Population Health, the ACA, Return on Investment: Public Health

Prevention and Health System
Change: New Opportunities to
Advance Public Health
Jeffrey Levi, PhD
Tennessee Public Health Association
September 10, 2014
Bottom line
Changes in health financing driving the health
system to think beyond their four walls—this
requires new partnerships
Public health can be the “chief health
strategist,” catalyzing and negotiating this
change using its strengths and adapting to a
new role
It is all about the Triple Aim
“Better care for patients, better health for our
communities, and lower costs” -- CMS
Achieving the Triple Aim requires new partnerships
Quadruple Aim: Add equity
Community-clinical; public health-health care; health-non
health (social determinants)
Nature of partnerships will vary based on capacity of
all parties
Partnerships required regardless of your definition of
population health
Drivers of change
The health system is changing only in part
because of the ACA
Focus on outcomes
Focus on cost containment
Expectation of return on investment from both
clinical and public health interventions
Not whether, but timeframe and extent
Who shares the savings and how are they used?
Status quo is not an option
NCD mortality rate (16/17)
CD mortality rate (14/17)
Last in life expectancy
Youth least likely to survive to
Highest level of income
inequality; poverty; child
Third lowest rate of pre-school
education and secondary school
Bradley, et al. BMJ Qual Saf
It seems overwhelming…what
matters is that we start
Different communities at different starting
Different motivators – from traditional disease
management to social determinants or
community economic competitiveness
All paths lead to new partnerships and
collaborations and to broader impact than
We know how to fix this
Addressing social determinants of health
requires new partnerships
Moving beyond health in all policies to a Culture
of Health
Examples abound of new partners across housing,
education, community development
National Prevention Council/National
Prevention Strategy as a federal base
ACA envisions new partnerships -National Prevention Council
Bureau of Indian Affairs
Department of Labor
Corporation for National and Community
Department of Transportation
Department of Agriculture
Department of Veterans Affairs
Department of Defense
Environmental Protection Agency
Department of Education
Federal Trade Commission
Department of Health and Human Services
Office of Management and Budget
Department of Homeland Security
Office of National Drug Control Policy
Department of Housing and Urban
White House Domestic Policy Council
Department of Justice
Department of the Interior
Office of Personnel Management
General Services Administration
National Prevention Strategy:
Goal ∙ Strategic Directions ∙ Priorities
NPS has catalyzed change within
federal government
Partnership for Sustainable Communities
Increased use of Health Impact Assessments
Metrics: active transportation use; access to
healthy food choices; access to open space
CDC/NNPHI, Health Impact Project
Regional “prevention council” in Region 8
Moving NPS into communities
National Collaborative on Education and Health
Integrating health-relevant metrics into school report
As health system moves into communities, including
schools as locus for creating health
Braiding and blending funds to incentivize
partnership in communities
School Climate Grants
Performance Partnership Pilots for Disconnected Youth
Levers in the ACA
Accountable Care
Organizations (and
CMMI Innovation
Awards (population
health models that
address social
SIM grants and global
Medicaid essential
health benefits rule
Community benefit
requirements for nonprofit hospitals
Prevention and Public
Health Fund
Example: Hennepin Health – A
Social ACO
Medicaid expansion, full risk by county
Very high need population: continuum of
care, behavioral health and social services
EHR and social services linkages
$1 million reinvested in first year from
captured savings
Dental clinic, sobering center, interim housing,
behavioral health counselors, employment
Example: Health Systems Learning
Group (Stakeholder Health)
40 nonprofit health systems--“invest in
community health with a true integrative
Quadruple aim: add reduced health disparities
Integrated care for socially complex people in
socially complex neighborhoods: Social ROI
Individuals and place; redesign care; community
based prevention; partner on social determinants
Financial metrics and accountability
CMMI Investments
Health Care Innovation Awards
State Innovation Models
New partnerships
An integrator agency
Coverage of non-clinical interventions
Thinking beyond the patient population to the
community’s health and well being
SIM: Minnesota Accountable
Health Model
Expands patient-centered, team-based care
through service delivery and payment models
that support integration of medical care,
behavioral health, long-term care and
community prevention services…
establishment of up to 15 Accountable
Communities for Health to develop and test
strategies for “creating healthy futures for
patients and community members.”
DE: Nemours/ Alfred I. duPont
Hospital for Children--Asthma
Enhance family-centered medical homes in
their community by adding community-based
services for children with asthma
Reduce asthma-related ER use and
hospitalization by 50% by 2015
Deployment of a “navigator” workforce that
incorporates non-medical needs that promote
respiratory health and address environmental
asthma triggers
CA SIM: Accountable Care
Community Pilots
“model how population health can be
advanced through collaborative, multiinstitutional efforts that promote a shared
responsibility for the health of the community.
Pilots will include a Wellness Trust, which
will serve as a vehicle to pool and leverage
funding from a variety of sources for longterm sustainability.”
MD: Community-Integrated
Medical Home
“integrate patient-centered medical care with
community-based resources while enhancing
the capacity of local health entities to monitor
and improve the health of individuals and
their communities as a whole.” Developed in
consultation with local health improvement
coalitions (panels of local health departments,
hospitals, physicians, community
organizations, and other local entities).
Tapping resources beyond health
Community Reinvestment Act
Low-Income Investment Fund Social Impact
Innovative financing models
Social impact bonds
Solving the “wrong pocket” issue
What does this have to do with preventing
the biggest drivers of health care cost?
Each model in different ways:
Recognizes the relationship between what
happens inside and outside the doctor’s office
Broad-based partnerships within and beyond the
health system
ROI is a goal
Primary vs. secondary prevention and ROI
Each has an “integrator”
Long-term financing issues remain
How does public health change?
New leadership role
New skills within health departments
Assurance vs. delivery of services/programs
Public Health as Chief Health
Strategist for Communities
“State and local health departments will be
more likely to design policies than provide
direct services; more likely to convene
coalitions than work alone; and be more likely
to access and have real-time data than await
the next annual survey. These new required
skills and abilities characterize a new role for
health departments as the “chief health
strategist” for a community.”
Public Health Leadership Forum
Programs/Activities Specific to an HD and/or Community Needs
Most of an HD’s Work is “Above the Line”
How does the workforce change?
community change
“Health in all policies”
Coalition building
Health IT
Integrated with EHRs
Technical and analytic
Integrator role
Individuals (CHWs)
Systems – within health
and outside health
Direct services vs.
quality assurance
Health promotion
beyond government
public health
Implementation challenges
A system that is changing as we try to partner
with it
Constituency building just beginning beyond
public health
Scary fiscal times can result in circling the
Devil is in the details, to say the least
Can we do it?
Four years ago we considered the following to
be dreams or too much of a stretch
Health reform
Embracing of population health
National Prevention Council, Strategy
Mandatory funding for public health
Major new prevention programming
Status quo is not an option
Jeff Levi
[email protected]
Thank you.

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