that is neurologically based and characterized by difficulties with decoding and encoding that are the result of a deficit in the phonological component of language and is often unexpected in relation to other cognitive abilities and effective classroom instruction, secondary consequences may include problems in comprehension.” Research Definition-IDA, 2002 A communication disorder, such as an impairment in fluency, articulation, language, or voice/resonance that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Language may include function of language (pragmatic), the content of language (semantic), and the form of language (phonologic, morphologic, and syntactic systems). articulation A speech or language impairment may result in a primary disability or it may be secondary to other disabilities. The Many Strands that are Woven into Skilled Reading (Scarborough, 2001) LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE LANGUAGE STRUCTURES VERBAL REASONING Skilled Readingfluent coordination of word reading and SKILLED READING: fluent execution and comprehension coordination of word recognition and text processes comprehension. LITERACY KNOWLEDGE WORD RECOGNITION PHON. AWARENESS DECODING (and SPELLING) SIGHT RECOGNITION Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice. SLD SLI Are academic content areas significantly impacted to the extent they require specially designed instruction? Which areas of academic performance are being most impacted by language difficulties? Has the student received appropriate intervention to improve any academic skill deficit? What does the progress monitoring data show? Has the student received appropriate intervention to improve oral expression or listening comprehension? What does the progress monitoring data show? How can interventions/instruction for oral expression and listening comprehension be anchored in curriculum? Current Relevant Objective Measurable Understandable Related to one academic or functional domain Related to progress in general education Litmus tests: Can another SLP take the PLAAFP and immediately see the student? Can someone match the random statement to the student? Which disability category is the strongest match with the student’s greatest areas of need? The final determination of primary disability is made by the multidisciplinary eligibility team and is based on the body of evidence. Assessment Service Providers Eligibility & Present Level LRE Goals CCSS English Language Arts/ Speaking and Listening Social Studies Science Math 29 Applying: can the student use the information in a new way? (choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write. ) Understanding: can the student explain ideas or concepts? (classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase) Remembering: can the student recall or remember the information? (define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce state) 30 Creating: can the student create new product or point of view? (assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write.) Evaluating: can the student justify a stand or decision? (appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate) Analyzing: can the student distinguish between the different parts? (appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test) 31 Bloom’s Taxonomy Syntactic Implications Semantic Implications Morphologic Implications Pragmatic Implications Phonological Implications 32 Speaking and Listening Grade 3 Comprehension and Collaboration: #2 Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally. (p.24) Language Standards Grade 1 Vocabulary Acquisition and Use - #5.a. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. (p.27) 33 Writing/ Text Types and Purposes W.6.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. Introduce claim and organize the reasons and evidence clearly Support claim with clear reason and relevant evidence, using credible sources… Use words, phrases and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons. Establish and maintain a formal style Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented Language/ Vocabulary Acquisition and Use L.3.5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context Identify real-life connections between words and their use Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty Speaking and Listening/ Comprehension and Collaboration Grade 2 1. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). b. Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others. c. Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion. 36 Assessment Service Providers Eligibility & Present Level LRE Goals CCSS Flow from the PLAAFP Include givens/conditions Address one skill/domain area Tie to the educational standards Describe observable learner performance Contain measurable criteria for acceptable level of student performance Mastery component Can be accomplished within duration of IEP Assessment Service Providers Eligibility & Present Level LRE Goals CCSS Territorial silos to blended expertise Do students meet the three prongs to eligibility for primary services? Disability Negative impacts academic achievement or functional performance Need specially designed instruction of the SLP Do students meet the definition of a related service? They require speech to fully meet the goals/ fully access services in the primary area Classroom, Cafeteria Playground, Art Physical education Job sites off campus Field trips Speech closet “Blast” or “burst” Interview teachers/ students to learn what educational standards kids can and can’t do Analyze the things they can’t do from the SLP’s lens Capitalize on strengths to meet needs Collaboratively (with parent….input) author goals, Maybe circulate a DRAFT. Finally, determine service delivery providers and least restrictive environment (“the buffet is open”) Assessment & Data Service Providers Present Level LRE Goals CCSS Should be meaningful to all parties Kids can keep their own data Agree on a system that EVERYONE can live with 4 independent 3 prompted 2 modeled 1 did not occur We are not the sole collectors/ keepers of data Consult that Common Core Standards in Language for expressive or receptive goals and create activities that focus on the expressive or receptive aspects of language Syntax Semantics Morphology Pragmatics Phonology Create a couple activities that represent differentiated instruction for this case study based on the theme/ content/ media provided that could be targeted in an environment other than the “speech closet”.