Evolution (Test 2)

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Evolution (Test 1)
1. By discharging electric sparks into a
laboratory chamber atmosphere that consisted
of water vapor, hydrogen gas, methane, and
ammonia, Stanley Miller obtained data that
showed that a number of organic molecules,
including many amino acids, could be
synthesized. Miller was attempting to model
early Earth conditions as understood in the
1950’s. The results of Miller’s experiments
best support which of the following
hypotheses?
a. The molecules essential to life today did not exist at
the time Earth was formed.
b. The molecules essential to life today could not have
been carried to the primordial Earth by a comet or
meteorite.
c. The molecules essential to life today could have
formed under early Earth conditions.
d. The molecules essential to life today were initially
self replicating proteins that were synthesized
approximately four billion years ago.
Evolution (Test 1)
18. Five new species of bacteria were discovered in
Antarctic ice core samples. The nucleotide (base)
sequences of rRNA subunits were determined for the
new species. The table below shows the number of
nucleotide differences between the species.
Which of the following phylogenetic trees is most
consistent with the data?
Evolution (Test 1)
21. In a hypothetical population of beetles, there is a wide variety
of color, matching the range of coloration of the tree trunks
on which the beetles hide from predators. The graphs below
illustrate four possible changes to the beetle population as a
result of a change in the environment due to pollution that
darkened the tree trunks.
Which of the following
includes the most likely
change in the coloration
of the beetle population
after pollution and a
correct rationale for the change?
a. The coloration range shifted toward more light-colored
beetles, as in diagram I. The pollution helped the
predators find the darkened tree trunks.
b. The coloration in the population split into 2 extremes, as
in diagram II. Both the lighter-colored and the darkercolored beetles were able to hide on the darker tree
trunks.
c. The coloration range became narrower, as in diagram III.
The predators selected beetles at the color extremes.
d. The coloration in the population shifted toward more
darker-colored beetles, as in diagram IV. The lightercolored beetles were found more easily by the predators
than were the darker colored beetles.
Evolution (Test 1)
37. A group of students summarized information of five
great extinction events.
The students are sampling a site in search of fossils from
the Devonian period. Based on the chart, which of the
following would be the most reasonable plan for the
students to follow?
a. Searching horizontal rock layers in any class of rock and
trying to find those that contain the greatest number of
fossils.
b. Collecting fossils from rock layers deposited prior to the
Permian period that contain some early vertebrate bones.
c. Looking in sedimentary layers next to bodies of water in
order to find marine fossils of bivalves and trilobites
d. Using relative dating techniques to determine the
geological ages of the fossils found so they can calculate the
rate of speciation of early organisms.
Evolution (Test 2)
1. Which one of these most correctly describes the
comparison of the bird and bat wing?
a. The bird and bat wing are analagous structures.
b. The bird and bat wing are homologous
structures.
c. The bird and bat wing are vestigial structures.
d. The bird and bat wing are proof that they
evolved from a common ancestor.
Evolution (Test 2)
2. What is the most important factor in determining whether a
group of organisms is a species?
a. Reproductive success – the ability of members of a group
to be successful at producing offspring.
b. Reproductive isolation – the members of a species share a
single gene pool.
c. DNA analysis – study of the genetic makeup of the parent
must show an equivalent DNA sequence in the offspring.
d. Similarity of appearance.
Evolution (Test 2)
4. Which of the following choices is structural evidence that
supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes?
a.
b.
c.
d.
Vestigial structures as shown by the wings of an ostrich.
Membrane bound organelles.
The universal nature of the genetic code
The role of ribosomal RNA in translation and the
production of polypeptides.
Evolution (Test 2)
In 1953 Miller and Urey conducted an experiment that would
help determine the origin of life on Earth. A diagram of the
experimental apparatus used is shown below.
Evolution (Test 2)
24. The electric spark was run through a group of gases meant
to model:
a. lightning passing through a primitive sea.
b. meteorite impact on a primitive Earth.
c. lightning passing through a primitive atmosphere
d. primitive lightning and its effects on condensation in an
early atmosphere.
**Questions 25 & 26 also apply**
Evolution (Test 2)
27. Which of these is a component of natural selection?
a. In order to adjust to environmental conditions, many
species will find a way to adapt.
b. A population responds to a change in the environment by
modification of their structure, thereby passing this structure
on to their offspring.
c. Members of a population have inheritable variations.
d. Populations produce offspring with an increased variety
during difficult periods.
**Questions 28 – 30, 34 also apply to evolution**
Evolution (Test 2)
33. When humans selected specific characteristics in a species like
corn, what was the impact on variation in the natural environment?
a. Production of a plant beneficial to the human race with smaller,
healthier, less productive fruit.
b. Humans have changed millions of acres of land from a varied
nonproductive wasteland to a sterile field of a single species, and
thus destroyed the natural variation.
c. Through the selection of a set of traits that are desired, the
human population has placed external pressures on the natural
species and limited its ability to survive.
d. Humans have changed the entire makeup of the ecosystem
where corn grows by limiting the species that can live in that
ecosystem, effectively changing the water cycle, nutrient cycles,
and the entire trophic system of that ecosystem.
Evolution (Test 2)
For 56-59 select which process is occurring:
a. Artificial selection
b. Genetic drift
c. Adaptive radiation
d. Allopatric speciation
56. A small group of individuals start an Amish community in PA.
One of the males carries a genetic mutation for polydactyly, which
causes his offspring and a majority of the second generation of the
community to have extra fingers and toes. Genetic drift
57. Between 1943 and 1952, a new volcano called Paricutin emerged
form the ground in Mexico. This volcano separates two portions of a
population of salamanders which in turn become distinct species.
Allopatric speciation
Evolution (Test 2)
For 56-59 select which process is occurring:
a. Artificial selection
b. Genetic drift
c. Adaptive radiation
d. Allopatric speciation
58. Foxes are very shy and shun the company of people. Russian
scientists are able to produce silver foxes that allow themselves to be
petted and even seek the attention of people. Artificial selection
59. A single finch species arrive in the Galapagos Islands and give rise
to thirteen varieties of finch species. Adaptive radiation

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