PowerPoint - UCSF Immunology Program

Microbiology 204: Cellular and Molecular
Class meets MWF 1:00-2:30PM
(*exceptions: no class Fri Oct 10; Wed Nov 26 will be
moved to 11/25 or 11/24)
Lectures are open to auditors
“Flipped sessions” are open to auditors
Discussions are restricted to those enrolled in class (or by
Problem sets and review sessions every other week by our
TA: Dan Holohan ([email protected])
Microbiology 204: Cellular and Molecular
Course web site:
Recommended textbook : Janeway’s Immunobiology;
OR Abbas and Lichtman Cellular and Molecular Immunology;
OR DeFranco, Robertson, and Locksley Immunity
Grades: 2/3 take-home final and 1/3 participation in
My office hours: Mondays 3-4PM HSE1001E or by
arrangement ([email protected])
What does the immune system do?
• It protects us from infections with:
– 208 viruses
– 538 bacteria
– 317 fungi
– 287 worms
– 57 parasitic protozoa (CDC numbers)
• It promotes normal functioning of the body (tissue
cleanup, wound repair)
• It removes abnormal cells including malignant ones
• But the immune system can also cause disease when it
is not doing the right thing (allergies, autoimmunity,
transplant rejection, etc.)
The players
• Sentinel cells in tissues
– Dendritic cells, macrophages, mast cells
• Circulating phagocytes and granulocytes
– Neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils
• Lymphocytes: cells which can recognize particular
pathogens (but also can cause allergies and
autoimmune diseases)
– B lymphocytes: antibodies
– T lymphocytes: cell-mediated immunity
– (also innate lymphoid cells, NK cells, etc.)
• Tissue cells (epithelial cells, endothelial cells, etc.)
Immune sentinel cells in the tissues:
dendritic cells
Green= dendritic cells
Blue= nuclei of all cells
Langerhans cells (epidermal dendritic cells) in the skin
WJ Mullholland et al. J. Invest. Dermatol. 126: 1541, 2006.
Inflammatory mediators
are made in response to
detection of infection or
or dendritic cell
Inflammatory mediators:
-Lipids (prostaglandins, etc.)
-Proteins (cytokines/chemokines)
Cytokines and Inflammation
• Pro-inflammatory cytokines are many, but especially
important: TNF, IL-1, and IL-6
• TNF and IL-1 signal to endothelial cells to make them:
– Leaky to fluid (influx of plasma; containing antibodies,
complement components, etc.)
– Sticky for leukocytes, leading to influx of leukocytes
• IL-6 promotes adaptive immune responses; systemic
Leukocyte recruitment to sites of
or DC
The neutrophil is the immune system’s
first responder
• Neutrophils are typically the first white blood
cells to come into a site of acute inflammation
(PLAY MOVIE HERE): Lammermann et al.
Nature 498: 371-5, 2013.
Phagocytosis and Killing of Microbes
Abbas et al. Fig. 2-17
Innate Immunity vs. Adaptive immunity
• Innate immunity utilizes evolved recognition
mechanisms and is surprisingly effective, but changes
little based on life experience
• In innate immunity, limited numbers of distinct receptors;
recognize highly conserved features of classes of
• Adaptive immunity learns from previous experience and
hence can protect better upon a second infection by the
same agent.
• Adaptive immunity has a very large number of distinct
“antigen receptors” of T and B lymphocytes; generated by
DNA rearrangements in each developing lymphocyte;
clonal selection of lymphocytes that recognize an infecting
Many different antibodies are created by
combinations of gene segments
Adaptive Immunity: Antibodies I
• A molecule that induces the production of an antibody is
called an “antigen”
• A few B cells that recognize the infectious agent become
activated, each multiply to form a “clone”.
• These progeny then become antibody-secreting factories.
The Clonal Selection Hypothesis
Generation of lymphocytes of
many specificities
Clonal deletion to remove selfreactive lymphocytes
Clonal selection to expand
pathogen-reactive lymphocytes
during an immune response
Antibody responses proceed in two phases
Goodnow et al, Nature Immunol. 2010
Adaptive Immunity: Antibodies II
• Rapid production of lower affinity antibody made by shortlived plasma cells
• Slower “germinal center response”  selection for
higher affinity  gives rise to long-lived plasma cells
• Rational design of the “conjugate vaccines” (starting in
the 1990s)
Antibodies bind antigens
Two protein
components: heavy
chain and light chain;
can come in 5 varieties
of heavy chains:
IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE,
Antibodies can be directly protective or can promote
immune protective mechanisms via other cells or molecules
activation of complement
Adaptive Immunity: Antibodies III
• “Active immunity” (infection, vaccination)
• “Passive immunity”: maternal transfer of IgG across
placenta; injection of antibodies to protect against
infections, toxins; IVIG for immunodeficiency
• “Monoclonal antibodies” for passive immunity, therapy,
diagnosis. All identical  more standardized therapeutic
or diagnostic.
• To work well as therapy, need to make as human as
possible; many new MAb therapeutics in the last 10
years. Most are to treat cancers or to suppress immune
Monoclonal antibodies used in
Standardized, unlimited reagents for diagnosis or therapy
Some representative examples. This list is rapidly expanding in recent years
CD Nomenclature
Structurally defined leukocyte surface molecule that
is expressed on cells of a particular lineage
(“differentiation”) and recognized by a group
(“cluster”) of monoclonal antibodies is called a
member of a cluster of differentiation (CD)
CD molecules (CD antigens, CD markers) are:
• Identified by numbers
• Used to classify leukocytes into functionally
distinct subpopulations, e.g. helper T cells are
CD4+CD8-, CTLs are CD8+CD4• Often involved in leukocyte functions
Antibodies against various CD molecules are used to:
• Identify and isolate leukocyte subpopulations
• Study functions of leukocytes
• Eliminate particular cell populations
Recognition of antigen by the TCR
The TCR of CD4+ and CD8+
T cells recognizes MHCbound peptide + portions of
the MHC.
Other T cells (gd T cells,
NKT cells) recognize nonpeptide antigens; these are
small cell populations whose
function is unclear.
Peptides are bound to MHC molecules
and presented to T cells
MHC=major histocompatability complex.
HLA=human leukocyte antigen
Killer T cells and Helper T cells
Microbe evades
Adaptive Immunity: Anatomy of the response
• Naïve T cells and B cells recirculate between lymph
nodes, spleen, and the blood.
• Antigen is taken to the lymph node either by the flow of
lymph or is carried by a maturing dendritic cells that
migrate along the lymphatics.
• The dendritic cell presents antigen to naïve T cells in the
lymph node.
Role of costimulation in T cell activation
Immune responses are tailored to the
type of infection
• Defense against extracellular microbes: IgM, IgG and Th17
• Defense against microbes that survive and replicate inside
phagocytes (macrophages and monocytes): “type 1 immunity”
• Defense against viruses:
– early defense: innate mechanisms that restrict virus replication
(interferon, etc.)
– Adaptive immune defense: antibodies which block virus
infection of cells (“neutralizing antibodies”) plus cytotoxic T
• Defense against worms and biting insects: “type 2 immunity” (IgE,
Th2), Manifestations include: sneezing, coughing, itching, diarrhea,
tears, etc. (allergies and asthma mostly involve this type of immune
Innate Lymphoid Cells: Parallels to
T cell subsets
Spits and DiSanto, Nature
Immunology 12: 21-27, 2011
Immune system and chronic inflammation
• Sterile inflammation (tissue injury but no infectious
agent present): innate recognition of tissue damage
• Chronic inflammation: if antigen persists, antigenreactive T cells can drive continued inflammation,
which can cause tissue damage (autoimmune
diseases and inflammatory diseases)
• Likely important role of inflammation in pathogenesis
of chronic diseases: atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes,
probably Alzheimer’s disease, cancer (can be
positive or negative)
Therapeutics based on the B7:CD28/CTLA-4 family
2. Removing the brakes on the immune response
Anti-CTLA-4 antibody is approved for tumor
immunotherapy (enhancing immune responses against
Even more impressive results with anti-PD-1 in
cancer patients; combination trials recently reported
Blocking the PD-1/PDL-1 pathway to enhance
tumor immunity

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