r - SouthSide FOOLS

Report
FORCIBLE ENTRY
INTRODUCTION
 Modern society is security conscious
 Private homes
 Commercial occupancies
 Vehicles
 Forcible entry
 The technique used by fire department personnel to gain access to a
structure whose normal means of access is locked, blocked or
nonexistent
INTRODUCTION
 Forcible entry, when properly used, does a minimal amount of
damage to the structure or structural components and
provides quick access for firefighters
 should not be used when normal means of access are readily
available
 may be required to open means of egress (exit) from structures
INTRODUCTION
 Knowing the construction features of doors, windows and
other barriers, knowing proper tool selection and knowing
forcible entry techniques greatly enhances a firefighter’s
ef fort on the fireground
 Ability to use forcible entry techniques quickly and ef fectively
demonstrates professionalism to the community you serve
FORCIBLE ENTRY TOOLS
 A firefighter must have a complete working knowledge of the
tools available to perform the task
 Using the proper tool will make the difference in whether the barrier
faced is successfully forced
 Forcible entry tools can be divided into four basic categories
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Cutting tools
Prying tools
Pushing / pulling tools
Striking tools
FORCIBLE ENTRY TOOLS
 Cutting Tools
 Many different types
 Often specific to the type of materials they can cut and how fast they can
cut them
 No such thing as a single cutting tool that will efficiently cut all
materials
 Using a cutting tool in a way it was not designed can destroy the tool and
endanger the operator
 Cutting tools may be either manual or powered
CUTTING TOOLS
 Axes and Hatchets
 The most common type of cutting tool available in the fire service
 Two basic types
 Pick-head
 Flat-head
 Pick-head axe
 6 pound or 8 pound head
 Handle made of either wood or fiberglass
 Effective for cutting through natural and lightweight materials
CUTTING TOOLS
 Axes and Hatchets
 Flat-head axe
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6 or 8 pound head
Handles made of either wood or fiberglass
Cuts through a variety of natural and lightweight materials
Can be used as a striking tool
CUTTING TOOLS
 Handsaws
 There are times when the handsaw is necessary because of a small
work space
 Commonly used handsaws
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Carpenter's handsaw
Keyhole saw
Hacksaws
Coping saw
CUTTING TOOLS
 Power Saws
 Make fast and efficient cuts in a variety of materials
 Times when these saws should and should not be used
 Divided into categories
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Rotary (circular) saw
Reciprocating saw
Chain saw
Ventilation saw
CUTTING TOOLS
 Power Saws
 Do not push a saw (or any tool) beyond the limits of its design and
purpose
 Two things may occur
 Tool failure
 Injury to the operator
 Never use a power saw in a flammable atmosphere
 Always use eye protection when operating any power saw
CUTTING TOOLS
 Power Saws
 Rotary (Circular) Saw
 Fire service version is often gasoline powered
 Blades spin more than 6,000 rpm
 Blades range from large-toothed blades for quick rough cuts to fine teeth
for a more precise cut
 Carbide tipped teeth are superior to standard blades
 Less prone to dulling with heavy use
CUTTING TOOLS
 Power Saws
 Rotary (Circular) Saw
 Blades specifically designed for cutting metal are also available
 Often used in forcible entry
 Following both manufacturer’s recommendations and department SOGs
are imperative to maintaining a firefighter’s personal safety when
operating saws
CUTTING TOOLS
 Reciprocating Saw
 Powerful, versatile and highly controllable saw
 Can use a variety of blades for cutting different materials
 Require electricity
CUTTING TOOLS
 Chain Saw (Vent Saw)
 Used for years by the logging industry
 Sometimes more efficient than the rotary saw
 Powerful enough to penetrate dense material yet lightweight enough to be
easily handled in awkward positions
 Should not be used to cut metal
CUTTING TOOLS
 Metal Cutting Devices and Cutting Torches
 Bolt cutters
 Cuts bolts, iron bars, pins, cables, hasps, chains and some padlock
shackles
 Advances in security technology are limiting the use of bolt cutters
 Materials shatter the cutting surface or cause the handles to fail
CUTTING TOOLS
 Metal Cutting Devices and Cutting Torches
 Cutting Torch
 Operates by burning away the material being cut
 Uses a mixture of flammable gases to generate a flame with a
temperature of more than 5,700° F
PRYING TOOLS
 Prying Tools
 Provide an advantage for opening doors, windows, locks and moving
heavy objects
 Hand (manual) prying tools use the basic principle of the lever to
provide a mechanical advantage
 Leverage applied incorrectly works against the firefighter
 Hydraulic prying tools can either be powered hydraulic or manual
hydraulic
 Manual hydraulic tools operate slower
PRYING TOOLS
 Manual Prying Tools
 Variety of hand prying tools is available to the fire service
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Crowbar
Halligan-type bar
Hux bar
Claw tool
Kelly tool
Pry axe
Flat bar
PRYING TOOLS
 Hydraulic Prying Tools
 Hydraulic rescue spreader tool
 Most often associated with vehicle extrication has some uses in
forcible entry
 Depending on manufacturer, spread as much as 32 inches
PRYING TOOLS
 Hydraulic Prying Tools
 Hydraulic ram
 Designed primarily for vehicle extrication
 Spreading capabilities ranging from 36 inches to an extended length of
nearly 63 inches
 Place the ram in between either side of a door frame to spread the frame
apart
PRYING TOOLS
 Hydraulic Prying Tools
 Hydraulic door opener, is a hand-operated spreader device and is
relatively lightweight
 Consists of a hand pump and spreader device
 Pressure usually causes the locking mechanism or door to fail
 Valuable tool when more than one door must be forced
 Apartments or hotels
PUSHING / PULLING
TOOLS
 Pushing / Pulling Tools
 Limited use in forcible entry
 Tool of choice for breaking glass and opening walls or ceilings
 Tools includes
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Standard pike pole
Clemens hook
Plaster hook
Drywall hook
San Francisco hook
Multipurpose hook
Roofman's hook
PUSHING / PULLING
TOOLS
 Pushing / Pulling Tools
 Gives the firefighter additional reach
 Stay out of the way of falling debris
 Pike poles and hooks should not be depended on for leverage
STRIKING TOOLS
 Striking Tools
 Basic hand tool consisting of a weighted head attached to a handle
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Sledgehammer (8, 10 and 16 pounds)
Maul
Flat-head axe
Sledge hammer
Multi-tool
TOOL COMBINATIONS
 Tool Combinations
 No single forcible entry tool provides the firefighter with the needed
force or leverage to handle all forcible entry situations
 The most important factor to consider is selecting the proper tools to
do the job
 Pre-incident surveys will help to determine what tools are required
TOOL SAFET Y
 Hand and power tools used in the fire service can be
extremely dangerous if misused or used carelessly
 In atmospheres that could be explosive, extreme caution
should be taken in the use of power and hand tools that may
cause arcs or sparks
TOOL SAFET Y
 Prying Tool Safety
 Using prying tools incorrectly creates a safety hazard
 Not acceptable to use a "cheater bar"
 Can put forces on the tool that are greater than the tool was designed to handle
TOOL SAFET Y
 Circular Saw Safety
 Must be used with extreme care to prevent injury from the high -speed
rotary blade
 Store blades in a clean, dry environment free of hydrocarbon fumes
 Hydrocarbons will attack the bonding material in the blades and make
them subject to sudden disintegration during use
 Match the saw to the task and the material to be cut
 Never push a saw beyond its design limitations
 Wear proper protective equipment
 Do not use any power saw when working in a flammable atmosphere
or near flammable liquids
TOOL SAFET Y
 Circular Saw Safety
 Keep unprotected and nonessential people out of the work area
 Follow manufacturer's guidelines for proper saw operation
 Keep blades and chain well sharpened
 A dull saw is more likely to cause an accident than a sharp one
 Be aware of potential hidden hazards
TOOL SAFET Y
 Carrying Tools
 Carry tools and tool combinations in the safest manner possible
 Axes
 Carry the axe with the blade away from the body
 Pick-head axes
 Grasp the pick with a hand to cover it
 Axes should never be carried on the shoulder
TOOL SAFET Y
 Carrying Tools
 Prying Tools
 Carry these tools with any pointed or sharp edges away from the body
 Combinations of Tools
 Strap tool combinations together
 Halligan type bars and flat-head axes can be “married” together and
strapped
TOOL SAFET Y
 Carrying Tools
 Pike Poles and Hooks
 Carry with the head down, close to the ground and ahead of the body
 These tools can severely injure anyone poked with the working end of the
tool
TOOL SAFET Y
 Carrying Tools
 Striking Tools
 Keep the heads of these tools close to the ground
 Maintain a firm grip
 Power Tools
 Never carry a power tool that is running
 Carry the tool to the area where the work will be performed and start it
there
CARE AND MAINTENANCE
 Care and Maintenance of Forcible Entry Tools
 Proper care and maintenance of all forcible entry tools are essential
ingredients of any forcible entry operation
 Tools will function as designed if they are properly maintained and kept in
the best of condition
CARE AND MAINTENANCE
 Wood Handles
 Inspect the handle for cracks, blisters or splinters
 Sand the handle to minimize hand injuries
 Wash the handle with mild detergent, rinse and wipe dry
 Do not soak the handle in water because it will cause the wood to swell
 Apply a coat of boiled linseed oil to the handle to prevent roughness
and warping
 Do not paint or varnish the handle
 Check the tightness of the tool
 Limit tool marking
head
CARE AND MAINTENANCE
 Fiberglass Handles
 Wash the handle with mild detergent, rinse and wipe dry
 Check the tightness of the tool head
 Cutting Edges
 Inspect the cutting edge for nicks, tears or metal spurs
 Replace cutting edges when required
 File the cutting edges by hand
 Grinding weakens the tool
CARE AND MAINTENANCE
 Plated Surfaces
 Inspect for damage
 Wipe plated surfaces clean or wash with mild detergent and water
 Unprotected Metal Surfaces
 Keep free of rust
 Oil the metal surface lightly. avoid using any metal protectant that
contains trichloroethane
 Avoid painting
 Inspect the metal for spurs, burrs or sharp edges and file them off
when found
CARE AND MAINTENANCE
 Axe Heads
 The manner in which the axe head is
maintained directly affects how well it
works
 If the blade is extremely sharp and its
body is ground too thin pieces of the
blade may break when cutting
 If the body of the blade is too thick,
regardless of its sharpness, it may be
difficult to drive the axe head through
ordinary objects
CARE AND MAINTENANCE
 Power Equipment
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Read and follow manufacturer’s instructions
Inspect and ensure power tools will start
Check blades for completeness and readiness
Replace blades that are worn
Check all electrical components for cuts and frays
Ensure that all guards are functional and in place
Ensure that fuel is fresh
 Fuel mixtures may deteriorate over time
SIZE UP
 Door Size-Up and Construction Features
 Primary obstacle firefighters face in gaining access to a building is a
locked or blocked door
 Size-up of the door is an essential part of the forcible entry task
 How the door functions
 How it is constructed
 How it is locked
SIZE UP
 Door Size-Up and Construction Features
 Doors function in one of the following ways
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Swinging (either inward or outward)
Sliding
Revolving
Overhead
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 Door Size-Up and Construction Features
 Firefighters should try the door to make sure that it is locked before
force is used
 “try before you pry!”
 If the door is locked, begin additional size -up
 Which way does it swing?
 Look for the door
 In or out?
 Does it slide left or right?
 Does it roll up?
SIZE UP
 Door Size-Up and Construction Features
 Access doors to residences usually swing
inward
 Commercial, public assembly doors and
industrial doors, swing outward
 There will be times that even that best size up and forcible entry effort will not be
successful
 Remember not to get focused on one effort
and one technique
 Spending too much time forcing a door is
counterproductive
 If the door proves too well secured, find
another door
SIZE UP
 Door Size-Up and Construction Features
 After determining how a door functions, you must understand how
the door is constructed
 Doors range in construction types from interior hollow core to high security steel
 Most common door encountered is the wood swinging door, followed
by the steel swinging door
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 Wood Swinging Doors
 Three general categories of wood swinging doors
 Panel
 Slab
 Ledge
 Entry doors on structures are usually panel or slab
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 Wood Swinging Doors
 The door is only one component of a door assembly
 Doorjambs are the sides of the opening into which the door is fitted
 Rabbeted jamb
 A shoulder milled into the casing that the door closes against to form a seal
 Stopped jamb
 Has a piece of molding added to the door frame for the door to close on
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 Panel Doors
 wood panel doors are made of solid wood members insert with
panels
 panels may be wood or plastic
 panel doors often have panels
allow
in light
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glass
Lexan (polycarbonate)
plastic
Plexiglas
fitted into the door to
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 Slab Doors
 a very common door
 constructed in two ways
 solid core
 hollow core
 many interior doors in
residences are hollow core
 core or center portion of door is
made up of web
or grid of glued
wood strips over which several
layers of plywood veneer panels have been glued
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 Slab Doors (cont.)
 most exterior slab doors found on newly constructed residences are
hollow core
 exterior slab doors on older
core
 not pierced by windows or
 panels on a slab door are purely
homes may be solid
other openings
decorative
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 Slab Doors (cont.)
 the core of a solid core door is constructed of some type of solid
material
 very old homes, the door may be
made of thick planks
that have been
tongue and grooved together
 modern solid core doors may be
filled with a material
used for
insulation or soundproofing
 plywood veneer covering
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 Ledge Doors
 also know as “batten doors”
 found on warehouses,
storerooms, barns and sheds
 made of built-up materials,
including boards,
plywood
sheeting, particleboard, etc.
 generally locked with some type
of surface lock,
hasp, padlock, bolt or bar
 hinges generally pin type, fastened with screws or bolts
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 Metal Swinging Doors
 are classified as hollow metal, metal
 more difficult to force due to their
covered and tubular
construction and design
 most often set in a metal doorjamb
 very little “spring” to the door
 generally considered impractical to
a metal frame
in masonry
force a metal door in
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 Metal Swinging Doors (cont.)
 vary greatly in their construction
 metal covered doors may have a solid wood door underneath the
metal or it may be a hollow metal door filled with fire -resistive
materials
 the structural design of tubular
metal doors is of
seamless
rectangular tube sections
 groove is provided in the
rectangular tube for glass
or metal
panels
 found on exterior openings of modern buildings
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 Metal Swinging Doors (cont.)
 tubular aluminum doors are comparatively light in weight, are strong
and are not subject to much spring
 when faced with the need to
force a metal
door
 consider the use of power tools,
or
hydraulic tools
especially rotary saws
 do not waste too much time
force the door
 may be easier to breach the wall next to a steel door
trying to
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 Sliding Doors
 travel either left or right of their opening and in the same plane as
the opening
 attached to a metal track by roller
or guide wheels
 often called pocket doors when
used as an interior
door
 more common type of sliding door
is the door
assembly used in patio
areas of residences or as
doors to
porches or balconies in houses,
hotels and apartments
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 Sliding Doors (cont.)
 the glass panels and sliding door are heavy glass window panels set
in
a metal or wood frame
 glass panel normally
glass
 newer doors may be
 some doors may have
glass
double -thickness
triple -glass pane
tempered (safety)
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 Sliding Doors (cont.)
 may sometimes be barred or
or a
special device
blocked by a metal rod
 commonly called “burglar blocks”
 easily seen from the outside
 practically eliminates any
possibility of forcing
without
causing excessive damage
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 Revolving Doors
 made up of quadrants that revolve around a center shaft
 turns within a metal or glass
housing assembly
that is open
on each side to allow user’s entry
and egress
 may be locked in various ways
and in general,
they are
considered difficult to force
when locked
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 Revolving Doors (cont.)
 usually, there are swinging doors on either side of the revolving door
 more effective to force through the swinging door
 all revolving doors are equipped with a mechanism that allows them
to
collapse during an emergency
 three basic types of
mechanisms involved
 panic proof
 drop arm
 metal braced
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 Revolving Doors (cont.)
 Panic-Proof Type
 has a ¼ inch cable holding the
apart
 triggered by forces pushing in
the
quadrants
door quadrants
opposite directions on
 Drop-Arm Type
 has a solid arm passing through
quadrants
one of the
 a pawl is located on the quadrant the arm passes through
 press the pawl to disengage the arm, then push the quadrant to one side
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 Revolving Doors (cont.)
 Metal-Braced Type
 resembles a gate hook and eye assembly
 to collapse, lift the hook and fasten it back against the fixed quadrant
 hooks are located on both side of the quadrant
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 Overhead Doors
 generally constructed of wood, metal or fiberglass
 pose quite a forcible entry problem
 heavily secured
 sometimes motor driven and usually
loaded or balanced
 forcible entry may be difficult, but it
not impossible
 classified as follows
 sectional (folding)
 rolling steel
 slab
spring
is
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 Overhead Doors (cont.)
 sectional (folding) overhead door is not too difficult to force entry
through unless it is either motor driven or remotely controlled
 latch mechanism is generally located in the center of the door
 controls two locks, one located on
 lock and latch may also be located
each side of the door
on only one side
SIZE UP
 Overhead Doors (cont.)
 sectional overhead doors may be forced by prying upward at the
bottom of the door with a good prying tool
 less damage will be done and time will be saved if a panel is removed and
the latch is
turned from the inside
 may be locked with a padlock
through a hole at either
end of the
bar or the padlock may even be in
the track
 cut a hole in the door to gain
access and remove the
padlock
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 Overhead Doors (cont.)
 pivoting or overhead slab doors, sometimes called “awning doors”,
are more difficult to force due to the nature of the door
 spring mechanism must pivot the door
 care must be taken to not jam the door in
not open
 wood pivoting doors are very heavy
 locked similarly to the sectional or folding
out and up
its tracks or it will
doors
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 Overhead Doors (cont.)
 pry outward with a bar at each side near the bottom
 tends to bend the lock
the
bar enough to pass
keeper
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 Overhead Doors (cont.)
 rolling steel doors, used as high-security doors
designed to keep people out
locked with several padlocks and pins
can be manually operated, mechanically operated or motor driven
among the toughest forcible
entry challenges
faced by
firefighters
 best accessed by cutting a
triangle -shaped
opening
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 rotary rescue saw or a cutting
torch
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 Fire Doors
 protect door openings in walls that are required to be rated as fire barrier assemblies or fire wall
 assembly includes the door, frame and associated hardware
 types of standard fire doors
 horizontal and vertical sliding
 single and double swinging
 overhead rolling
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 Fire Doors (cont.)
 fire doors may be mechanically, manually or electrically operated
 two standard means by which fire doors operate
 self-closing
 when the door is opened, it returns to the closed position on its own
 automatic-closing
 normally remain open, close when the hold-open device releases the door upon activation of
either a local smoke detector or a fire alarm system
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 Fire Doors (cont.)
 swinging fire doors
 generally used on stair enclosures
 opened and closed frequently
 vertical sliding fire doors normally
arranged to close
 overhead rolling fire doors
 installed where space limitations
installation of other types
 arranged to close automatically
open and
automatically
prevent
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 Fire Doors (cont.)
 most interior fire doors do not lock when they close
 when passing through an opening
protected by a fire door,
block the
door open to prevent its closing and
trapping you
 fire doors have also been known to close
water supply in a hoseline
and cut off the
LOCKS AND LOCKING DEVICES
 Locking devices vary from a simple lock to a series of very
sophisticated locking devices
 Locks are divided into four basic types
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mortise lock
bored (cylindrical)
rim lock
padlock
lock
LOCKS AND LOCKING DEVICES
 Mortise Lock
 designed to fit into a cavity in the door
 consists of a latch mechanism and an
opening device
 when the lock is in the lock position,
the bolt protrudes
from the lock into
a keeper that is mortised into the
jamb
LOCKS AND LOCKING DEVICES
 Mortise Lock (cont.)
 newer mortise locks may also have larger and longer dead -bolt
features for added security
 found on private residences,
commercial buildings and
industrial buildings
LOCKS AND LOCKING DEVICES
 Bored (Cylindrical) Lock
 named because their installation involves boring two holes at right
angles to one another
 one through the face of the door to accommodate the main locking
mechanism and the
other in the edge of the door to
receive the latch or bolt mechanism
 one type of bored lock is the
key -in-knob lock
LOCKS AND LOCKING DEVICES
 Bored (Cylindrical) Lock
 key-in-knob has a keyway in the outside knob
 inside knob may contain either a keyway or a button
 latch bolt usually no longer
 vulnerable to prying operations
than ¾ inch
LOCKS AND LOCKING DEVICES
 Rim Lock
 one of the most common locks in use today
 surface mounted
 used as an add-on lock for doors
other types of locks
 found in all types of
 identified from the outside by
recessed into
the door
that already have
occupancies
a cylinder that is
LOCKS AND LOCKING DEVICES
 Padlock
 include portable or detachable
 two basic types of padlocks
locking devices
 regular
 have shackles of ¼ inch or less in diameter
 not case-hardened
 heavy-duty
 have shackles more than ¼ inch in diameter
 case-hardened
 toe and heal locking (both ends of the shackle
are locked)
NON-DESTRUCTIVE RAPID ENTRY
METHOD
 Rapid-Entry Key Box System
 all necessary keys to the building,
gates and elevators are kept in a
storage areas,
key box
 mounted at a high-visibility location on the
exterior
 only fire department carries a
key
 unauthorized duplication of the
is prevented
 key blanks are not available to
 cannot be duplicated with conventional equipment
building’s
master
master key
locksmiths
CONVENTIONAL
FORCIBLE ENTRY
 Conventional Forcible Entry
 is the use of standard fire department tools to open doors and
windows
 if there are no glass panels in the door to break and a door is
definitely locked
 the firefighter must force the door
 the best combination is the 8-pound
the Halligan
type bar
open
flat -head axe and
CONVENTIONAL
FORCIBLE ENTRY
 Breaking Glass
 first technique of forcible entry is to break the glass near the door or
in the door
 reach inside and operate the lock mechanism
 may be easier to break the
cause more
 if breaking the glass is the
method of
glass, but will it
damage?
most appropriate
entry, do it!
CONVENTIONAL
FORCIBLE ENTRY
 Forcing Swinging Doors
 a common type of door is one that swings to open and close
 these doors can be either inward or outward swinging doors
 forcing entry through these types of doors are basic skills
CONVENTIONAL
FORCIBLE ENTRY
 Forcing Swinging Doors (cont.)
 inward swinging doors
 conventional forcible entry of inward
doors requires either one or two
swinging
skilled firefighters
CONVENTIONAL
FORCIBLE ENTRY
 Forcing Swinging Doors (cont.)
 outward swinging doors
 present a different set of problems
 to get a forcible entry tool into the space between the door and the doorjamb, open that
space and allow the lock bolt to slip from its keeper
 sometimes called flush fitting
 forced using either the adz end
fork end of the Halligan
doors
or the
type bar
CONVENTIONAL
FORCIBLE ENTRY
 Special Circumstances
 circumstances where additional measures may need to be taken to
force a door due to
 building construction
 door construction
 higher security
 a few of the doors needing additional forcing measures
 double swinging doors
 doors with drop bars
 tempered plate glass doors
CONVENTIONAL
FORCIBLE ENTRY
 Special Circumstances (cont.)
 double swinging doors
 can present a problem depending on how
 secured only by a mortise lock,
enough to let the bolt slip past
 insert the adz end between the
outward
 security molding over the space between
they are secured
the door can be pried apart far
the keeper
doors and pushing down and
the two doors, must be removed
CONVENTIONAL
FORCIBLE ENTRY
 Special Circumstances (cont.)
 Doors with Drop Bars
 either wood or steel, dropped
across the door and held in
place by
wood or metal stirrups
 insert small narrow tool into space
between double doors and try to lift bar
up and out of its stirrup
 cut a triangular hole into the door just below the bar
 insert the blade of a rotary power saw into either
the space between the jam and
the door or between
the doors in double doors and cut the bar
CONVENTIONAL
FORCIBLE ENTRY
 Special Circumstances (cont.)
 tempered plate glass doors
 commercial stores, light industry and
occupancies
 heavy and extremely expensive
 difficult to break glass
institutional
 shatters into small cube-like pieces
 resists heat
 glass should be shattered at a bottom
 use a tool with a pick or point
 glass should be broken only as a last resort for access
 through-the-lock method
corner
THROUGH-THE-LOCK
 Through-The-Lock Forcible Entry
 is the preferred method of entry for many commercial doors,
residential security locks, padlocks and high-security doors
 minimal amount of damage to the door
 performed correctly
 requires a good size-up of both the door and the lock mechanism
 suitable for conventional forcible entry?
THROUGH-THE-LOCK
 Through-The-Lock Forcible Entry (cont.)
 commercial doors, the lock cylinder can actually be unscrewed from
the door
 common on storefront doors
 protected by a collar or shield?
 operating the lock as though
key to the lock
 use a key tool to operate the
once the
you had the
lock mechanism
cylinder is removed
THROUGH-THE-LOCK
 Through-The-Lock Forcible Entry (cont.)
 requires patience and practice
 some examples of through-the-lock tools
 K-tool
 J-tool
 shove knife
THROUGH-THE-LOCK
 K-Tool
 useful in pulling all types of lock cylinders
 rim, mortise or tubular
 used with a Halligan-type bar
 K-tool forced behind ring and face of cylinder until wedging blades
bite into
cylinder
 metal loop acts as fulcrum for
leverage
 holds adz end of the prying tool
 once cylinder is removed, key
used
tool can be
THROUGH-THE-LOCK
 A -Tool
 tool accomplishes same job as the K -tool
 slightly more damage to the door
 many locks are manufacture
protective
with collars or
cone -shaped covers
 prevent anyone from using a
lock -pulling device
 A-tool is a sharp notch with cutting edges machined into a prying tool
 designed to cut behind the protective collar

THROUGH-THE-LOCK
 J-Tool
 is a wire-type device designed to fit through the space between
double swinging doors equipped with panic hardware
 can manipulate the panic
bar
 operate with minimal
pressure exerted
THROUGH-THE-LOCK
 Shove Knife
 flat steel tool, is one of the oldest
 rapid access to outward
type doors
burglar tools
swinging latch -
PADLOCKS
 Forcible Entry Involving Padlocks
 padlocks
 portable locking device that are used to secure a door, window, gates,
etc..
 range from the very simple, easily broken type to the high security,
virtually impenetrable type
 conventional forcible entry tools can be used
 additional tools are available





duck-billed lock breaker
hammer-headed pick
locking pliers and chain
hockey puck lock breaker
bam-bam tool
PADLOCKS
 Forcible Entry Involving Padlocks (cont.)
 duck-billed lock breaker
 is a wedge shaped tool that will widen and break the shackle of padlocks
 like using the hook of a Halligan
 driven by a maul or flat head axe
padlock break
type bar
until the
PADLOCKS
 Forcible Entry Involving Padlocks (cont.)
 bam-bam tool
 uses case-hardened screws
driven into actual
keyway lock
mechanism of padlock
 few hits with sliding hammer
will pull lock tumbler
out of
padlock body
 key tool or screwdriver can be
inserted to trip lock
mechanism
 will not work on Master Locks,
American Locks and
other high
quality locks
 case-hardened retaining ring
PADLOCKS
 Cutting Padlocks with Saws or Cutting Torches
 may be quickest method of removing padlocks
 high security padlocks designed with heel and toe shackles
 will not pivot if only one side
 do not try to cut a loose
 fasten a set of locking
to the lock body
of shackle is cut
padlock
pliers and chain
FENCES
 Fences can be made of wood, masonry, woven wire or metal
 may be topped with barbed wire or razor wire
 may also be used to keep guard animals on the premises
 Cutting metal fences with bolt
cutters or removing wood
ways to gain access
 Wire fences should be cut
posts
 lessen the danger of injury from
whip coil of loosened wires
boards are
near
the
FENCES
 Using ladders to bridge fences, especially masonry fences, is
another quick way of gaining access over a fence
 SIZE-UP!
FORCING WINDOWS
 Forcible entry can take place through windows, though they
are not the preferred entry point into a fire building
 sometimes easier to force than doors
 entry can be made to open a locked door from inside the structure
 Size-up of windows is critical to a successful forced entry
FORCING WINDOWS
 Breaking widow glass on the fireground presents a multitude
of hazards to both firefighters and civilians
 glass shards travel great distance
upper floors
 make movement for advancing hose
crews difficult
 may shower victims inside the
from windows on
teams or rescue
structure
FORCING WINDOWS
 Wire glass requires great ef fort to break and remove
 wire prevents the glass from
frame
falling out of the
FORCING WINDOWS
 Thermopane windows or triple -glaze windows can cost the
owner a large sum of money
 determine if the benefits of breaking the window outweigh the
damage that will be caused or will breaking the window cause more
damage than necessary
FORCING WINDOWS
 Thermopane windows are more dif ficult to break
 shard removal difficult and time-consuming
 Windows come in a variety of types and sizes
 basic windows include




double-hung (checkrail)
hinged (casement)
projected (factory)
awning or jalousie
 also various high-security
 Lexan
 barred
 screened
windows
FORCING WINDOWS
 Double-Hung (Checkrail) Windows
 extremely popular window in building construction
 manufactured in either wood, metal or
 made up of two sashes
 top and bottom sashes are fitted into
and operate by sliding up
vinyl clad
window frame
or down
 newer double-hung windows, referred to as "replacement windows"
 not only move up and down, but tip inward for
cleaning
FORCING WINDOWS
 Double-Hung (Checkrail) Windows (cont.)
 may contain ordinary glass, Thermopane glass, wire glass, Plexiglas,
acrylic plastic or Lexan plastic
 secured by one or two thumb-operated
locking devices located
where the
bottom of the top sash meets the top
of the bottom sash
 may also be more securely fastened by
window bolts
 replacement windows
 two side-bolt type mechanisms located on each side of the sash
FORCING WINDOWS
 Hinged (Casement) Windows
 constructed of wood or metal
 often called a "crank out window"
 should not be confused with an awning
or jalousie window
 consists of two sashes mounted on
side hinges that
swing outward,
away from the structure
 window crank assembly
FORCING WINDOWS
 Hinged (Casement) Windows (cont.)
 locking devices vary from simple
devices to latch-type mechanisms
 can only be opened by operating
mechanism
 extremely difficult to force
 usually at least four locking
crank
thumb -operated
the crank
device as well as two
devices
 very narrow and presents a more difficult entry
FORCING WINDOWS
 Hinged (Casement) Windows (cont.)
 if possible another means of entry should be sought
 if not
 break the lowest pane of glass and
edges
 force or cut the screen in the same
 reach in and upward to unlock the latch
 operate the cranks or leavers at the bottom
 completely remove the screen and enter
clean out the sharp
area
FORCING WINDOWS
 Projected (Factory) Windows
 most often associated with factories, warehouses and other
commercial and industrial locations
 most often metal sashes with wire
glass
 most practical method of forcing is
the same as that
described for
casement windows
 metal frames and wire glass make it difficult to effectively
accomplish rapid forcible entry
FORCING WINDOWS
 Projected (Factory) Windows (cont.)
 may have bars over the outside and inside to prevent entry
 best method of forcible entry is to seek another entry point!
 often cover a large area, but the window openings themselves are
very small
 function by pivoting at either the top or bottom
 projected-in
 projected-out
 pivoted-projected
FORCING WINDOWS
 Projected (Factory) Windows (cont.)
 projected-in
 bottom rail of the window swings into the occupancy toward the person
who is opening it
 top rail slides in a metal channel
 projected-out
 bottom rail of the window swings
 top rail slides into a metal channel
away from the building
FORCING WINDOWS
 Projected (Factory) Windows (cont.)
 pivoted-projected
 usually operated by a push bar that is notched to hold the window in place
 screens are seldom used
FORCING WINDOWS
 Awning and Jalousie Windows
 awning windows
 consist of large sections of glass about 1 foot
the window width
 constructed with a metal
around the
glass panel
wide and as long as
or wood frame
FORCING WINDOWS
 Awning and Jalousie Windows
 jalousie windows
 consist of small sections about 4 inches
wide and as long
as the
window width
 usually constructed without
frames and the
glass is
heavy plate that has been
ground to overlap when
closed
FORCING WINDOWS
 Awning and Jalousie Windows (cont.)
 glass sections of both awning and jalousie windows are supported on
each end by a metal operating mechanism
 may be exposed or concealed
 operating crank and gear housing are
located at the
bottom
of the window
 most the difficult of
all types to force
FORCING WINDOWS
 Lexan Windows
 is 250 times stronger than safety glass
 30 times stronger than acrylic
 classified as self-extinguishing
 virtually impossible to break with
entry tools
 two recommended techniques
conventional forcible
 cut Lexan using rotary power saw with
carbide -tipped
medium toothed blade
 discharge carbon dioxide extinguisher on Lexan, then immediately strike
Lexan with point of a tool
FORCING WINDOWS
 Barred or Screened Windows and Openings
 building owners add metal bars or metal mesh screens over windows
and sometimes door openings
 may be permanently installed,
hinged at the top or
side or
fitted into brackets and
locked securely
 forcing involves
considerable time
FORCING WINDOWS
 Barred or Screened Windows and Openings (cont.)
 more permanent security measure
is to install
heavy metal bars in the
masonry above and below the
window
 "burglar" bars vary in their types and construction
 attached directly to the building
 attached to the window frame
 forcible entry is a difficult and time
consuming task
FORCING WINDOWS
 Barred or Screened Windows and Openings (cont.)
 considerations for burglar bar
 shear off the bolt heads for the
mesh screen or bar
assembly
it they are visible and accessible
 cut bar assembly or screen
from the building using
an
oxyacetylene torch
BREACHING WALLS
 Forcible entry situations may arise where it would be faster
and more ef ficient to gain access through the wall of a
structure rather than through a conventional opening
 thorough knowledge of building construction and good size -up
techniques
 breaching load-bearing walls already weakened by fire can be a very
dangerous task
 walls conceal electrical wiring, plumbing and gas lines
BREACHING WALLS
 Plaster or Gypsum Partition Walls
 interior walls may or may not be load bearing
 gypsum wallboard and plaster are relatively easy to penetrate with
forcible entry tools




select location of opening
check wall for electric wall
have a wide variety of forcible
sound wall to locate studs
plugs and switches
entry tools available
BREACHING WALLS
 Plaster or Gypsum Partition Walls (cont.)
 cut along studs to make a large open
 remove one stud, if possible, from center of breach to enlarge the
opening
 use breach to gain access to
area and search
to find the
normal means of entry
BREACHING WALLS
 Brick or Concrete Block Walls
 can be the toughest type to breach
 battering ram may be used to
breaching
 with handles and hand guards
 one end is jagged for breaking brick
and stone and the
other end is
rounded and smooth for battering
walls and doors
 requires two to four firefighters to use
BREACHING WALLS
 Brick or Concrete Block Walls (cont.)
 power tools such as air chisels, hydraulic spreaders and rotary rescue
saws
 prove to be the best
breaching
methods for
BREACHING WALLS
 Metal Walls
 usually fastened to studs by nails, rivets, bolts, screws or other
fasteners
 metal cutting power saw is normally the best
tool to use
 metal should be cut along the studding
 provide stability for the saw
 ease of repair
 if no studs can be located, may bear the entire
structure
 cut a hole in the wall in the shape of a triangle
 distributes the walls load more evenly
load of the
BREACHING FLOORS
 Wood Floors
 wood joists usually spaced a maximum of 16 inches
 sub-floor consisting of either 1 inch boards or 4 foot by 8 foot sheets
of plywood is first laid over the joists
 finish flooring is laid last




linoleum
tile
hardwood
carpeting
BREACHING FLOORS
 Wood Floors (cont.)
 plywood sub-flooring is generally laid at right angles to the joist
 carpets and rungs should
be removed or
rolled to
one side before a floor is
cut
BREACHING FLOORS
 Concrete / Reinforced Concrete
Floors
 Extremely difficult to force
 Opening them should be bypassed if
possible
 Most feasible means is to use a
compressed air or electric jack
hammer
 Concrete cutting blades are available
for most portable power saws

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