Islamic Teachings on Family Planning and HIV

Report
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE MOST
GRACIOUS, THE MOST MERCIFUL
Islamic Teachings on
Family Planning and HIV
Muslim Association of Malawi
&
Quadria Muslim Association of Malawi
With technical support from:
Community-Based Family Planning & HIV/AIDS Services Project
This presentation deals with population and health
issues and quality of life from an Islamic perspective.
Islamic declarations must be based on the Quran,
Ahadith, Qiyas and Ijma.
“Indeed this Quran guides to that which is most
suitable and gives good tidings to the believers
who do righteous deeds that they will have a
great reward.”
Surah 17, The Night Journey, Verse 9
The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said:
“Each one of you is a shepherd and every
shepherd will be called to account for his
flock. The Imam is a shepherd and will be
made accountable.”
Al-Bukhari
All of you are responsible, and each one
of you is responsible for your charges.
The Quran addresses the totality of human life and
its environment. It is the responsibility of every
individual to address population issues.
“…We have revealed the Book (Quran) which
manifests the truth about all things, a guide, a
blessing, and good news for those who surrender
themselves to God.”
Surah 16, Bees, Verse 89
One of the objectives of Islam for the family is to
bear a virtuous offspring.
“God has given you wives from among yourselves
and, through your wives, sons and grandsons.”
Surah 16, The Bee, Verse 72
“By another sign He gave you wives from among
yourselves, that you might live in peace with
them, and planted love and kindness in your
hearts. Surely there are signs in this for thinking
men.”
Surah 30, The Greeks, Verse 21
80 +
75-79
70-74
65-69
60-64
55-59
50-54
45-49
40-44
35-39
30-34
25-29
20-24
15-19
10-14
5-9
0-4
45% of the population is
under 15 years of age
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20
Source: DHS
Zimbabwe 2005-06
3.8
Uganda 2006
6.7
Tanzania 2004-05
5.7
Rwanda 2007-08
5.5
Malawi 2004
6.0
Madagascar 2008-09
4.8
MALI
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Source: DHS
Series 1
50%
40%
30%
20%
39%
29%
28%
27%
20%
18%
10%
0%
*Percent of married women currently using a modern family planning method
Source: DHS
High Maternal Mortality
• 807 women die in childbirth in 100,000 live
births – the worst maternal mortality rate of
any non-conflict country in the world
• 16 women die daily from childbirth, or nearly
6,000 women per year
Source: MICS 2006
• 27 neonates (infants less than one month) die
in 1,000 live births
• 76/1,000 infants die before their first birthday
Source: DHS 2004
• 133 children die in 1,000 births before their
fifth birthday
Source: DHS 2004
140
120
121
per 1,000
100
88
92
30-39
40-49
82
80
60
40
20
0
Under 20
20-29
Mother’s Age
Source: DHS 2004
200
per 1,000
160
154
120
85
80
56
55
3 years
4 years or more
40
0
Less than 2 years
2 years
Number of years preceding birth
Source: DHS 2004
Birth spacing is a matter that is directly
related to Islam, which gives extensive
coverage to it.
Islam is a religion of simplicity, tolerance,
ease and openness.
There should not be any extremism, rigidity
or excesses that would harm mankind.
WHAT IS BIRTH SPACING?
Birth spacing means that couples employ
measures to space out pregnancies, willingly or
by justified authorization of a physician.
Birth spacing is, above all, a means of preserving
the health of mother and child within the couple.
“Mothers shall give suck to their children for two (2)
whole years if the father wishes the suckling to be
completed.”
Surah 2, The Cow, Verse 233
“We have enjoined man to show kindness to his
parents, for with much pain his mother bears him,
and he is not weaned before he is two years of age.”
Surah 31, Luqman, Verse 14
The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said:
“Nothing is better for the infant than the mother’s
breast.”
He also said:
“The infant’s subsistence lies in its mother’s breasts:
in one is its beverage and in the other is its food.”
Abu Dawud
Among other legal reasons for birth spacing, Muslim
jurisconsults cite:
 Within the confines of marriage
 To save the life of the mother, when health
problems related to repeated and close
pregnancies threaten her life
 For the survival of the child after birth (i.e., to
ensure uninterrupted breastfeeding for two years)
 When children’s health could deteriorate
Breastfeeding for a complete period of 2 years. For
God says in the Quran: “Mothers shall give suck to
their children for two (2) whole years if the father
wishes the suckling to be completed.” Surah 2, The
Cow, Verse 233
Coitus interruptus (Al-Azl)
Jurists also allow the use of modern reversible
contraceptive methods as needed and in accordance
with Islam.
The Prophet (pbuh) allows coitus interruptus (Al-’Azl)
According to a hadith of Jabir (May God bless and greet
him):
“In the time of the messenger of God, coitus interruptus
was practiced. If this process was subject to prohibition,
the Quran would have mentioned it, because this time was
that of revelation.”
Al-Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidh, Ibn Majah and Ahmad
In addition, any modern contraceptive is acceptable as long
as it aims to achieve the same result as coitus interruptus!
Muslim men play an important role in family planning:
“Men are protectors of women.”
Surah 2, The Cow, Verse 233
“The believer with the most complete faith is the one
with the best character, the best of you are those who
are the best of their wives and I am best to my
family.”
Al-Bukhari
Having a healthy procreation that is strong, aware,
educated and religious, instead of a useless
abundance, is an important recommendation of Islam
The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said:
“A strong believer is better than a weak one and is
more beloved by God, in all good things.”
“Thereupon Zacharias prayed to his Lord, saying: ‘Lord,
grant me upright descendants.’”
Surah 3, The ‘Imrans, Verse 38
Abraham expressed thus his wish to have children:
“Lord, grant me a righteous son.”
Surah 37, The Ranks, Verse 100
The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said:
“You’re heading to a risk: that of being gnawed away
by other communities as predators eat the leaves of
trees.”
Then his interlocutors asked:
“Is that because we will be less in number that day?”
The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) answered:
“No, quite the contrary! You will be very many that
day, but you’ll be like residue left behind by a
runoff.”
Abu Dawud and Ahmad
 Health
 Education
 Economy and Labor (Poverty)
 Urbanization and Environment
According to Islam, the 6 essential conditions
for maintaining the health of an individual are:
 Food, in quality and quantity
 Food, orderly and well-planned (not too
little, not too much)
 Good environmental health
 Sport
 Illness prevention
 Treatment (care demands)
Health occupies a prominent place in Islam, as
evidenced by the following:
The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said:
“Take care of yourselves. There are no ailments for
which God has not provided medications. When
the drug affects the disease, it cures, God willing.”
Al-Bukhari
Unmet need results in poverty, leading to:
 Increased begging
 Overcrowding
 Increased homelessness
 Exploitation of children and women
Unmet need results in:
 Inability of parents to provide adequate
education to their children
 Parents’ loss of authority over their
children, resulting in moral degradation
(prostitution, delinquency, drug abuse,
fertile ground for the spread of STIs and
HIV/AIDS
Education is an absolute right for every child.
The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said:
“A father will not give best to his son than a
good education.”
Al-Bukhari
“Seeking of knowledge is a duty for every
Muslim, male or female.”
Al-Bukhari
 Islam requires the State to facilitate the
granting of work to its people in order to
shelter them from unemployment and
idleness, basic conditions for the preservation
of human dignity.
 In Islam, man is judged on his work rather
than by any other consideration.
 Work is a right for every human being, as it
develops and enables the individual, and
therefore, the community.
Islam is a religion that fights strongly against poverty.
“Take alms from them, so that they may thereby be
cleansed and purified…”
Surah 9, Repentance, Verse 103
The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) prayed:
“Lord, I ask of Thee guidance, fear, complacency, and
wealth.”
The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said:
“Leaving your heirs rich is better than leaving them in
need, begging for charity from people.”
Al-Bukhari
The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said:
“The fruit of one’s labor is the most delicious dish.”
Ahmad
“Give the worker his wages before his sweat dries.”
Ibn Majah
In Islam, importance is placed on hygiene, sanitation, and
environmental protection.
“If you have a plant in the apocalypse and you are able to plant
it, do it.”
The Prophet (Praise Be Upon Him) according to Ahmad
“Get away from two sources of curse: to defecate in a public
street or in a shaded place where people sit.”
The Prophet (Praise Be Upon Him) according to Al-Bukhari
“Do not corrupt the earth after it has been purged of evil.”
Surah 7, The Heights, Verse 56
ISLAM AND THE ENVIRONMENT
“God loves those that turn to Him in repentance and
strive to keep themselves clean.”
Surah 2, The Cow, Verse 222
This refers to the purification of the body and the
heart.
HIV FACTS
 Adult HIV prevalence in Malawi is estimated at
12 percent
 60 percent of new infections occur among young
women ages 16-24 years
 72,000 pregnant women in Malawi are in need of
services to prevention mother-to-child
transmission of HIV
 30,000 Malawian children are infected with HIV
annually
ISLAM AND HIV
Islam highly values human life, which is considered a
gift from Allah.
“(…) and do not come near to zina (sex out of
wedlock), for indeed it is a known, shunned evil,
which is a grave sin and a bad path to tread.”
Al-Quran, 17:23
While Islam emphasizes moral values, awareness of
disease prevention must also be emphasized to
preserve healthy, human life.
ISLAM AND HIV
Islam is a religion of compassion, love and mercy.
People living with HIV and AIDS should be given
attention, care, love and affection, so that they can
lead their lives with dignity.
The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said:
“You will not enter into paradise until you believe,
and you will not believe until you love one
another.”
“A visit to a sick person is only complete when you
have put your hand on his forehead and asked him
how he is.”
Al-Trimidhi
CONCLUSION
 Islam is certainly an open religion, but based on
immutable principles enacted by the Holy Qur’an and
authentic Ahadith, Qiyas and Ijma.
 Spacing of births within
incompatible with Islam.
the
couple
is
not
 Islam is mindful of all matters relating to the health of
mother and child.
 Islam is a religion of tolerance; people living with HIV
and AIDS should not be shunned.
 It is the duty of religious leaders to sensitize, educate,
and enlighten the community on population issues.
CONCLUSION
“God does not change a people’s lot unless they
change what is in their hearts.”
Surah 13, Thunder, Verse 11
The commitment of religious leaders is fundamental
for the well-being of the people.
May God guide and strengthen our steps.
Amen!
Area 9 Mosque, Lilongwe
REPUBLIC OF MALAWI
0
March 2011
SALAAM ALAIKUM
WA RAHMATOULLAHI
WA BARAKATOUH

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