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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Environmental controlling
and the use of indicators
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Elements of environmental controlling
Environmental policy
Environmental targets
Control
Organization
Mass and energy
balances
Documentation
Implementation
Information
Evaluation
Planning of
measures
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Start
Environmental
policy
Management
review
Continual
improvement!
Monitoring/
Corrective action
Planning
• Environmental aspects
• Legal/other requirements
• Objectives and targets
• Environmental
management programme
• Monitoring and measurement
• Nonconformance: corrective
and preventive action
• Records
• EMS audits
Implementation
• Structure and responsibility
• Training, awareness, competence
• Communication
• EMS documentation
• Document control
• Operational control
• Measures in case of
emergencies
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Controlling
A feedback system combines planning, reporting, status
analysis, deviation analysis and corrective measures
Planning
Corrective action
Status
Deviation analysis
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Input/output analysis
Consistent data
Illustrates efficiency
Evaluation criteria:
 Quantities
 Financial values
 Environmental and toxicological properties
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Safe on the road?
Which indicators?
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Healthy
or not?
Which indicators?
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Aims of indicators
 Comparison of the actual to the
planned situation
 Comparison of companies
 Comparison of variations over a
period of time
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Development of a set of indicators
Mass balances and costs
Targets
Set of indicators
Targets:
reduction of material losses,
substitution, cost reduction,
environmental improvement,
data compression,
presentation, analysis,
control, decision making.
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Types of indicators
 Absolute figures:
 Basic
data (annual consumption, turnover)
 Totals (total consumption of halogenated solvents)
 Differences (expenses minus earnings)
 Average values (half hour averages)
 Related figures:
 Relative
figures (solvent use per product unit)
 Normalized figures (use of halogenated solvents over total
use of solvents)
 Index figures (trends)
 Systematically derived indicators:
 Complex
methods for data aggregation
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Indicators – 1
 Non-dimensional indicators
 Efficiency,
yield (product per input)
 Recycling quota
 Material-related indicators
 Cross
rate between different materials
 Production-related indicators
 Material
input per production unit
 Waste per production unit
 Plant-related indicators
 Energy
consumption per hour
 Energy consumption per m²
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Indicators – 2
 Time-based indicators


Waste per shift
Water consumption per year
 Employee-based indicators


Material consumption per employee (in offices)
Water consumption per employee
 Emission-based indicators

Actual emissions vs. threshold values
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Definition of indicators
Which figures reflect the targets (of my
department) best?
Which figures are best suited to indicate
that these targets are not being met?
How are critical deviations best
measured?
What is the best way of showing who is
responsible for a critical deviation?
For which indicators is information easily
and inexpensively available?
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Example: “Chicken efficiency”
 Is the ratio of sold fried
chicken to waste chicken
 Is the indicator for waste
 Is the most important
indicator in the
organization
 Does it make sense??
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Difficulties in defining indicators
 Two or more different products in changing quantities:
Weigh, choose a stable baseline
 Changes in products or processes:
Indicators are only one tool
and have to be complemented by more information
 Comparability between different companies:
Be careful: you have to know the context
 Different data collection methods:
Standardize data collection
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Definition of targets
Targets could be:
Legal compliance
Best available practices and
technology
Minimization of costs
Continuous improvement
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Targets should be
Specific
Measurable
Achievable
Realistic
Time framed
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Reports
 Frequency:



Standard reports
Reports on deviation
Reports on demand
 Strictly adapted to the receiver
 Use standardized structure
 Include reference values for
comparisons
 Use graphics
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
Template for a short report
Indicators:
Absolute
consumption
Indicator
(Plan)
(Actual)
Raw materials …
Water
…
Energy
…
…
…
…
…
…
…
Topics/Problems:
Measures:
…
…
…
…
…
…
Deviation
…
…
…
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
We go where we are looking!
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7 - Indicators and environmental controlling
If we know where we want to
go, we can take small steps!

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