Universities

Report
HE in Finland
Birgitta Vuorinen
Counsellor of Education
Department for Higher Education and Science
Ministry of Education, Science and Culture
23.4.2013
[email protected]
Changing environment
Challenging and changing environment
Changing drivers
of R&D&I&HEIpolicies:
-Globalisation,
emerging countries,
emerging knowhow
Emerging economies, grand challenges, global networking
- Researcher
careers/ Tenure
track
EUROPE
-Grand societal and
Environmental
Challenges
Financial crisis – coherence and quality?
-Financial crises
Joint efforts such as JTIs, ETPs, JP, ERC, Horizon2020,
Bologna –process/European Higher Education Area
-Need of a broad
based innovation
concept and
multidisciplinary
approach
POLICIES
-National policies
versus European
policies? National
versus regional
policies? Local and
organisational
strategies? Lisbon
Treaty
Changing
mechanisms in
STI&HEI:
Global environment
-Research
infrastructures
EU/ ER(I)A
A Strategy for Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Growth
EU2020 Strategy
Innovation Union flagship
Budget Review, Financial Regulations
Different
actors and
levels:
European,
national,
regional,
local,
organisational
-Modern
universities and
RTOs
-Joint programmes
and joint degrees
-Distribution of
knowledge
-Joint pooling of
funding (virtual
common pots, real
common pots,
others)
-Joint evaluation
and assessment
activities
-Virtual learning
GDP, change in volume, per cent
Education in Finland
Ylempi korkeakoulututkinto
5
4
3
2
1
1
Ylempi
ammattikorkeakoulututkint
o
työkokemus
3 v.
4
Alempi korkeakoulututkinto
Ammatti3
2 korkeakoulututkinto
1
Erikoisammattitutkinto
työkokemus
Ammattikorkeakoulut
Yliopistot
Tohtorin tutkinto, lisensiaatin
tutkinto
Ammattitutkinto
Lukiot
Toinen aste
Korkea-asete
Suomen koulutus- ja
tutkintojärjestelmä
3
2
1
Ylioppilastutkinto
Lukion oppimäärä
3 Ammatillinen
2 perustutkinto
1
Ammatilliset
oppilaitokset työkokemus/
osaaminen
Perusaste
Valmistavat ja valmentavat
10
Peruskoulut
Perusopetus (perusopetuksen oppimäärä)
Alakoulut, päiväkodit ym. Esiopetus
1-9
1
8
FORMAL EDUCATION IN FINLAND
ISCED classification
Doctoral
degrees
Licentiate degrees
Universities
5
A
4 –5
6
Polytechnic
master's degrees
Polytechnics
Work experience 3 years
Master's
degrees
Bachelor's
degrees
Universities
Polytechnic
bachelor's degrees
Polytechnics
3
1 –3
4
Matriculation
examination
General upper
secondary schools
Vocational
qualifications
0
1–9
Duration
in years
1
*
Further
vocational
qualifications
*
Vocational institutions
*Also available as apprenticeship training
2
&
*
Special
vocational
qualifications
Basic education, 7 –16 -year -olds
Comprehensive schools
Pre -primary education, 6
ISCED -classification 1997
0 Pre -primary education
1– 2 Primary education or lower secondary education
3 Upper secondary education
4 Post -secondary non -tertiary education
5 First stage of tertiary education
6 Second stage of tertiary education
-year -olds
Selected higher education facts
about Finland
• Population of 5,4 million
• Higher education institution
network covers the populated
parts of the country
– 14 universities (four in the great
Helsinki area)
– 25 polytechnics
• Student enrollment altogether
ca. 316 000
University (blue)
Polytechnic (green)
Research institute (red)
The Finnish Higher Education System
• The Finnish higher education system comprises two parallel sectors
• University sector
– 14 research universities
– Student enrollment 168 000, (114 000 FTE)
• of which 18 000 doctoral students
– All institutions funded by the state
• Polytechnic sector [universities of applied sciences] (est. in the mid1990s)
–
–
–
–
–
–
25 institutions
Student enrollment 148 000, (114 000 FTE)
Institutions partly funded by the state, partly by municipalities
Regional development tasks
Bachelor degrees (vocational and professional degrees)
(Professional) Master’s degrees in selected fields
EUA: University autonomy in Europe 2010
• Finnish universities scores well in autonomy comparison:
- organisational autonomy: highly autonomous (3.)
- financial autonomy: medium low autonomy (15.)
- staffing autonomy: highly autonomous (6.)
- academic autonomy: highly autonomous (5.)
The Finnish Higher Education System degrees by level
Steering and Funding of
HEIs
Steering and funding of HEIs
• Legislation and norms
• Programme of the Finnish Government
– Education and research - Development Plan
• MoE steering
– Negotiations and performance agreements
– Information exchange
• State budget
• State funding for HEIs
Universities € 1,8 bn
Polytechnics € 0,9 bn
+ Public research funding allocated to universities (Academy of Finland
& Tekes) € 0,3 bn
• Tuition-free system
Performance Agreements 2013-2016
Structure of the agreement between MoE and HEIs
1. Objectives set for the higher education system as a whole
–
–
Verbal goals formulated in dialogue with HEIs
Comprise the statutory duties, structural development, quality, competitiveness,
effectiveness, internationalization, the viewpoint of staff and students, and the costeffectiveness and productivity of the activities.
2. Mission, Profile and Focus Areas of the HEI
3. Key Development Measures
–
1-5 projects per HEI linked to the implementation of the HEI's strategy
4. Financing
–
The government core funding in total
5. Monitoring and Evaluation
Quantitative targets for universities 2013-2016
UNIVERSITIES
2010
2011
Target
2013-2016
Bachelor’s degrees
12 300
10 775
14 200
Master’s degrees
14 384
12 515
15 023
PhDs
1 518
1 653
1 635
Foreign degree students
7 809
8 752
8 950
Exchange students (incoming &
outgoing, > 3 months)
10 444
10 257
11 950
Quantitative targets for polytechnics 2013-2016
POLYTECHNICS
2010
Polytechnic degrees
Target
2011 2013-2016
20 294
21 064
21 907
Vocational teacher education
1 684
1 669
1 600
Polytechnic Masters
1 253
1 521
2 018
Foreign degree students
7 724
8 727
7 475
Exchange students (incoming
& outgoing, > 3 months)
8 390
8 539
8 830
Performance indicators 2013-2016 1(2)
Universities
• Masters' degrees/ teaching and research personnel
• Doctoral degrees/ professors
• Scientific publications / teaching and research personnel
• Percentage of students who have passed more than 55 study
credits
• Percentage of competive funding from the university total funding
• Staff international mobility / teaching and research personnel
Performance indicators 2013-2016 2(2)
Polytechnics
• Polytechnic degrees/ teaching and research personnel
• Percentage of students who have passed more than 55 study
credits
• Study credits passed in R&D-projects / students
• Publications, public artistic and design activities, audiovisual
material and ICT software / teaching and research personnel
• Staff international mobility / teaching and research personnel
• Percentage of external R&D-funding from the polytechnic total
funding
• Percentage of chargeable services from the polytechnic total funding
Monitoring
• The HEIs must provide the information requested by the Ministry
for the purpose of evaluation, development, statistics and other
information needed for monitoring and steering insofar as this
information is not otherwise available.
• The HEIs are expected to present correct information on their
performance and finances in a way that enables their progress
be evaluated against the set goals.
– Development is annually monitored through indicators which gauge
effectiveness and quality
– The universities must manage their finances efficiently and use their
resources to good effect
• From 2010 universities close the books according to the
accounting legislation
–
universities' financial statements are public documents
• The Ministry of Education gives feedback to the HEIs on their
activities and development needs during the agreement period.
– The feedback procedure is used to steer and monitor the implementation of
higher education policy objectives during the agreement period.
– Feedback is given during the intervening years between negotiations.
Evaluation
• The HEIs are responsible for the quality of their education,
research and other activities, and for their continuous
development and utilisation.
• The quality of performance is indirectly taken into account in the
MoE indicator targets and in the monitoring of their attainment.
• Regular evaluations and external audits of quality assurance
systems are undertaken to enhance the quality and impact of
the educational, research and artistic activities of the
universities.
• The evaluations are organised by the Finnish Higher Education
Evaluation Council (FINHEEC), and the Academy of Finland.
– The findings and reports of the evaluations are public
• The universities, the National Union of University Students in
Finland (SYL) and the Ministry of Education and Culture are
developing a national university student feedback system.
Developing HE
Higher Education
• Higher education network is still too fragmented, structural development
to be continued
– starting in 2013, an art university was created though a merger of the Sibelius
Academy, the Academy of Fine Arts and the Theatre Academy
– to enhance the quality and efficiency of higher education, measures will be taken to
promote joint use of facility services and teacher resources across institutional
boundaries
• Polytechnics to be reformed
– the steering of polytechnics based on financing and statutes will be reformed from the
beginning of 2014 to expedite their structural reform and to improve the quality and
impact of their operations.
– operating licences of polytechnics will be revised from the beginning of 2014
• Quality education expedites entry into the labour market
– the reform of higher education admissions and study structures by the end of 2015 in
order to expedite entry into higher education
– first-time applicants' chances of being admitted to be improved
•
Promotion of researcher training and research careers
– the annual target for the number of doctorates is 1,600.
– universities will shift the focus from researcher training to the development of
researcher careers (tenure tracks)
• Measures will be taken to improve conditions for basic research in
universities and for innovation and product development in polytechnics
Great emphasis on internationalisation of HEIs
University reform (2010)
• The Universities Act (558/2009) includes
– provisions on the mission, administration, operational funding and steering
of universities, and matters relating to research and education, students
and personnel
• 1.1.2010 universities became legal persons separate from the State,
either as corporations under public law or foundations under the
Foundations Act.
• Universities took the place of the State as employers
• The Ministry of Education and Culture ensures by means of steering
that university activities conform to the higher education policy aims set
by Parliament and the Government.
• Lighter and more strategic level performance agreement procedure
between MoE and universities
• Evaluated 2012 - short term results of the evaluation indicate
improvements especially in strategic, economic and internal
management and in co-operation with surrounding society
University reform (2010)
Aims of the university reform
•
•
•
•
Greater autonomy
Stronger financial and administrative status: independent legal persons and
supplied with sufficient capital.
Greater latitude with finances: donations, income from capital and business
activities
As legal persons, the universities are better able to operate with the
surrounding society.
– Having their own capital, the universities will have more scope for operating based on
their own decisions.
– Stronger community relations – e.g. external members of the board
Reform did not change
•
•
•
•
•
The freedom of research, art and education
Self-government and academic decision-making
Research and higher education remain as the main tasks of the universities
Education leading to a degree free of charge
The government continues to be responsible for funding the public duties of the
universities
Universities' core funding formula reform
2013
• Joint working group of the Ministry and Finnish universities
– proposal published November 2011, act passed by government April 2012
• Vision 2020 for the Finnish universities
–
–
–
–
–
Improved quality
Deeper internationalisation
Clearer profiles
Greater efficiency
Stronger impact
• New core funding formula from 2013
– A step towards the vision
• Improved steering effect
– Limited number of indicators
– Enhanced transparency
• Funding allocated to universities in a lump sum
Universities core funding from 2013
Universities' core funding formula
review 2015
• Review of the 2013 funding formula
– Aim is to improve quality aspect of the model
– Essentially the same joint working group which made proposition for
2013 funding formula
• Data from the new quality-based Publication Forum will be
included to the funding formula
– Federation of Finnish Learned Societies has completed the
Publication Forum Project at the initiative of the Universities Finland
(UNIFI)
• Data from new student feedback system will be included to the
funding formula
– In January 2012, Universities Finland (UNIFI) set up a working group
to prepare a national student feedback survey for universities
• Funding formula revision will come into effect 2015
The polytechnic reform
Aims of the Polytechnic Reform
• To give the polytechnics a stronger position to meet the changes
and challenges of the working life, society and regions
• As independent legal persons polytechnics will have more
independent status and more flexibility to better react and response
to the needs of the surrounding society
• To enhance the quality and effectiveness of teaching and RDI
• To strengthen their role within the system of innovation
• To ensure international competitiveness of the polytechnic system
• Efforts will be made to gain the commitment of other actors in
society to support the polytechnics' mission
The polytechnic reform
Timetable and stages
• The 1st strage of the reform is expected to take effect on 1 January
2014 (amendments to legislation) concerning:
– new funding model
– new operating licenses
– updated educational responsibilities
– amendments currently discussed in the parliament
• In later stage:
– transferring the polytechnic financing from local authorities to the government
– change of the legal personality of polytechnics
Polytechnics core funding from 2014 (draft)

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