Parenting in the Context of Domestic Violence

Report
Parenting in the Context of
Domestic Violence: Initial
Findings
Children in Crisis Conference, 2013
Claire Troon, FASS, University of Waikato
Outline:
Overview of literature
Background to research
Initial findings
Implications
Overview of literature: Impact on children
 High correlation between domestic violence against a
spouse and child maltreatment (Appel & Holden, 1998;
Edleson, 1999)
 Behavioural, emotional and cognitive functions of
children as well as their belief systems (Jaffe, Hurley & Wolfe,
1990; Bancroft & Silverman, 2002)
 Development adversely affected (Margolin & Gordis, 2000)
Overview of literature: Impact on mothers
 Mothers are more stressed and significant undermining of
their parenting/authority (Holden & Ritchie, 1991, Holden et al., 1998,
Levendosky, Lynch & Graham-Bermann, 2000)
 Continuation of violence post-separation (Jaffe, Lemon &
Poisson, 2002; Scott & Crooks, 2004)
 Day-to-day care and contact arrangements may serve as
means to further abuse children and women (McMahon &
Pence, 1995; Perel & Peled, 2007)
Overview of literature: The batterer as parent
 Attitudinal and behavioural characteristics provide
grounding for parenting style
 Authoritarian parenting practices
 Underinvolvement/irresponsibility
 Self-centredness (Bancroft et al., 2012; Holden & Ritchie, 1991;
Margolin, John, Ghosh, & Gordis, 1996; Peled, 2000).
 Maori family violence:
 Traditional child-rearing practices: shared responsibility,
children are taonga, importance of whakapapa
 Breakdown of traditions and values due to colonisation
 Traditional Maori child-care practices have changed (Balzer et
al., 1997; Kruger et al., 2004)
Overview of literature: Recovery in aftermath of violence
 Voices of mothers:

Separation of the ‘violent world’ and children’s world’
(Peled and Barak
Gil , 2011)

Children ought to have contact with fathers (Tubbs & Williams, 2007; Jaffe &
Crook, 2007)

Cannot be ‘good fathers’ unless they change abusive behaviours (Tubbs
& Williams, 2007).

Want more attention paid to ‘fathering’ in programmes (Arean & Davis,
2007)
 Children’s voices:

Ambivalent about their feelings towards their fathers (Groves el al., 2007;
Peled, 2000)
 Fathers perceptions:



Shame and remorse (Litton Fox, Sayers & Bruce, 2001)
The ‘good father’ image (Perel & Peled, 2008)
Yearn for close and warm relationships with children
2008)
(Perel & Peled,
Overview of literature: Facilitating Recovery

Children require a strong bond with non-abusing, nurturing
parent (Graham-Bermann & Levendosky, 1998; Jaffe & Geffner, 1998; Margolin
& Gordis, 2000)

Mothering interventions: focus on strengths and experiences/
healing mother-child relationship (Levendosky, Lynch & Graham-Bermann,
2000)

Fathering interventions:
Stopping violence programmes: opportunity to address abusive
men’s parenting (Scott et al., 2007; Bancroft et al., 2012).
 Standard parenting programmes not sufficient : unintended
consequences (Bancroft et al., 2012).
 Attitudinal and behavioural characteristics to be addressed first

(Bancroft et al., 2012; Peled & Perel, 2007; Scott et al., 2007).
Purpose of research:
 We need to know more about...
 Parenting by men who batter:
 Implications for father-child and mother-child relationships
 Batterers’ perceptions of their parenting role
 Intervention
 Research objective:
 1. What are the perceptions of women (as victims of
domestic violence) and men (as perpetrators of domestic
violence) on the impact of violence on children, and the
ability to be a mother and father ?
Background to research: HAIP
 The Hamilton Abuse Intervention Project (HAIP)
 Coordinated community response
 Curriculum
 Pro-feminist model
 DAIP/ Power and Control
 Culturally adapted
 Men’s programmes
 Maori and tauiwi
 26 weeks
 Women’s programmes
Background to research: Methodology
 Feminist perspective
 Participant recruitment
Criteria: Men and women who have children (biological or are
the parent/caregiver of children) who resided with one of the
parties during the abusive relationship.
 Data collection:
 Semi-structured interviews with men (4 Maori/ 5 tauiwi)
 Focus groups with women (5 Maori /5 tauiwi)
 Thematic analysis
Initial findings: Impact on children
Women’s perceptions:
Men’s perceptions:
 Exposure to violence
 Fear
 Suppressed emotions
 Social Learning
 Social learning
 Child as protector
 Child as
 Children too young
protector/parent
Initial findings: Impact on women/mothers
Women’s perceptions:
Men’s perceptions:
 Emotional impact
 Isolation
 Guilt/ self-blame
 Fear
 Supressed anger
 Controlling parenting
 Mother-child
relationship
 Becoming protector
 Manipulation
 Using child as weapon
 No Impact (some men)
Initial findings: Impact on batterer’s parenting
Women’s perceptions:
Men’s perceptions:
 Inactive parent
 Inactive parent
 Authoritarian
 Authoritarian
 Façade
 Transgenerational
violence
 Motivation to
complete/participate
Initial findings: The recovery process
Women’s perceptions:
Men’s perceptions:
 Should have contact
 Children need fathers
 Importance of
Whanau/whakapapa
 Better father now
 Supervised access
 Shouldn’t have contact
 Continued abuse
 Diminished bond
 Remorse
Overview: Key findings
 Significant effects of DV on children and
mothers
 Negative parenting practices evident
 Violence continues post-separation (contact
arrangements)
 Emphasis on children’s needs in healing in
aftermath of violence
 Becoming a better father- source of
motivation for change
Implications: intervention/policy and practice
 Fathers need intervention to become non-violent parents

Emphasis on:
Ending violence against children's mother
 Negative parenting practices



Format/ models?
Safety?
 Supporting children’s relationships with non-abusive
parent paramount
 White Paper on Vulnerable children (2012)
 Cultural considerations
 Co-ordinated community response
Questions/reflections?

similar documents