The new hunting ground is not the best… 2 Market speculation / Futures Climate Change GMOs Land grabbing Land conversion Peak Oil BIGAS(Rice) Conference, 1985 Failure of Green Revolution: • Loss of local varieties • More inputs, higher costs • More pests, new biotypes • Infertile soils • Degraded environment • Poisoning >>Farmers “forgot how to grow rice” = Farmers’ greater indebtedness, rural poverty The Beginnings: Farmers Victims of social injustice Complained of the direct effects and impacts of the green revolution Pushed the implementation of an alternative farming system Willingness to participate, help, and lead MASIPAG Magsasaka at Siyentipiko para sa Pag-unlad ng Agrikultura (Farmer-Scientist Partnership for Development): organized in 1986 as partnership between farmers , scientists and NGOs as alternative approach to the Green revolution Goal: Empower resource-poor farmers through access and control of production resources (seeds, technology, land) Farmer-Scientist Partnership: The MASIPAG Experience Partners: • Farmers, through their organizations (wealth of experience) • Non-Government Organizations (organizing skills) • Scientists (experimentation skills) Empowerment of farmers through: • • • • • • Farmers’ control of seeds Farmers’ control of technology Farmers’ control of other resources Shared leadership in organizations Mastery in technology generation Articulation of needs and pursuit of aspirations Strategies Programs Collection, Identification, Maintenance, Multiplication and Evaluation (CIMME) Breeding (Rice, Corn, Livestock) Soil Fertility Management Alternative Pest Management (APM) Diversified-Integrated Farming System (DIFS) Farmer-developed / adapted technology Network Strengthening Local Processing and Marketing Advocacy Strategic Role of Farmers’ Organization Effective coordination, multiplier Planning and decision making Mutual support Ensure diffusion of benefits Sustainability of activities MASIPAG Farmers’ Organizations (PO) Luzon: 90 POs Nueva Ecija: 8, Pangasinan: 9, Zambales: 7, Camarines Sur: 16, Occidental Mindoro: 1, Nueva Viscaya: 11, Isabela: 6, Cagayan: 2, Quezon: 7, Pampanga: 1; Rizal: 1; Abra: 2; Kalinga/Apayao: 3; Laguna: 1; Palawan: 4, Ilocos Norte: 1, Albay: 1, La Union: 1 Visayas: 174 POs Negros Occidental: 95, Iloïlo: 18, Antique: 13, Aklan: 12, Leyte: 7, Bohol: 1; Capiz: 12; Southern Leyte: 16; E. Samar: 2; N. Samar: 6 Mindanao: 390 POs Agusan del Norte: 34; Agusan Sur: 35; Bukidnon: 26; Compostela Valley: 1; Davao City: 39; Davao Norte: 29; Davao Oriental: 16; Davao del Sur: 9; Lanao del Norte: 11; Lanao del Sur: 4; Maguindanao: 10; Misamis Occidental: 18; Misamis oriental: 14; North Cotabato: 16; Saranggani: 2; South Cotabato: 6; Sultan Kudarat: 11; Surigao Norte: 7; Surigao Sur: 13; Zamboanga del Norte: 24; Zamboanga Sibugay: 15; Zamboanga del Sur: 50 Masipag in 49 Provinces Members Undergo the Following Process: Organizing Sustainable Agriculture orientation Establish a trial farm -monitor agronomic characters -conduct field day -select locally adapted Thematic trainings Diffusion between farmers and between POs Training: Level 1 - Basic orientation on Sustainable Agric. (Global, national, and local situation of food and agriculture, the green and gene revolutions, Masipag as an alternative) Level 2 - Soil Fertility Management (SFM) - Breeding (rice, corn, chicken) - Alternative Pest Management (APM) - Diversified and Integrated Farming System (DIFS) - Masipag Farmer Guarantee System (MFGS) Level 3 (Trainor’s training) Diffusion through People’s Organizations Interested Farmers / LGU Organize Field Day /Advocacy Organization Orientation Trial Farm Observe / Characterize Training Breeding Experiment New Technology Other Farmers New Selection Increased Yield, Improved Income Locally Adapted Variety A. Seed Conservation and Diffusion 1. Farmers collect rice varieties (CIMME) >Collection, Identification, Multiplication, Maintenance, Evaluation) 2. Farmers organize and given SA orientation 3. Establish a trial farm (laboratory cum seed bank) -monitor agronomic characters -conduct field day -select locally adapted 4. Farmers’ training 5. Do Breeding and further selection 6. Diffusion of seeds and knowledge among farmers Collection, development and use of TRVs: 1,105 Traditional Rice Varieties collected 1,085 Masipag rice developed 506 Farmer-bred selections 75 Native corn varieties 6 native chicken gene pool Masipag Rice conservation and Seed support system National Back-up Farm 2,160 rice varieties & Regional (2), Provincial (9) Backup farms 300 to 1,200 rice varieties & selections PO-managed Trial farms (223) At least 50 varieties per TF Verification farms 6 to 24 varieties Farm Production At least 3 varieties Selections B. Rice Breeding by Farmers 67 farmer-breeders 506 rice developed C. Role of Farmermanaged Trial Farm Farmers’ laboratory Develop site-specific varieties Develop site-specific technology Seed bank Creative organizing Advocacy Farmer-Managed Trial Farms in 49 Provinces Luzon (83): Nueva Ecija: 8, Pangasinan: 2, Zambales:1, Camarines Sur: 13, Occidental Mindoro: 10, Nueva Viscaya: 9, Isabela: 18, Cagayan: 1, Quezon: 14, Pampanga: 1; Antipolo: 2; Abra: 2, Ilocos Norte: 1, La Union: 1 Visayas (81): Negros Occidental: 29, Negros Oriental: 1, Iloïlo: 10, Antique: 17, Aklan: 1, Cebu: 2, Leyte: 10, Bohol: 1; Capiz: 5; Eastern Samar: 5 Mindanao (61): North Cotabato: 5, Agusan del Norte: 1; Davao City: 1, Davao del Sur: 1; Lanao Norte: 2, Zamboanga del Sur: 3, Zamboanga del Norte: 15; Misamis Oriental: 1, Bukidnon: 6; Compostela Valley: 1; Maguindanao: 3; South Cotabato: 3; Sultan Kudarat: 2; Surigao del Norte: 5; Zamboanga Sibugay: 11 Locally Adapted MASIPAG Rice and TRVs Pangasinan – Lamyung, Bulik, Mogen, Cinamon, , Pandan, Sampaguita, Parirutong, India, Resco, Imp. Milagrosa, C22, M45, M3-4-1-2, M69-2-1, M120-4, M10-2-2-5, M44-3, M4-B1, M5-B1, M40-2-2, M44-1, M140-2, M8-3-1 Kalinga – Onay Cagayan – Elon-elon, Ag 5, M8-3-1, M35-1-1, M45-1, M69-4-1 Nueva Vizcaya – Pinili, Hinomay, Valentino, Ag 19, M11-20, M3-6, M109, M5-6, M45, M90, M11-20SG, M5-1, M30-1, M135-1, M19, 102 Aurora – Elon-elon, Camoros, Sampaguita, Wag-wag Aga, Palawan, Raminad, Londan-honay, Galo, Ag 5, Ag 17, Kadali, Ag 27, White Borong, Fortuna, M21, M6-11-1, M3, M4, M35 Zambales -, Fortuna, Pandan, Japanese 3, C21, M45, M11R Nueva Ecija - Wag-wag Aga, Senador, AG5, AG10, Abra white, C22, M115-R, M146-1, M4-3-1, M45-1, M21-2-B2, M104-2R, M108-1R, M35-4-1, M69-2-2, M5-BD-2, M130-3, M48-1-1, M11-5-1, M86-3-1, M21, M11, M69, M5B2, M30, M45, M36-4-2, M4-3-1 Oriental Mindoro – Elon-elon, Ka Luis, AG5, GV3, M13, XO, M97, M11, M45-1 Laguna – Wag-wag Aga, Sampaguita, BS Nagkarlan, Africa, M5-AS, M8-2-1, M62-1-2, M45, M5-B-2, M13-1-1, M13-1-1B, M36-4-1, M30-10-1B, M4-3-1, M3-2-1, M10-2-1 Aklan – Imp. Camoros, M45-1, M15-12-1, M11-5-1, M31-37-B4, M21-b1-1, M76-4-1, M2-1-1, M5-CS, M125-2, M140-1, M13-21B, M5-A1, M11-5-1, M36-2-1 Antique – AG5, AG10, 16-70D, San Pablo, Minantika, Red Rice, M5-BD, M5-CS, M21B3, M21-B1-1, M21-37-B4, M36-1, M36-3, M36-4-1, M62-1-1, M104-2, M139-2 Quezon – AG17, AG5, M41, M35, M12-21 Capiz – Libtong Mal, Milagrosa, Kadidit, Ag 23, M16-3, M115-1R, M114-4 Negros Occidental – Wag-wag, AG10, AG5, Binangan, Dinorado, Fortuna, Imp. Borong, Imp. Milagrosa, Inuwak, Macan, Red Borong, Sampaguita, White Borong, Zambales, 2R-IN, 90D-42, 90D-43, 90D-44 Bugana Rice, GL1-8-1, GL4-5-5, GL4-9, M10-2-1, M104-1R, M11-20-1, M117-1R, M127-3, M13-2, M133-1, M139-1, M15-12-1, M20-1, M2137-B4, M22-2-1, M36-1, M36-4-1, M4-4B, M5-BD, M50-1-1, M50-2, M5-AS, M62-1-1, M62-1-2, M6-6, M69-3-1, M8-2-1, M8-3-1, M90-2, M90-LG, MV4-4, Mv4-8 Camarines Sur – AG24, Elon-elon, M5A, M48, M70, M102, M103, M106, M107, M110, M112, M128, M131, M143 Agusan del Norte- Palay Damo, AG5, AG10, Sta. Maria, San pablo, Carandang, Bengawan, Jap 1, Tapol 1, India, M5-AS, M117, M11-20-1, M11-20-B2, M4-4B, M5C, MC14-2R, M87-W, M6-14-1-1 Iloilo - Kagingi, Imp. Camoros, Malido, Lubang, Inuwak, red Borong, M15-12-1R, M10-2-1 Zamboanga del Sur – White Bengawan, Red Elon-elon, Red Wag-wag, AG5, AG17, C35, M101-1-1, M112-4, M115-6, M76-3-1, M8-1-1-2, M86-4-1, M97-2-1, M35-1-4-1, M97-ES, M5-AS, M15-12 Surigao del Sur – San Pablo, M2-1-1, M5-BD, M13-2-1B, M3-4-1, M93-1 Bohol - Melobina, Maragay, Ag 5, Magsanaya, M148-1, SKK Davao del Norte – AG5, Layong Mabilog, Cicadiz, Sampaguita, Milagrosa, Hinumay, Malagkit, Tinangi, Bogret, Camoros, San Pablo, Red Wagwag, Wag-wag Aga, M35, 4-11-90, M21-4-1, M58, M50, M59, M75-1, M4-4-B2 Lanao del Norte – Ala, Wag-wag Aga, Sulig, Hinumay, AG5, M15-12-1, M19, M68, M91, M86-4-1, M109, M117-1-1R, M108-1R, M36-2, M86-4-1, M8-3-1 Bukidnon – Lubang, C18, Senador, Wag-wag Aga, Bengawan Puti, red Elon-elon, Red Borong, AG24, Bogret, Makagina, Mamintana, Pungko, Sologanon, SP Red, Sta. Maria, Sto. Niño, Sulig, AG5, Maligaya Rice, AG10, Puro-puro, Red Binato, M5-BD, C11-4, Dong Red, M76-1, M94, M15-12-1, M3-4-1, M35-3-1, M51-1-1, M51-2, M5-C, M70-1W, M75-1, M86-1, M90-LG, M93-1 Davao del Sur – AG5, M117-3, M15-12-1, M117, M95-5, M5-AS South Cotabato – San Pablo, AG5, M2, M3-1-1, M5-CS North Cotabato – C21, Moguama Africa, Nagdami, Vahari, Vadani, BS Nagkarlan, Maligaya Rice, Pinitumpo, AG5, Puropuro, San pablo, Tinagi, M35-1-2-1, M67-2-1, M5-BD, M26-4-1, M115-1A, M108-1R, M5-C3, M5-CS, M4-4B, M36-4-1, M14-1-1, M11-6-1, M123-2, M129-1, M10-2-2-5, M11-20-1, M11-6-1, M30-10-1B, M36-4, M-AS, M5-B2, M94-4-1,, M11-6-1, M126-12, M13-21B, M131-1, M146-1, 21-2-B2, M15-12-1 RESULTS: Number of Traditional Rice Varieties (TRVs) and Masipag rice with desired characteristics. Characteristic / Adaptation Traditional rice varieties Masipag rice High tillering capacity Good ratooning ability Low fertility soils 12 42 24 36 Drought tolerance Saltwater tolerance Flooding tolerance 8 7 1 9 12 7 6 152 17 79 Pest/disease resistance Red / Black/Violet Climate Change-ready varieties Drought tolerant – Elonelon, San Vicente, Palawan, M160-1 Solano, Nueva Vizcaya Calabanga, Cam Sur Bato, Cam Sur Drought tolerant – M6-14-1R Batbatngon, Leyte Patnongon, Antique Alimodian, Iloilo Libagon, Southern Leyte Drought tolerant – Red Borong, Zambales MLD 4-1 Sta. Josefa, Agusan del Sur Malng, North Cotabato Legends: Farmer-bred lines Traditional rice varieties MASIPAG Selections Sultan Kudarat, Saranggani Salt Water tolerant– Loreto, Binulungan, M1151R, M45-1 Flood tolerant – M116-2, M115-1R, M160-1, M45-1, PBB 401 Drought tolerantt – Senador, Hubanib Drought tolerant – M148-2, M394-1, M512, M177-3, M74-1 Flood tolerant – JDC 3 , JDC8, Dalagang Bukid Drought tolerant – M4-3-1, Hinumay Salt water tolerant – Jasmine, Kanoni, Elon-elon, Makaginga, Binulawan D. Soil Fertility Management Soil Fertility Management Fermented Plant Juice, Fish Amino Acid, Indigenous microorganisms Compost, Vermicompost Green manure E. Alternative Pest Management Farm Management Practices • Soil nutrient management • Method and time of planting • Water management • Crop rotation Soil fertility Crop and Varietal Diversification Insect Pest,Pathogen, Weed Technology Development by Farmers Maintain Ecological Balance F. Diversified and Integrated Farming System (DIFS) • Diversification is insurance against stochastic events > 3-5 varieties of rice per farmer > Diversification in time (crop rotation) > Diversification in space (vertical space, horizontal space) > Diversification by use > Diversified and Integrated Farming System (DIFS) = a farm plan is needed DIFS: more sources, more food, more income DIFS and multifunctionality Ducks: Natural pest control • Maintain stock resources in the Farm Livestock: Bank in the backyard ! G. Poultry Gene Pool and Development Nine PO managed chicken gene pool No Regrets Adaptation to Climate change: Cultivation of survival crops: • Tuber crops are food insurance (sweet potato, cassava, taro, yam) • Resilient crops (banana) • Sturdy crops (coconut) > non-traditional food crops and animals • Drought tolerant (sorghum, pigeon pea) H. Farmer-developed and Adapted technologies Pangi leaves used as botanical pest control by Doming of Zamboanga del Sur Carabao driven rotary used in rice farming by Abraham of Sultan Kudarat Organic farming for rural development • Organic farming: use resources within the farm > Green Manuring (biofertilizers) > Crop and animal wastes (as organic fertilizers) > Vermicomposting > Companion crops >>> reduces farmers’ economic exposure to risks (less production costs) Reduce vulnerability through farmerbased adaptive strategies • Diversification > 3-5 varieties of rice per farmer > Diversified and Integrated Farming Systems > Tuber crops (food insurance) > non-traditional food crops and animals > Green Manuring (biofertilizers) > Livestock (bank in the backyard) > Medicinal plants (pharmacy in the backyard) 34 I. Local marketing of organic products MASIPAG Farmers’ Guarantee System: • Organic standards • Internal quality control • Product and market development • Processing facilities • Management capacity bldg. J. Advocacy • Advocacy against development aggression: -GMOs, patenting of life, corporate control -Mining -Aerial spraying -Land grabbing and land conversion -Biofuels • Advocacy in favor of: - agrarian reform - susag/organic ag and food security >> practical work is our best advocacy Improved Income: Net agricultural income per hectare, 2007 (Pesos) Masipag Organic Masipag In Conversion Chemical Faming Luzon 24,412** 18,991** 13,403** Visayas 22,868** 16,039** 13,728** Mindanao Average 23,715ns 17,362ns 23,599*** 17,457*** ** = highly significant differences *** = very highly significant differences Ns = no significant difference 19,588ns 15,643*** As organization and network: 635 Peoples Organizations; 35,000+ farmers 60 Non-Government Organizations 15 Scientist-partners 67 farmer rice breeders; 12 corn breeders 100+ volunteer farmer-trainers On-farm research resources 223 PO-managed trial farms +10 back-up 9 PO-managed native chicken gene pools Active in 49 provinces Summary MASIPAG works on: • Farmers’ Empowerment • Biodiversity conservation • Sustainable agriculture and farming • Organic production and marketing • Food security and Poverty alleviation • Coping mechanism to climate change >> Not Green or Gene revolution but “Farmer revolution” >> A partnership, a network, a philosophy and a way of life Some Lessons in Participatory Research Agricultural problems have technological as well as non-technological solutions Certain degree of trust and confidence building as well as leveling-off is needed R & D should be farmer-centered, not project-, discipline-, scientist-, agency-, or NGO-centered Need-driven, not fund driven Some Lessons in Participatory Research Farmers’ counterparting and no dole-outs should be observed Sense of ownership by the farmers should be inculcated Organization has multiplier and sustainability effect Change and development should only be as fast as the farmers can assimilate Source: Barefoot Guide to Organizations Wanderer, your footsteps are on the road, Wanderer, there is no road, The road is made by walking. Antonio Machado The paths are not to be found, but made And the activity of making them Changes both the maker and the destination. John Schaar Thank you for your attention.