Parenting in the Context of Domestic Violence: Initial Findings Children in Crisis Conference, 2013 Claire Troon, FASS, University of Waikato Outline: Overview of literature Background to research Initial findings Implications Overview of literature: Impact on children High correlation between domestic violence against a spouse and child maltreatment (Appel & Holden, 1998; Edleson, 1999) Behavioural, emotional and cognitive functions of children as well as their belief systems (Jaffe, Hurley & Wolfe, 1990; Bancroft & Silverman, 2002) Development adversely affected (Margolin & Gordis, 2000) Overview of literature: Impact on mothers Mothers are more stressed and significant undermining of their parenting/authority (Holden & Ritchie, 1991, Holden et al., 1998, Levendosky, Lynch & Graham-Bermann, 2000) Continuation of violence post-separation (Jaffe, Lemon & Poisson, 2002; Scott & Crooks, 2004) Day-to-day care and contact arrangements may serve as means to further abuse children and women (McMahon & Pence, 1995; Perel & Peled, 2007) Overview of literature: The batterer as parent Attitudinal and behavioural characteristics provide grounding for parenting style Authoritarian parenting practices Underinvolvement/irresponsibility Self-centredness (Bancroft et al., 2012; Holden & Ritchie, 1991; Margolin, John, Ghosh, & Gordis, 1996; Peled, 2000). Maori family violence: Traditional child-rearing practices: shared responsibility, children are taonga, importance of whakapapa Breakdown of traditions and values due to colonisation Traditional Maori child-care practices have changed (Balzer et al., 1997; Kruger et al., 2004) Overview of literature: Recovery in aftermath of violence Voices of mothers: Separation of the ‘violent world’ and children’s world’ (Peled and Barak Gil , 2011) Children ought to have contact with fathers (Tubbs & Williams, 2007; Jaffe & Crook, 2007) Cannot be ‘good fathers’ unless they change abusive behaviours (Tubbs & Williams, 2007). Want more attention paid to ‘fathering’ in programmes (Arean & Davis, 2007) Children’s voices: Ambivalent about their feelings towards their fathers (Groves el al., 2007; Peled, 2000) Fathers perceptions: Shame and remorse (Litton Fox, Sayers & Bruce, 2001) The ‘good father’ image (Perel & Peled, 2008) Yearn for close and warm relationships with children 2008) (Perel & Peled, Overview of literature: Facilitating Recovery Children require a strong bond with non-abusing, nurturing parent (Graham-Bermann & Levendosky, 1998; Jaffe & Geffner, 1998; Margolin & Gordis, 2000) Mothering interventions: focus on strengths and experiences/ healing mother-child relationship (Levendosky, Lynch & Graham-Bermann, 2000) Fathering interventions: Stopping violence programmes: opportunity to address abusive men’s parenting (Scott et al., 2007; Bancroft et al., 2012). Standard parenting programmes not sufficient : unintended consequences (Bancroft et al., 2012). Attitudinal and behavioural characteristics to be addressed first (Bancroft et al., 2012; Peled & Perel, 2007; Scott et al., 2007). Purpose of research: We need to know more about... Parenting by men who batter: Implications for father-child and mother-child relationships Batterers’ perceptions of their parenting role Intervention Research objective: 1. What are the perceptions of women (as victims of domestic violence) and men (as perpetrators of domestic violence) on the impact of violence on children, and the ability to be a mother and father ? Background to research: HAIP The Hamilton Abuse Intervention Project (HAIP) Coordinated community response Curriculum Pro-feminist model DAIP/ Power and Control Culturally adapted Men’s programmes Maori and tauiwi 26 weeks Women’s programmes Background to research: Methodology Feminist perspective Participant recruitment Criteria: Men and women who have children (biological or are the parent/caregiver of children) who resided with one of the parties during the abusive relationship. Data collection: Semi-structured interviews with men (4 Maori/ 5 tauiwi) Focus groups with women (5 Maori /5 tauiwi) Thematic analysis Initial findings: Impact on children Women’s perceptions: Men’s perceptions: Exposure to violence Fear Suppressed emotions Social Learning Social learning Child as protector Child as Children too young protector/parent Initial findings: Impact on women/mothers Women’s perceptions: Men’s perceptions: Emotional impact Isolation Guilt/ self-blame Fear Supressed anger Controlling parenting Mother-child relationship Becoming protector Manipulation Using child as weapon No Impact (some men) Initial findings: Impact on batterer’s parenting Women’s perceptions: Men’s perceptions: Inactive parent Inactive parent Authoritarian Authoritarian Façade Transgenerational violence Motivation to complete/participate Initial findings: The recovery process Women’s perceptions: Men’s perceptions: Should have contact Children need fathers Importance of Whanau/whakapapa Better father now Supervised access Shouldn’t have contact Continued abuse Diminished bond Remorse Overview: Key findings Significant effects of DV on children and mothers Negative parenting practices evident Violence continues post-separation (contact arrangements) Emphasis on children’s needs in healing in aftermath of violence Becoming a better father- source of motivation for change Implications: intervention/policy and practice Fathers need intervention to become non-violent parents Emphasis on: Ending violence against children's mother Negative parenting practices Format/ models? Safety? Supporting children’s relationships with non-abusive parent paramount White Paper on Vulnerable children (2012) Cultural considerations Co-ordinated community response Questions/reflections?