Smart Grid ENERGY EMERGING TECHNOLOGY What is Smart Grid??? A smart grid is a modernized ELECTRICAL GRID that uses information and communications technology to gather and act on information, such as information about the behaviors of suppliers and consumers, in an automated fashion to improve the efficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of the production and distribution of electricity.[ What is electrical grid? An electrical grid is an interconnected network for delivering electricity from suppliers to consumers. It consists of generating stations that produce electrical power, high-voltage transmission lines that carry power from distant sources to demand centers, and distribution lines that connect individual customers. history In the 20th century power grids originated as local grids that grew over time, and were eventually interconnected for economic and reliability reasons. By the 1960s, the electric grids of developed countries had become very large, mature and highly interconnected, with thousands of 'central' generation power stations delivering power to major load centres via high capacity power lines which were then branched and divided to provide power to smaller industrial and domestic users over the entire supply area. The topology of the 1960s grid was a result of the strong economies of scale of the current generation technology: large coal-, gas- and oil-fired power stations in the 1 GW (1000 MW) to 3 GW scale are still found to be cost-effective, due to efficiencyboosting features that can be cost effectively added only when the stations become very large. Features of smart grid Reliability Flexibility in network Topology Efficiency Sustainability Market-enabling Research IntelliGrid Grid 2030 GridWise GridWorks references U.S. Department of Energy. "Smart Grid / Department of Energy". Retrieved 2012-06-18. "Smart Grids European Technology Platform | www.smartgrids.eu". smartgrids.eu. 2011 [last update]≤. Retrieved October 11, 2011. J. Torriti, Demand Side Management for the European Supergrid Energy Policy, vol. 44, pp. 199-206, 2012. unidirectional – Wiktionary. En.wiktionary.org. Retrieved on 2011-05-14. Mohsen Fadaee Nejad, AminMohammad Saberian, Hashim Hizam (2013-07-23). Application of smart power grid in developing countries. "2013 IEEE 7th International Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEOCO), 2013. (Langkawi Island, Malaysia: IEEE): doi:10.1109/PEOCO.2013.6564586 Smart Grid Working Group (2003-06). "Challenge and Opportunity: Charting a New Energy Future, Appendix A: Working Group Reports" (PDF). Energy Future Coalition. Retrieved 2008-11-27. Michael T. Burr, "Reliability demands drive automation investments," Public Utilities Fortnightly, Technology Corridor department, Nov. 1, 2003.http://www.fortnightly.com/fortnightly/2003/11/technology-corridor Federal Energy Regulatory Commission staff report (2006-08).Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering (Docket AD06-2-000) (PDF). United States Department of Energy. p. 20. Retrieved 2008-11-27. National Energy Technology Laboratory (2007-08). NETL Modern Grid Initiative — Powering Our 21st-Century Economy(PDF). United States Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability. p. 17. Retrieved 2008-12-06. "Gridwise History: How did GridWise start?". Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 2007-10-30. Archived from the original on 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-12-03. Qixun Yang, Board Chairman, Beijing Sifang Automation Co. Ltd., China and .Bi Tianshu, Professor, North China Electric Power University, China. (2001-06-24). "WAMS Implementation in China and the Challenges for Bulk Power System Protection" (PDF).Panel Session: Developments in Power Generation and Transmission — Infrastructures in China, IEEE 2007 General Meeting, Tampa, FL, USA, 24–28 June 2007 Electric Power, ABB Power T&D Company, and Tennessee Valley Authority (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). Retrieved 2008-12-01. N. A. Sinitsyn. S. Kundu, S. Backhaus (2013). "Safe Protocols for Generating Power Pulses with Heterogeneous Populations of Thermostatically Controlled Loads". Energy Conversion and Management 67: 297–308. arXiv:1211.0248. Energy Future Coalition, “Challenge and Opportunity: Charting a New Energy Future,” Appendix A: Working Group Reports, Report of the Smart Grid Working Group.http://web.archive.org/web/20080910051559/http://www.energyfuturecoalition.org/pubs/app_smart_grid.pdf Why the Smart Grid Won't Have the Innovations of the Internet Any Time Soon: Cleantech News and Analysis «. Earth2tech.com (2009-06-05). Retrieved on 2011-05-14.