Dairy sector in Turkey - Rednex EU FP7 Project

Report
Dairy sector in Turkey
Sema Yaman
Livestock Central Research Institute, Ankara
16 May 2013 - Bucharest
FP7 REDNEX MEETING
Animal husbandry and dairy cattle sector in national
economy and agricultural sector
Animal husbandry has a great potential and is well placed in Turkish
national economy and agricultural sector.
The contribution of livestock production is 26,5% in the agricultural
production value (of 89.782 million TL).
And the greatest contribution to livestock production value comes
from cow milk as much as 42 % of it.
Contribution of milk production in agricultural production is 11.2%
Dairy cattle, is main and/ or side employment source of millions living
in rural. Means, economically and socially vey important sector and
employment source (Anonymous 2009).
Anonymous 2009 : Agriculture in Turkey with economical indications 2008, AERI Pub No:176
Statistics of dairy sector
• Cow milk supplies approximatly 92% of total milk
production in Turkey
• It is 98% and 83,5% for EU(27) and for world
respectively.
• Proportion of sheep and goat milk in the total milk
produce; 6,1 % and 1,97 %as respectively
Number of animals
years
cattle
buffalo
Total large
ruminants
sheep
goat
Total small
ruminats
2002
9.803.498
121.077
9.924.575
25.173.706
6.780.094
31.953.800
2003
9.803.498
121.077
9.924.575
25.173.706
6.780.094
31.953.80
2004
10.069.346
103.900
10.173.246
25.201.15
6.609.937
31.811.092
2005
10.526.440
104.965
10.631.405
25.304.325
6.517.464
31.821.789
2006
10.871.364
100.516
10.971.880
25.616.912
6.643.294
32.260.206
2007
11.036.753
84.705
11.121.458
25.475.293
6.286.358
31.761.651
2008
10.859.942
86.297
10.946.239
23.974.591
5.593.561
29.568.152
2009
10.723.958
87.207
10.811.165
21.749.508
5.128.285
26.877.793
2010
11.369.800
84.726
11.454.526
23.089.691
6.293.233
29.382.924
2011
12.386.337
97.632
12.483.969
25.031.565
7.277.953
32.309.518
Change (%)
2002-2011
26,3
-19,3
25,7
-0,56
7,3
1,1
Animal
Milk Production
Milk production (species and breed)
Üretim (Ton)
cont
2010
(%)
2011
cont
(%)
change
(%)
13 543 674
100,00
15 056 211
100,00
11,2
12 418 544
91,69
13 802 428
91,67
11,1
Egzotic (cultured)
6 309 065
46,58
7 239 644
48,08
14,7
Crossbred
4 861 835
35,90
5 341 224
35,48
9,9
native
sheep
merino
native
Keçi
Hair goat
Angora goat
buffalo
TSO (Turkish
1 247 644
816 832
24 710
792 122
272 811
270 476
2 335
35 487
9,21
6,03
0,18
5,85
2,01
2,00
0,02
0,26
1 221 560
892 822
27 245
865 577
320 588
318 273
2 315
40 372
8,11
5,93
0,18
5,75
2,13
2,11
0,02
0,27
-2,1
9,3
10,3
9,3
17,5
17,7
-0,8
13,8
cow
• In 2011, total milk production in Turkey was
increased compare to previous years
production as much as 10,6% contrary to
decrease in world milk production.
Structure of dairy sector in Turkey
size of farms
Average size of the dairy farms in Turkey is small.
Turkish Statistics Organization 2011 reported that
farms have 1-9 head cattle is 81,1 % of the dairy
farms.
Size of the farms (head cattle)
1to 9
10 to 19 20 to 49 50 to 149 150-299 300
81,1%
12,8
5,4%
0,7%
0,0
0,0
Size of farms
According to General Agricultural stock counting
in 2001 and other work in 2006, it is not wrong
to say; there are 1,1 million dairy farms and the
average size of them is 4 head cattle.
crop and livestock production
land size
In Turkey 97% of livestock enterprises rearing
large ruminant are doing both crop and livestock
production.
% of Agricultural Land size, da % Land % of cattle
enterprises
cultivated population
61,9
20,4
11,8
6
<50
50-99
100-199
≥200
20,5
21,6
24,5
33
47
25,5
17,85
10,4
genotype
Various breeds of cattle are reared in Turkey, but in
statistics gentype of groups are stated instead of
spesific breeds name.
These groups are;
- Cultured breeds wich includes all breeds brought
from abroud and rised in Turkey as pure,
-Native breeds of Turkey,
-And crossbreeds between cultured breeds and
native ones.
Number of genotype in cattle population
years
total
Native breeds
Cross-breeds
Cultured breeds
Numb.
%
Numb.
%
Numb.
%
1990
11377
6 690
58,8
3 675
32,3
1013
8,9
1993
11 910
6 126
51,4
4 342
36,5
1 442
12,1
1996
11 886
5 182
43,6
4 909
41,3
1 795
15,1
1999
11 054
4 446
40,2
4 826
43,7
1782
16,1
2002
9 803
3 586
36,6
4 358
44,4
1860
19,0
2003
9 788
3563
36,4
4285
43,8
1941
19,8
2004
10 069
3 565
35,4
4395
43,6
2109
20,9
2005
10 526
3633
34,5
4538
43,1
2355
22,4
2006
10 871
3 405
31,3
4694
43,2
2772
25,5
2007
11 037
3 276
29,7
4465
40,5
3296
29,9
2008
10 860
2 851
26,2
4455
41,0
3555
32,7
genotype
Selection of cultured breeds are affected by
coordinated countries and dominated breed in
those countries;
For example, Holstein predominating breed in
world dairy industry is also highly populated
cultured breed in Turkey. Brown Swiss and
Simmental were following Holstein population
in Turkey.
Milk yields
Considiring milk yields, there areimportant
differences between regions, provinces and
farms as well as differences between genotypes.
Average milk yields of dairy cattle registered in
national herd book is about 6 tons.
There are farms average milk yields of cows are
2-3 tons as well as average milk yields of some
farms per cow 11 tons too.
Milk yield of farms registered in breeding dairy
cattle assosiation in Turkey
Calving year
Holstein
Number of
lactation
Lactation milk
yield, Kg/305
days
200
14739
6079
2001
23819
5986
2002
33728
5820
2003
55209
5790
2004
83610
5784
2005
119003
5817
2006
191017
5873
2007
258068
5837
2008
216707
5810
2009
5632
5239
Manure management
Manure production in dairy cattle is always
surplus and it is very difficult to handle it.
Above all most of dairy cattle farms in rural area
in Turkey has no manure storage and
maintenance facility.
For many farms in rural area common practice of
handling manure is to take manure out from barn
and keep it nearby some time and after that to
move away.
Environmental management
Institutional responsibility in waste management was shared
between Ministry of Environment and Urban and Ministry of
Food Agriculture Livestock in Turkey.
According to «Environment impact assesment regulations»
0/6/2011-27980
Supervision of environmental ipmpact assesment of enterprises
having production capasity of >5000 head large ruminants and 50
tons milk production capacity/ per day would be done by
commissions
• Three way aproach should be accepted to
improve environmental management level
according to Turkish and International
standarts;
• 1-awareness raising
• 2- establishment of incentive
• 3- and identification of legal frame

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