MASIPAG Farmers` Guarantee System

Report
The new hunting ground is not the best…
2
Market speculation
/ Futures
Climate
Change
GMOs
Land grabbing
Land conversion
Peak Oil
BIGAS(Rice) Conference, 1985
Failure of Green Revolution:
• Loss of local varieties
• More inputs, higher costs
• More pests, new biotypes
• Infertile soils
• Degraded environment
• Poisoning
>>Farmers “forgot how to
grow rice”
= Farmers’ greater indebtedness,
rural poverty
The Beginnings: Farmers

Victims of social injustice

Complained of the direct effects and
impacts of the green revolution
Pushed the implementation of an
alternative farming system
Willingness to participate, help, and lead


MASIPAG Magsasaka at Siyentipiko
para sa Pag-unlad ng Agrikultura
(Farmer-Scientist Partnership for
Development):
organized in 1986 as partnership between
farmers , scientists and NGOs as alternative
approach to the Green revolution
Goal: Empower resource-poor farmers through
access and control of production resources
(seeds, technology, land)
Farmer-Scientist Partnership:
The MASIPAG Experience
Partners:
• Farmers, through their organizations
(wealth of experience)
• Non-Government Organizations
(organizing skills)
• Scientists
(experimentation skills)
Empowerment of farmers through:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Farmers’ control of seeds
Farmers’ control of technology
Farmers’ control of other resources
Shared leadership in organizations
Mastery in technology generation
Articulation of needs and pursuit of
aspirations
Strategies
Programs
 Collection, Identification,
Maintenance, Multiplication
and Evaluation (CIMME)
 Breeding (Rice, Corn,
Livestock)
 Soil Fertility Management
 Alternative Pest
Management (APM)





Diversified-Integrated
Farming System (DIFS)
Farmer-developed /
adapted technology
Network Strengthening
Local Processing and
Marketing
Advocacy
Strategic Role of Farmers’
Organization





Effective coordination, multiplier
Planning and decision making
Mutual support
Ensure diffusion
of benefits
Sustainability
of activities
MASIPAG Farmers’ Organizations (PO)
Luzon: 90 POs
Nueva Ecija: 8, Pangasinan: 9, Zambales: 7,
Camarines Sur: 16, Occidental Mindoro: 1,
Nueva Viscaya: 11, Isabela: 6, Cagayan: 2,
Quezon: 7, Pampanga: 1; Rizal: 1; Abra: 2;
Kalinga/Apayao: 3; Laguna: 1; Palawan: 4,
Ilocos Norte: 1, Albay: 1, La Union: 1
Visayas: 174 POs
Negros Occidental: 95, Iloïlo: 18, Antique: 13,
Aklan: 12, Leyte: 7, Bohol: 1; Capiz: 12;
Southern Leyte: 16; E. Samar: 2; N. Samar: 6
Mindanao: 390 POs
Agusan del Norte: 34; Agusan Sur: 35; Bukidnon:
26; Compostela Valley: 1; Davao City: 39;
Davao Norte: 29; Davao Oriental: 16; Davao
del Sur: 9; Lanao del Norte: 11; Lanao del Sur:
4; Maguindanao: 10; Misamis Occidental: 18;
Misamis oriental: 14; North Cotabato: 16;
Saranggani: 2; South Cotabato: 6; Sultan
Kudarat: 11; Surigao Norte: 7; Surigao Sur: 13;
Zamboanga del Norte: 24; Zamboanga
Sibugay: 15; Zamboanga del Sur: 50
 Masipag in 49 Provinces
Members Undergo the Following
Process:
Organizing
 Sustainable Agriculture orientation
 Establish a trial farm

-monitor agronomic characters
-conduct field day
-select locally adapted

Thematic trainings
Diffusion between farmers and
between POs
Training:
 Level 1
- Basic orientation on Sustainable Agric.
(Global, national, and local situation of food and agriculture,
the green and gene revolutions, Masipag as an alternative)
 Level 2
- Soil Fertility Management (SFM)
- Breeding (rice, corn, chicken)
- Alternative Pest Management (APM)
- Diversified and Integrated Farming System (DIFS)
- Masipag Farmer Guarantee System (MFGS)
 Level 3 (Trainor’s training)
Diffusion through People’s Organizations
Interested
Farmers /
LGU
Organize
Field Day /Advocacy
Organization
Orientation
Trial Farm
Observe / Characterize
Training
Breeding
Experiment
New
Technology
Other Farmers
New
Selection
Increased Yield,
Improved Income
Locally
Adapted
Variety
A. Seed Conservation and Diffusion
1. Farmers collect rice varieties (CIMME)
>Collection, Identification, Multiplication, Maintenance,
Evaluation)
2. Farmers organize and given SA orientation
3. Establish a trial farm (laboratory cum seed bank)
-monitor agronomic characters
-conduct field day
-select locally adapted
4. Farmers’ training
5. Do Breeding and further selection
6. Diffusion of seeds and knowledge among farmers
Collection, development and use of TRVs:
1,105 Traditional Rice Varieties collected
1,085 Masipag rice developed
506 Farmer-bred selections
75 Native corn varieties
6 native chicken gene pool
Masipag Rice conservation
and Seed support system
National
Back-up Farm
2,160 rice varieties &
Regional (2),
Provincial (9) Backup farms
300 to 1,200 rice
varieties & selections
PO-managed Trial
farms (223)
At least 50 varieties
per TF
Verification farms
6 to 24 varieties
Farm Production
At least 3 varieties
Selections
B. Rice Breeding by Farmers
 67
farmer-breeders
 506
rice developed
C. Role of Farmermanaged Trial Farm
Farmers’ laboratory
 Develop site-specific varieties
 Develop site-specific
technology
 Seed bank
 Creative organizing
 Advocacy

Farmer-Managed Trial Farms in 49 Provinces
Luzon (83):
Nueva Ecija: 8, Pangasinan: 2,
Zambales:1, Camarines Sur: 13,
Occidental Mindoro: 10, Nueva Viscaya:
9, Isabela: 18, Cagayan: 1, Quezon: 14,
Pampanga: 1; Antipolo: 2; Abra: 2, Ilocos
Norte: 1, La Union: 1
Visayas (81):
Negros Occidental: 29, Negros Oriental:
1, Iloïlo: 10, Antique: 17, Aklan: 1, Cebu:
2, Leyte: 10, Bohol: 1; Capiz: 5; Eastern
Samar: 5
Mindanao (61):
North Cotabato: 5, Agusan del Norte: 1;
Davao City: 1, Davao del Sur: 1; Lanao
Norte: 2, Zamboanga del Sur: 3,
Zamboanga del Norte: 15;
Misamis Oriental: 1, Bukidnon: 6;
Compostela Valley: 1; Maguindanao: 3;
South Cotabato: 3; Sultan Kudarat: 2;
Surigao del Norte: 5; Zamboanga
Sibugay: 11
Locally Adapted MASIPAG Rice and TRVs
Pangasinan – Lamyung, Bulik, Mogen,
Cinamon, , Pandan, Sampaguita,
Parirutong, India, Resco, Imp. Milagrosa,
C22, M45, M3-4-1-2, M69-2-1, M120-4,
M10-2-2-5, M44-3, M4-B1, M5-B1, M40-2-2,
M44-1, M140-2, M8-3-1
Kalinga – Onay
Cagayan – Elon-elon, Ag 5, M8-3-1,
M35-1-1, M45-1, M69-4-1
Nueva Vizcaya – Pinili, Hinomay, Valentino, Ag 19, M11-20, M3-6,
M109, M5-6, M45, M90, M11-20SG, M5-1, M30-1, M135-1, M19, 102
Aurora – Elon-elon, Camoros, Sampaguita, Wag-wag Aga,
Palawan, Raminad, Londan-honay, Galo, Ag 5, Ag 17, Kadali,
Ag 27, White Borong, Fortuna, M21, M6-11-1, M3, M4, M35
Zambales -, Fortuna,
Pandan, Japanese 3, C21,
M45, M11R
Nueva Ecija - Wag-wag Aga, Senador, AG5, AG10, Abra white,
C22, M115-R, M146-1, M4-3-1, M45-1, M21-2-B2, M104-2R,
M108-1R, M35-4-1, M69-2-2, M5-BD-2, M130-3, M48-1-1, M11-5-1,
M86-3-1, M21, M11, M69, M5B2, M30, M45, M36-4-2, M4-3-1
Oriental Mindoro – Elon-elon, Ka Luis,
AG5, GV3, M13, XO, M97, M11, M45-1
Laguna – Wag-wag Aga, Sampaguita, BS Nagkarlan,
Africa, M5-AS, M8-2-1, M62-1-2, M45, M5-B-2, M13-1-1,
M13-1-1B, M36-4-1, M30-10-1B, M4-3-1, M3-2-1, M10-2-1
Aklan – Imp. Camoros, M45-1, M15-12-1,
M11-5-1, M31-37-B4, M21-b1-1, M76-4-1,
M2-1-1, M5-CS, M125-2, M140-1, M13-21B, M5-A1, M11-5-1, M36-2-1
Antique – AG5, AG10, 16-70D, San Pablo,
Minantika, Red Rice, M5-BD, M5-CS, M21B3, M21-B1-1, M21-37-B4, M36-1, M36-3,
M36-4-1, M62-1-1, M104-2, M139-2
Quezon – AG17, AG5, M41, M35, M12-21
Capiz – Libtong Mal,
Milagrosa, Kadidit, Ag 23,
M16-3, M115-1R, M114-4
Negros Occidental – Wag-wag, AG10, AG5, Binangan,
Dinorado, Fortuna, Imp. Borong, Imp. Milagrosa, Inuwak,
Macan, Red Borong, Sampaguita, White Borong, Zambales,
2R-IN, 90D-42, 90D-43, 90D-44 Bugana Rice, GL1-8-1,
GL4-5-5, GL4-9, M10-2-1, M104-1R, M11-20-1, M117-1R,
M127-3, M13-2, M133-1, M139-1, M15-12-1, M20-1, M2137-B4, M22-2-1, M36-1, M36-4-1, M4-4B, M5-BD, M50-1-1,
M50-2, M5-AS, M62-1-1, M62-1-2, M6-6, M69-3-1, M8-2-1,
M8-3-1, M90-2, M90-LG, MV4-4, Mv4-8
Camarines Sur – AG24, Elon-elon, M5A, M48, M70, M102, M103, M106, M107,
M110, M112, M128, M131, M143
Agusan del Norte- Palay Damo, AG5,
AG10, Sta. Maria, San pablo, Carandang,
Bengawan, Jap 1, Tapol 1, India, M5-AS,
M117, M11-20-1, M11-20-B2, M4-4B, M5C,
MC14-2R, M87-W, M6-14-1-1
Iloilo - Kagingi, Imp. Camoros,
Malido, Lubang, Inuwak, red Borong,
M15-12-1R, M10-2-1
Zamboanga del Sur – White Bengawan, Red Elon-elon,
Red Wag-wag, AG5, AG17, C35, M101-1-1, M112-4,
M115-6, M76-3-1, M8-1-1-2, M86-4-1, M97-2-1, M35-1-4-1,
M97-ES, M5-AS, M15-12
Surigao del Sur – San Pablo, M2-1-1,
M5-BD, M13-2-1B, M3-4-1, M93-1
Bohol - Melobina, Maragay, Ag 5,
Magsanaya, M148-1, SKK
Davao del Norte – AG5, Layong Mabilog, Cicadiz,
Sampaguita, Milagrosa, Hinumay, Malagkit,
Tinangi, Bogret, Camoros, San Pablo, Red Wagwag, Wag-wag Aga, M35, 4-11-90, M21-4-1, M58,
M50, M59, M75-1, M4-4-B2
Lanao del Norte – Ala, Wag-wag Aga, Sulig,
Hinumay, AG5, M15-12-1, M19, M68, M91,
M86-4-1, M109, M117-1-1R, M108-1R, M36-2,
M86-4-1, M8-3-1
Bukidnon – Lubang, C18, Senador, Wag-wag Aga, Bengawan Puti, red Elon-elon, Red Borong, AG24,
Bogret, Makagina, Mamintana, Pungko, Sologanon, SP Red, Sta. Maria, Sto. Niño, Sulig, AG5, Maligaya
Rice, AG10, Puro-puro, Red Binato, M5-BD, C11-4, Dong Red, M76-1, M94, M15-12-1, M3-4-1, M35-3-1,
M51-1-1, M51-2, M5-C, M70-1W, M75-1, M86-1, M90-LG, M93-1
Davao del Sur – AG5, M117-3, M15-12-1,
M117, M95-5, M5-AS
South Cotabato –
San Pablo, AG5, M2,
M3-1-1, M5-CS
North Cotabato – C21, Moguama Africa, Nagdami, Vahari,
Vadani, BS Nagkarlan, Maligaya Rice, Pinitumpo, AG5, Puropuro, San pablo, Tinagi, M35-1-2-1, M67-2-1, M5-BD, M26-4-1,
M115-1A, M108-1R, M5-C3, M5-CS, M4-4B, M36-4-1, M14-1-1,
M11-6-1, M123-2, M129-1, M10-2-2-5, M11-20-1, M11-6-1,
M30-10-1B, M36-4, M-AS, M5-B2, M94-4-1,, M11-6-1, M126-12, M13-21B, M131-1, M146-1, 21-2-B2, M15-12-1
RESULTS:
Number of Traditional Rice Varieties (TRVs) and
Masipag rice with desired characteristics.
Characteristic /
Adaptation
Traditional
rice varieties
Masipag
rice
High tillering capacity
Good ratooning ability
Low fertility soils
12
42
24
36
Drought tolerance
Saltwater tolerance
Flooding tolerance
8
7
1
9
12
7
6
152
17
79
Pest/disease resistance
Red / Black/Violet
Climate Change-ready varieties
Drought tolerant – Elonelon, San Vicente,
Palawan, M160-1
Solano, Nueva Vizcaya
Calabanga, Cam Sur
Bato, Cam Sur
Drought tolerant –
M6-14-1R
Batbatngon, Leyte
Patnongon, Antique
Alimodian, Iloilo
Libagon, Southern Leyte
Drought tolerant –
Red Borong, Zambales
MLD 4-1
Sta. Josefa, Agusan del Sur
Malng, North Cotabato
Legends:
Farmer-bred lines
Traditional rice varieties
MASIPAG Selections
Sultan Kudarat, Saranggani
Salt Water tolerant–
Loreto, Binulungan, M1151R, M45-1
Flood tolerant – M116-2,
M115-1R, M160-1, M45-1,
PBB 401
Drought tolerantt –
Senador, Hubanib
Drought tolerant –
M148-2, M394-1, M512, M177-3, M74-1
Flood tolerant – JDC 3 ,
JDC8, Dalagang Bukid
Drought tolerant – M4-3-1,
Hinumay
Salt water tolerant – Jasmine,
Kanoni, Elon-elon, Makaginga,
Binulawan
D. Soil Fertility Management
Soil Fertility Management
Fermented Plant Juice,
Fish Amino Acid,
Indigenous microorganisms
Compost,
Vermicompost
Green manure
E. Alternative Pest Management
Farm Management Practices
• Soil nutrient management
• Method and time of planting
• Water management
• Crop rotation
Soil fertility
Crop and Varietal
Diversification
Insect Pest,Pathogen,
Weed
Technology Development
by Farmers
Maintain
Ecological
Balance
F. Diversified and Integrated Farming
System (DIFS)
• Diversification is insurance against stochastic
events
> 3-5 varieties of rice per farmer
> Diversification in time (crop rotation)
> Diversification in space (vertical space,
horizontal space)
> Diversification by use
> Diversified and Integrated Farming System
(DIFS) = a farm plan is needed
DIFS: more sources,
more food, more income
DIFS and
multifunctionality
Ducks: Natural pest control
• Maintain stock
resources in the Farm
Livestock: Bank in the backyard !
G. Poultry Gene Pool and Development
Nine PO managed chicken gene pool
No Regrets Adaptation to Climate change:
Cultivation of survival crops:
• Tuber crops are food insurance
(sweet potato, cassava, taro, yam)
• Resilient crops (banana)
• Sturdy crops (coconut)
> non-traditional food crops and animals
• Drought tolerant (sorghum, pigeon pea)
H. Farmer-developed and
Adapted technologies
Pangi leaves used as botanical
pest control by Doming of
Zamboanga del Sur
Carabao driven rotary used in
rice farming by Abraham of
Sultan Kudarat
Organic farming for rural development
• Organic farming: use resources within the farm
> Green Manuring (biofertilizers)
> Crop and animal wastes
(as organic fertilizers)
> Vermicomposting
> Companion crops
>>>
reduces farmers’ economic exposure to
risks (less production costs)
Reduce vulnerability through farmerbased adaptive strategies
• Diversification
> 3-5 varieties of rice per farmer
> Diversified and Integrated Farming
Systems
> Tuber crops (food insurance)
> non-traditional food crops and animals
> Green Manuring (biofertilizers)
> Livestock (bank in the backyard)
> Medicinal plants (pharmacy in the
backyard)
34
I. Local marketing of
organic products
MASIPAG Farmers’ Guarantee System:
• Organic standards
• Internal quality control
• Product and market development
• Processing facilities
• Management capacity bldg.
J. Advocacy
• Advocacy against development
aggression:
-GMOs, patenting of life, corporate control
-Mining
-Aerial spraying
-Land grabbing and land conversion
-Biofuels
• Advocacy in favor of:
- agrarian reform
- susag/organic ag and food security
>> practical work is our best advocacy
Improved Income:
Net agricultural income per hectare, 2007 (Pesos)
Masipag
Organic
Masipag In
Conversion
Chemical
Faming
Luzon
24,412**
18,991**
13,403**
Visayas
22,868**
16,039**
13,728**
Mindanao
Average
23,715ns 17,362ns
23,599*** 17,457***
** = highly significant differences
*** = very highly significant differences
Ns = no significant difference
19,588ns
15,643***

As organization and network:






635 Peoples Organizations; 35,000+ farmers
60 Non-Government Organizations
15 Scientist-partners
67 farmer rice breeders; 12 corn breeders
100+ volunteer farmer-trainers
On-farm research resources
223 PO-managed trial farms +10 back-up
 9 PO-managed native chicken gene pools

 Active
in 49 provinces
Summary
MASIPAG works on:
• Farmers’ Empowerment
• Biodiversity conservation
• Sustainable agriculture and farming
• Organic production and marketing
• Food security and Poverty alleviation
• Coping mechanism to climate change
>> Not Green or Gene revolution but “Farmer
revolution”
>> A partnership, a network, a philosophy and
a way of life
Some Lessons in
Participatory Research
 Agricultural problems have technological as
well as non-technological solutions
 Certain degree of trust and confidence
building as well as leveling-off is needed
 R & D should be farmer-centered, not
project-, discipline-, scientist-, agency-, or
NGO-centered
 Need-driven, not fund driven
Some Lessons in
Participatory Research
 Farmers’ counterparting and no dole-outs
should be observed
 Sense of ownership by the farmers should
be inculcated
 Organization has multiplier and sustainability
effect
 Change and development should only be as
fast as the farmers can assimilate
Source: Barefoot Guide to Organizations
Wanderer, your footsteps are on the
road,
Wanderer, there is no road,
The road is made by walking.
Antonio Machado
The paths are not to be found, but made
And the activity of making them
Changes both the maker and the destination.
John Schaar
Thank you for your attention.

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