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Educational material related to the Hobart Class DDGs ( Air Warfare Destroyers ) built at Techport, Adelaide South Australia AWD ALLIANCE / DECD STEM Program – Science Technology Engineering Mathematics Le Fevre High School - The Maritime School of South Australia The Maritime School of South Australia ALLIANCE / DECD STEM Program – Science Technology Engineering Mathematics Author / Developer : Thierry Herman Mathematics and Maritime Science Teacher - Le Fevre High School The Maritime School of South Australia AWD Personnel - Contributors / Advisors : Alliance CoA Michael Clements – Platform Systems Activation Nigel Agars – ILS ( Integrated Logistics Support ) Principal Mark Eglinton – Project Manager - transportation Matt Sinnett – Jones – Sonar Paul Shinks – Sonar Tom Robinson – Ship Production David Gonzales- Propulsion Ronnie Watt - Sonar Nick Fletcher – ISS Lead system engineer Craig Schwartz - Sonar Ruben Spyker – Technical Director Mike Lorenzo - Training Anna Jackson – AWD Communications Manager CAPT Shane Casboult – Trails and Acceptance ( Engineering) CAPT James Nash – Ballistics Roger Duffield – Construction Design Acceptance ( Engineering ) LEUT Peter Shirley – Top side Lead Engineer – Radar Lee Rigano – FMS ( Foreign Military Sales ) Manager Terry Foster - Staff Officer - Projects Tracey Guest – Administration Coordinator Terri George - Business Support Officer (HR) MISSIONS Theme Mathematics Physics Science / Chem HULL Year 8 Hull volume calculations Year 10 Why does it Float ? Year 11 Hull protection Electrochem. CERT II Welding Techniques PROPULSION SYSTEMS Year 9 Propeller Geometry Year 11 / 12 How Fast does it turn ? Year 11 /12 Which metal for which use ? CERT I Pitch Year 10 / 11 Quadratics Applications Year 11 What is a focal point ? Year 9 Microwaves Energy Transfer CERT III Building a Parabolic BBQ Year 10 Year 12 Parabolic Trajectories Year 10 Propellant Combustion CERT II Machining Tolerances RADAR COMMUNICATIONS BALLISTICS / RAS Replenishment At Sea Total Surface Area of Propellant VET Theme Subject Topic Year level HULL Mathematics Measurement & Volume Year 8 ACARA / SACE / VET Reference : ACMMG198 Develop the formulas for volumes of rectangular and triangular prisms and prisms in general. Use formulas to solve problems involving volume (ACMMG198) investigating the relationship between volumes of rectangular and triangular prisms The Maritime School of South Australia Description of Unit : This unit is related to the geometry of ship hulls and in particular to the calculation of the volume of prismatic solids. This unit will enable students to calculate the immersed volume of simplified ship hulls and therefore, the displacement of a ship. A ship hull can be modelled and broken down into three parts : Front ( Prow ): Mid-ship : Rear ( Stern ) : Triangular prism, Rectangular prism Trapezoidal Prism Each of these volumes are calculated separately and added together to find the overall volume. UNIT : ( To access Hyperlinks, left click on them) Prior knowledge : See Prismatic Volumes Calculator for calculating the surface of a Triangle (Web) Calculator for calculating the surface of a Rectangle (Web) Calculator for calculating the surface of a Trapezium (Web) Example : Calculations for the volume of prisms ( Video ) STUDENT RESOURCE : Worksheet on the calculation of the immersed volume of AWD hull TEACHER RESOURCE: Solutions RELATED TOPICS : ( HULL ) PHYSICS tab : Archimedes Principle ( Why does it float ? ) CHEMISTRY tab : Hull Protection and Electrochemistry VET tab : Welding techniques AWD Alliance Resources : AWD Home Page EXTENSION / POSSIBLE RESEARCH TOPICS You might want to investigate : Platonic Solids Who developed the first understanding of how to calculate volumes ? Check out the volume in cubic metres of the Great Pyramid. How was it calculated ? What is Calculus and how is it related to the calculation of volumes ? ( even if you are in year 8, you can get the basic facts about calculus and understand its application regarding the calculation of volumes without going into too many details ). MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION Archimedean Solids Archimedes and his work Click on the red button to go back to main menu. The Maritime School of South Australia Theme Subject Topic Year level HULL Physics Archimedes Principle Year 10 ACARA / SACE / VET Reference : ACSSU229 The motion of objects can be described and predicted using the laws of physics (ACSSU229) Recognising that a stationary object, or a moving object with constant motion, has balanced forces acting on it Recognising and applying Newton’s Third Law to describe the effect of interactions between two objects The Maritime School of South Australia Description of Unit : This unit is related to Archimedes Principle as well as the third law of Newton applied in the Maritime world and in particular to ships and submarines. This unit will enable students to investigate the properties of Buoyancy and do calculations relating to displacement and density. UNIT : ( To access Hyperlinks, left click on them) Prior knowledge : See Archimedes Principle Prismatic Volumes Calculator for calculating the base area of a Prism (Web) Calculations for the volume of Cylinder (Video) Calculations for the volume of Spheres (Video) STUDENT RESOURCE : Practical activity on Archimedes Principle RELATED TOPICS : ( HULL ) MATHS tab : Volumes and Measurement CHEMISTRY tab : Hull Protection and Electrochemistry VET tab : Welding techniques AWD Alliance Resources : AWD Home Page EXTENSION / POSSIBLE RESEARCH TOPICS You might want to investigate : Archimedes the Man and the Scientist The story of Archimedes, the Crown and the King The buoyancy of super-tankers and container ships Who invented the first submarine ? Can you use Archimedes principle to explain why a hot air balloon can fly ? Who invented the first hot air balloon ? MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION Buoyancy and submarines (Video) Make a working submarine ! ( Cartesian Diver ) (Video) Do eggs float ? (Video) Why do things float ? (Video) Plimsoll line (Video) Click on the red button to go back to main menu. The Maritime School of South Australia Theme Subject Topic Year level HULL Chemistry Hull Protection Year 11 ACARA / SACE / VET Reference : ELECTRO - CHEMISTRY Students investigate Redox reactions and predict the out come of a reaction ( wether the reaction takes place and if so, the products of the reaction ) , when metals and ions are in contact in aqueous phase. They do this by using the Redox Potential table. The Maritime School of South Australia Description of Unit : This unit is related to the Redox Potential and the passive and active protection of metal in an oxidising environment. This unit will enable students to apply their knowledge of electrochemistry to investigate the ways to protect the steel hull of a ship, in particular the hull of the AWD. UNIT : ( To access Hyperlinks, left click on them) Prior knowledge : See What is an Oxidant ? What is a Reductor ? Anodic protection of Metals STUDENT RESOURCE : Practical activity : how to chemically engrave a copper object RELATED TOPICS : ( HULL ) MATHS tab : Volumes and Measurement PHYSICS tab : Hull buoyancy and Archimedes Principle VET tab : Welding techniques AWD Alliance Resources : AWD Home Page EXTENSION / POSSIBLE RESEARCH TOPICS You might want to investigate : The zinc anodes used on the AWD are part of what is called passive protection. Investigate wether it is possible to “actively” protect steel. Application of electrochemistry to the production of circuit boards in electronics Does the keel of a ship rust faster than the water line ? The answer is counterintuitive and is worth investigating. MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION A violent Redox reaction : Alumino-thermie. (Video) Redox reactions in Biochemistry (Video) Click on the red button to go back to main menu. The Maritime School of South Australia Theme Subject Topic Year level HULL VET Welding Techniques Cert II ACARA / SACE / VET Reference : Specific welding techniques must be used for specific metals. UNIT UNDER CONSTRUCTION The Maritime School of South Australia Description of Unit : This unit is related to the different techniques used to weld specific metals UNIT : ( To access Hyperlinks, left click on them) Prior knowledge : See STUDENT RESOURCE : Arc Welding RELATED TOPICS : ( HULL ) MATHS tab : Volumes and Measurement PHYSICS tab : Why does it float ? CHEMISTRY tab : Hull Protection AWD Alliance Resources : AWD Home Page EXTENSION / POSSIBLE RESEARCH TOPICS You might want to investigate : How are aluminium boats and ships welded ? Who developed the first arc welder ? MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION Click on the red button to go back to main menu. The Maritime School of South Australia Theme Subject Topic Year level Propulsion Systems Mathematics Propeller Geometry Year 9 and up ACARA / SACE / VET Reference : ACMMG196, ACMNA208, ACSSU229 Find Perimeters of circles Solve problems involving direct proportion The motion of objects can be described and predicted by using the laws of physics. The Maritime School of South Australia Description of Unit : This unit is related to the geometry of circles. This unit will enable students to calculate the perimeter of circles, find the distance covered by certain points of the propeller, study what RPM means, calculate the linear speed of specific points of the propeller and finally, students will be offered templates to build their own propeller out of balsa wood or equivalent material. UNIT : ( To access Hyperlinks, left click on them) Prior knowledge : See How to calculate the perimeter of a circle (Video) What does RPM mean ? (Video) How Propeller master shapes are made for making moulds (Video) Car tachometer ( RPM meter ) in action (Video) STUDENT RESOURCE : Worksheet on the geometry of propellers and propeller making TEACHER RESOURCE: Solutions RELATED TOPICS : ( HULL ) PHYSICS tab : How fast does it turn ? CHEMISTRY tab : Which metal for which use ? VET tab : Pitch of a screw AWD Alliance Resources : AWD Home Page EXTENSION / POSSIBLE RESEARCH TOPICS You might want to investigate : Where does the word tachometer come from ? Who developed the first tachometer ? Try to find RPMs of common objects : Blades in a food processor, your bicycle wheel, a car wheel, electric drill, etc ... Who invented the first marine propeller ? ( they were called screws at the time ) Who invented the first aircraft propeller ? What is an impeller and what is the difference with a propeller ? In what kind of propulsion systems are they used ? MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION Rotary Engines (Video) James May Rotary blades ( Mini Helicopter ) (Video) Click on the red button to go back to main menu. The Maritime School of South Australia Theme Subject Topic Year level PROPULSION SYSTEM Physics Rotational Speed Year 11 / 12 ACARA / SACE / VET Reference : CIRCULAR MOTION Properties of circular motion. Relationship between Rotational and Linear speed. Rotational ( centrifuge ) acceleration. The Maritime School of South Australia Description of Unit : This unit is related to the geometry of propellers and to the rotational and linear speeds of a point of the propeller. ( tip of a blade ) This unit will enable students to explore the relationship between the rotational speed of a propeller in RPMs ( Revolutions Per Minute ) and in Radiant per second. It will then be possible, knowing the diameter of a propeller of the AWD to calculate the linear speed of the tip of a blade. This in turn relates to cavitation. A video will show at which point a propeller starts to cavitate. UNIT : ( To access Hyperlinks, left click on them) Prior knowledge : See RPMs and Radiant per second Linear speed of rotation Experiment : 100 000 RPM with an electric motor (Video) Rotational acceleration Cavitation Cavitation (Video) STUDENT RESOURCE : > Practical on RPMs and Centripetal force TEACHER RESOURCE: Solutions RELATED TOPICS : ( HULL ) PHYSICS tab : Archimedes Principle CHEMISTRY tab : Electrochemistry VET tab : Welding techniques AWD Alliance Resources : AWD Home Page EXTENSION / POSSIBLE RESEARCH TOPICS You might want to investigate : The different kinds of cavitation Does the cavitation threshold change the operating depth of a propeller ( in submarines for instance ) Designs to limit cavitation Investigate what Electro – hydrodynamic Propulsion Systems are ( do they already exist ? Check out their application in aeronautics ) MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION Hydroplanes The first propeller Click on the red button to go back to main menu. The Maritime School of South Australia Theme Subject Topic Year level PROPULSION SYSTEM Chemistry Metals and Alloys Year 11/12 ACARA / SACE / VET Reference : Metals and their properties This unit relates to metallurgy and in particular to the properties of alloys used to make marine propellers. The Maritime School of South Australia Description of Unit : This unit is related to the properties of metals and their application in the Maritime world and in particular for the manufacture of marine propellers. UNIT : ( To access Hyperlinks, left click on them) Prior knowledge : See What are metals and alloys ? Which alloy / metal for which applications ? Casting of metal objects (Video) STUDENT RESOURCE : Worksheet on metals and alloys RELATED TOPICS : ( HULL ) MATHS tab : Propeller Geometry PHYSICS tab : How fast does it turn ? VET tab : Pitch of a screw ADW Alliance Resources : AWD Home Page EXTENSION / POSSIBLE RESEARCH TOPICS You might want to investigate : The different alloys used in the maritime world Alloys used in Navy helicopters and aircrafts in general Is carbon fibre a viable alternative ? MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION Casting metal objects. Bronze ornaments (Video) The 8 biggest ship propellers in the world (Video) Click on the red button to go back to main menu. The Maritime School of South Australia Theme Subject Topic Year level Propulsion System VET Pitch of a screw Cert I ACARA / SACE / VET Reference : UNIT UNDER CONSTRUCTION The Maritime School of South Australia Description of Unit : This unit is related to the geometry of screws and what is called the pitch. UNIT : ( To access Hyperlinks, left click on them) Prior knowledge : See STUDENT RESOURCE : RELATED TOPICS : ( HULL ) MATHS tab : Propeller Geometry PHYSICS tab : How fast does it turn ? CHEMISTRY tab : Which metal for which use ? AWD Alliance Resources : AWD Home Page EXTENSION / POSSIBLE RESEARCH TOPICS You might want to investigate : Screws with two or more treads. What is the biggest diameter screw and in which application is it used ? MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION Click on the red button to go back to main menu. The Maritime School of South Australia Theme RADAR Communications Subject Topic Year level Mathematics Quadratics Applications Year 10/11 ACARA / SACE / VET Reference : ACMNA239 Explore the connection between algebraic and graphical representations of relations such as simple quadratics, circles and exponentials using digital technology as appropriate The Maritime School of South Australia Description of Unit : This unit is related to the geometrical shape of satellite dishes and their mathematical models as parts of Quadratic curves. This unit will enable students to calculate the coordinates of points belonging to quadratic curves, trace the corresponding graph and get a feel for the influence that coefficients have on the shape of the parabola and therefore on the shape of the antenna. UNIT : ( To access Hyperlinks, left click on them) Prior knowledge : See Quadratic Functions How to calculate and represent Parabolas Parameters influencing the shape of parabolas STUDENT RESOURCE : Worksheet on Quadratics ( Calculations and Graphs ) TEACHER RESOURCE: Solutions RELATED TOPICS : (RADAR and COMMUNICATIONS ) PHYSICS tab : What is a focal point ? SCIENCE tab : Microwaves and Transfer of Energy VET tab : Building a parabolic BBQ AWD Alliance Resources : AWD Home Page EXTENSION / POSSIBLE RESEARCH TOPICS You might want to investigate : CATENARY Functions MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION Who discovered Parabolas ? Archimedes and his work – The quadrature of the Parabola Click on the red button to go back to main menu. The Maritime School of South Australia Theme Subject Topic Year level HULL Physics Focal Point Year 11 ACARA / SACE / VET Reference : Optics : Focal Point This unit relates to the focal point of Parabolas and how to find their location for a given parabola. It is also possible from an engineering point of view to decide before hand on the value of a focal distance, calculate and build the parabola fitting the engineering requirements. The Maritime School of South Australia Description of Unit : This unit is related to the geometry of parabolas, how to trace them with the focal point and directrix method, and in the end, being able to design a parabola fitting prerequisite properties. UNIT : ( To access Hyperlinks, click on them) Prior knowledge : See Animation showing what the focal point of a parabola is How to trace parabolas with focal point and directrix (Web) The Physics of Parabolic mirrors (Video) STUDENT RESOURCE : Worksheet on Tracing a Parabola with compass and square RELATED TOPICS : ( RADAR and COMMUNICATIONS ) MATHS tab : Quadratics applications SCIENCE tab : Microwaves and transfer of Energy VET tab : How to build a parabolic BBQ AWD Alliance Resources : AWD Home Page EXTENSION / POSSIBLE RESEARCH TOPICS You might want to investigate : How to make parabolic solar cookers Applications of parabolic reflectors (Video) MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION Spy acoustic parabolas Archimedes Death Ray Click on the red button to go back to main menu. The Maritime School of South Australia Theme Radar Communications Subject Topic Year level Science Energy Transfer Year 9 ACARA / SACE / VET Reference : ACSSU190 Energy conservation in a system can be explained by describing energy transfers and transformations (ACSSU190) The Maritime School of South Australia Description of Unit : This unit is related to electromagnetic energy transfers. Students will use a simplified version of the Radar equation to study the relationship between the range of a radar and the energy that needs to be deployed to reach that range. UNIT : ( To access Hyperlinks, left click on them) Prior knowledge : See The history of Radar technology (Video) Spectrum of Electromagnetic radiations (Video) STUDENT RESOURCE : Worksheet on the Radar equation application TEACHER RESOURCE: Solutions RELATED TOPICS : (RADAR and COMMUNICATIONS ) MATHS tab : Quadratics applications PHYSICS tab : What is a focal point ? VET tab : Building a parabolic BBQ AWD Alliance Resources : AWD Home Page EXTENSION / POSSIBLE RESEARCH TOPICS You might want to investigate : Which is the biggest phased array Radar in operation ? Who developed the first understanding of how Radars work ? Check out weather Radars Who invented the first microwave oven and what is the relationship between radars and microwaves ovens ? How safe are microwaves ( investigate mobile phones )? Why do you have a mesh at the front of microwave ovens and what is the relationship between the size of the mesh and the wavelength of the microwaves used in a microwave oven ? MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION How are the signals generated in a radar ? What is a phase array Radar and what are the advantages compared to normal Radars ? (Video) Phased Array Radar animation (Video) Acoustic Phased Array demonstration (Video) Click on the red button to go back to main menu. The Maritime School of South Australia Theme Subject Topic Year level HULL Mathematics Measurement & Volume Cert II ACARA / SACE / VET Reference : Building a parabolic mirror UNIT UNDER CONSTRUCTION The Maritime School of South Australia Description of Unit : This unit is related to the geometry of antennas and solar mirrors UNIT : ( To access Hyperlinks, left click on them) Prior knowledge : See Example : STUDENT RESOURCE : RELATED TOPICS : (RADAR and COMMUNICATIONS ) MATHS tab : Applications of Quadratics PHYSICS tab : What is a focal point ? SCIENCE tab : Microwaves and Energy transfer AWD Alliance Resources : AWD Home Page EXTENSION / POSSIBLE RESEARCH TOPICS You might want to investigate : Which is the biggest phased array Radar in operation. ( You will be surprised by it’s size ) Who developed the first understanding of how Radars work ? Check out weather Radars MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION Phased Array Radar animation (Video) Acoustic Phased Array demonstration (Video) Click on the red button to go back to main menu. The Maritime School of South Australia Theme Subject Topic Year level BALISTICS Mathematics Total Surface Area of Propellant Year 10 Replenishment At Sea ACARA / SACE / VET Reference : ACMMG242 ACMNA235 Develop Solve problems involving surface area and volume for a range of prisms, cylinders and composite solids Solve problems involving linear equations, including those derived from formulas The Maritime School of South Australia Description of Unit : This unit is related to the geometry of what are called GRAINS of propellant. This unit will enable students to calculate the Total Surface Area of simple and more complex cylindrical shapes ( the cylindrical shape is due to the process of extrusion used to manufacture the grains of propellant). The overarching principle is that, for a given volume of combustible material ( propellant, black powder, but also wood or even flour and powdered milk ) the Burning Rate of a substance can be dramatically increased by dividing the material into fine particles. This happens because, for a given amount of substance, as the particles ( Grains in Balistics ) become smaller, or their geometry changes, the Total Surface Area of the substance increases dramatically. In this unit, TSAs are going to be calculated for different shapes and will be used in graphs to determine optimum grain geometry. UNIT : ( To access Hyperlinks, left click on them) Prior knowledge : See Cylindrical Volumes Definition of Total Surface Area and example Video tutorial : TSA of a cylinder (Video) Example of increased burning rate Creamer ( Powdered milk ) cannon (Video) ( Mythbusters Creamer Cannon ): STUDENT RESOURCE : Worksheet on the calculation of the TSA of propellant grains TEACHER RESOURCE: Solutions RELATED TOPICS : ( HULL ) PHYSICS tab : Parabolic Trajectories CHEMISTRY tab : Propellant Combustion VET tab : Machining tolerance in boring cannons ADW Alliance Resources : AWD Home Page EXTENSION / POSSIBLE RESEARCH TOPICS You might want to investigate : The history of the manufacture of Black Powder. ( you will discover that the original application was not military, and that black powder was simply used to celebrate events and frighten “demons” away). What were the disadvantages of using black powder and what chemical compounds did human invent to power modern rockets for instance. Find out in which space vehicle solid powder booster rockets are still used. Investigate the influence that the research on propellants had on the development of Chemistry. ( Go back as far as the 9th Century in China, right up to present day ). MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION Lycopodium Powder Combustion Lycopodium Powder Combustion 2 (Video) Lycopodium Power Combustion 3 (Video) Click on the red button to go back to main menu. The Maritime School of South Australia Theme Subject Topic Year level BALISTICS Physics Parabolic trajectories Year 12 Replenishment At Sea ACARA / SACE / VET Reference : MOTION IN TWO DIMENSIONS Students investigate the application of ballistics and motion of projectiles in the Earth’s gravitational field to the firing of projectiles hooked to a line between ships. This technique is used to establish a physical link between these two ships, which can be used for refuelling, cargo and personnel transfer as well as medical evacuation. The Maritime School of South Australia Description of Unit : This unit is related to motion in two dimensions and in particular, to the parabolic trajectory of projectiles in the Earth’s gravitational field. This unit will enable students to calculate for instance the minimal firing angle needed to cover the distance between ships, if they are provided with the minimal range needed and the initial velocity of the projectile ( Dongle ) Students will also investigate what happens if the dongle is fired with a less powerful rifle ( smaller initial velocity ) and what conditions need to be met for the dongle to still reach the other ship. UNIT : ( To access Hyperlinks, left click on them) Prior knowledge : See The Physics of Trajectories ( Power Point ) US Navy RAS ( Replenishment At Sea ) (Video) STUDENT RESOURCE : Worksheet on RAS and Ballistics calculations TEACHER RESOURCE: Solutions RELATED TOPICS : ( HULL ) MATHS tab : Total Surface Area of Propellant CHEMISTRY tab : Propellant Combustion VET tab : Machining tolerances in boring cannons AWD Alliance Resource : US NAVY RAS (Video) EXTENSION / POSSIBLE RESEARCH TOPICS You might want to investigate : Who discovered parabolas Who developed the first understanding gravitational equations ? Investigate what is clout shooting in archery competitions MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION History of Replenishment At Sea ( RAS ) (Video) Click on the red button to go back to main menu. The Maritime School of South Australia Theme Subject Topic Year level Ballistics Chemistry Chemical Reactions Year 10 / 11 ACARA / SACE / VET Reference : ACSSU187 Different types of chemical reactions are used to produce a range of products and can occur at different rates (ACSSU187) The Maritime School of South Australia Description of Unit : This unit is related to chemical reactions. Students will learn about propellant reaction and will be able to calculate proportions of products of a combustion, in particular water and carbon dioxide, by using a balanced chemical equation and the molar masses of reactants and products. UNIT : ( To access Hyperlinks, left click on them) Prior knowledge : See Propellants Chemical reactions ( Video) Molar conversions moles to grams (Video) STUDENT RESOURCE : Worksheet on Combustion Reactions TEACHER RESOURCE: Solutions RELATED TOPICS : ( HULL ) MATHS tab : Total Surface Area of Propellant PHYSICS tab : Parabolic Trajectories VET tab : Machining tolerances boring cannons AWD Alliance Resources : AWD Home Page EXTENSION / POSSIBLE RESEARCH TOPICS You might want to investigate : What are the different types of propellant used in rockets ( Space shuttle ) MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION Acrylic Rocket Engine (Video) Ed Ted History lesson about Gun Powder (Video) Click on the red button to go back to main menu. The Maritime School of South Australia Theme Subject Topic Year level Ballistics VET Machining tolerances Cert II ACARA / SACE / VET Reference : Machining tolerances UNIT UNDER CONSTRUCTION The Maritime School of South Australia Description of Unit : This unit is related to the tolerances used when machining the bore of a cannon UNIT : ( To access Hyperlinks, left click on them) Prior knowledge : See STUDENT RESOURCE : RELATED TOPICS : ( HULL ) MATHS tab : Total Surface Area of Propellant PHYSICS tab : Parabolic Trajectories CHEMISTRY : Combustion Reactions AWD Alliance Resources : AWD Home Page EXTENSION / POSSIBLE RESEARCH TOPICS You might want to investigate : MORE INTERESTING INFORMATION Click on the red button to go back to main menu. The Maritime School of South Australia