An Action research Project By Onekqua N. Henry Education 702.22 Spring 2010 Research Design Threats to Internal Validity Threats to External Validity Proposed Data Proposed Data Analysis References Pre-Experimental: Single One shot case study group exposed to a treatment (X) and post tested (O) Symbolic XO Design: Only five students Exposed to a treatment No control group No Pretest Post tested Fits into the one-shot case study, cannot fit into other designs where there are 2 groups History- Classroom distractions, Inclement weather outside, fire & Intruder drills. Maturation-Excitement of listening to songs and writing wears off, and writing productivity declines. Instrumentation- Students bored with writing after listening to music & write less, tired of answering surveys & rush answers. Mortality- Student moves in the middle of ARP, research can be highly inflated. Selection-Maturation Interaction-Both boys and girls in the study. Girls more mature, one boy held back 1 ½ older than the rest of students. Ecological Validity- Cannot generalize to other environments. Selection Treatment Interaction- students not randomly chosen all picked by researcher. Experimenter Effects-Passive elements Experimenters age Gender Reactive arrangements/participants effects- only five students from researchers own classroom. Possible Hawthorne effect Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4 Student 5 Session 1 110 140 150 143 161 Session 2 127 135 158 147 157 Session 3 130 144 170 155 174 Session 4 141 156 211 169 187 Session 5 157 200 213 176 191 Number of words written by individual students after exposure to music 250 200 Session 1 Session 2 150 Session 3 100 Session 4 Session 5 50 0 Student 1 Student 2 student 3 Student 4 Student 5 Post survey question 3. I write longer paragraphs after exposed to music. 200 180 160 Number Of Words Correlation between students perceived writing productivity after exposure to music and average number of words written. Correlation between Student Average Number of Words written and exposure to music 140 120 Series1 100 Linear (Series1) 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 Lickert Scale Rating 5 *Fair positive correlation 0.69 There was a correlation between students exposure to music and number of words written. The bar graph comparing the number of words written per session per student after being exposed to music shows that when exposed to music the number of words written generally increases. There is a correlation between students exposed to music and the average number of words written. Conclusion: When exposed to music the number of words students write increases as does their own perception of writing productivity increases. O’Connor – Petrusso, S.,(2008) Stat.scales.analyses.threats.design.ppt.