LAB 304 Lecture \ 2 Learning objectives Recognize types of test forms. General feature of the test forms . To know the Criteria for filling the forms. Analyze test forms. List the specimen types. Pre and Post- specimen collection check. Test requisition Test requisition : is the request by a competent authority made to laboratory for performing test which is needed for the diagnosis or prognosis of the patient . Types of test forms : 1- hematology form 2- Chemistry form 3- Serology & virology form 4- Culture & sensitivity form 5- Hormones form 6- Urine analysis form 7- Stool analysis form 8- Multipurpose form General feature of the test forms Every form should include the following : 1- general information : related to the patient & the ward 2- hospital name 3- form’s type 4- clinical diagnosis 5- Processing type 6- date , time & name of the sender 7- tests to be done 8- analyzer information Patient & ward info. Hospital name Order information Processing type diagnosis Form type Test to be done Lab information Test requisition Criteria for filling the forms : 1- patient’s name, age, sex, nationality & hospital ( file ) number. 2- relevant ward details . 3- name of ( consultant / specialist ) 4- highlight the tests to be done . 5- request must be signed and stamped by the requesting physician . 6- the staff nurse collecting the sample must ensure labeling of the sample & fill the request form including time & date . Missing DR. Stamp ICU,NICU,PICU,MMW, MSW,FMW,FSW,MSP W,OBW,LRDR,OR,HD U,NSY,ER Clinical diagnosis Ordered test Processing type Lab no. Test requisition The requesting physician must check following before ordering : 1- availability of test in the lab . 2- inform the patient about the test procedure and any precaution to be taken . 3- instruct the staff nurse about any precautions to be taken during collection . HAEMTOLOGY FORM Consist of these tests : 1- CBC 2- Differential count 3- RBC morphology 4- Blood parasite 5- ESR 6- Sickle cell test 7-Reticulocyte cell account U/E LFT Cardiac enzyme Lipid profile SEROLOGY FORM ABB. ASO: Antistreptolysin O Titer(streptococcal infection) VDRL : Venereal disease research laboratory (syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum ) TPHA : Treponema Pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum ) Widal test : (typhoid fever ) TOXO : Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii parasite ) HORMONES FORM T3 : Triiodothyronine T4 : Thyroxine TSH : Thyroid-stimulating Hormone PTH : Parathyroid Hormone FSH : Follicle-stimulating Hormone LH : Luteinizing hormone PRL : Prolactin βHCG : Human Chorionic Gonadotropin ( preg. Test ) ACTH : Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (excessive or deficient cortisol in the body ) STOOL ANALYSIS FORM ABB. E.histo .veg. : Entamoeba histolytica vegetative(trophozoite) E. histo. Cyst : Entamoeba histolytica cyst E. coli veg. : Entamoeba coli vegetative E. coli cyst : Entamoeba coli cyst G. lamblia : Giardia lamblia T. hominis : Trichomonas hominis C. mesnili : Chilomastix mesnili STOOL ANALYSIS FORM ABB. Trictric : Trichuris trichura S. mansoni : Schistosoma mansoni T. saginata : Taenia saginata H. nana : Hymenolepis nana Specimen collection Phlebotomist : the person who trained to enters a vein through needle to extract blood . Types of specimen : 1- blood 7- body fluids 2- sputum 8- throat swab 3- CSF 9- ear swab 4- fecal 10- eye swab 5- urine 11- mouth swab 6- semen 12- nose swab 13- vaginal swab 14- abscesses & wound swab Specimen collection Specimen collection is the first step in proficiency surveillance. For issuing accurate and precise results, it is the job of the nurse or phlebotomist to make sure that the enumerated conditions are met and implemented in order to deliver a suitable sample for analysis so that an accurate and precise result will be issued. Procedure of specimen collection Pre-collection check : 1- review the request and identify the patient by asking the name, seeing his ID and compare it with the request form. 2- Is there any special instruction / preparation needed for the patient. If so advice the patient accordingly e.g. fasting or after meals and sample collection . container may be given if needed e.g. 24 hour urine collection or sputum collection. Procedure of specimen collection 3- Read all the tests and select the tubes/containers as needed for the tests. 4- Arrange the tubes in order of filling. Procedure of specimen collection Post collection : 1- Label all the tubes and specimen bottles as per the guideline. 2- NEVER write the name before extraction and NEVER ask any other person to write for the same. 3- Finish the job before patient leaves the chair .