Social exclusion v? Social inclusion

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Social exclusion v? Social inclusion
Dzhevid Mahmud
CITIZEN PARTICIPATION UNIVERSITY 2014
First ever excluded were?
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Adam and Eve
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It brings to self-identification
What?
Oxford dictionary
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Exclusion from the prevailing social system and its rights
and privileges, typically as a result of poverty or the fact
of belonging to a minority social group.
Ilo.org
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Both a process and state that prevents individuals or
groups from full participation in social, economic and
political life and from asserting their rights
Different from
M-W
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Discrimination- the practice of unfairly treating a
person or group of people differently from other people
or groups of people
Ilo.org
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Marginalization- being well aside from the center
(between integration and social-exclusion)
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Social inclusion is the process by which the
exclusionary processes and relationships that contribute
to social exclusion are addressed.
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The goal: growth , improved welfare and, ultimately
development
Different
Oxford dictionary
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Integration- the act or process of mixing people
who have previously been separated, usually because
of colour, race, religion, etc:
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Partnership: is a process by which different types of
actors (public sector, private sector) agree to work
together to implement a plan of action, a programme
or a joint project through strategies and actions.
Why partnership is important?
– it is a growth process, builds relationships,
people get to know each other, plan and act
together. Equally share roles, and responsibilities.
Brings to more transparency, gives clarity to
power relations.
Who ?
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Social exclusion can affect anyone . But certain groups, are
at greater risk to suffer from it.
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Low income, family conflict, low quality education, older
people, younger people, ethnic minorities, living in
deprived neighborhood, rural areas.
Types of exclusion:
Social Exclusion
 Exclusion from the Economy/Production
 Exclusion from Politics
 Exclusion from Social Participation
 Geographic Exclusion
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Indicators of the extent of exclusion:
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Economic
Training and education
Employment and income
Housing and accommodation
Health care
Information , communication technology (ICT)
Culture
Why exclusion occurs?
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Economic changes, globalization, regime change,
Polarized communities, Discrimination
Bad governmental policies- education, employment,
social housing, no focus on outcomes, lack of evidence
based policies
I.E. Institution are setting high criteria for selection thus
fortifying exclusion, or setting the budget in itself is
process of exclusion.
Links between poverty and the
environment
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Poor people live closely to nature; they are presumed to
live essentially on the raw resources that nature provides
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As their productivity is very limited, poor people tend to
have a lot of children as safety insurance on the one hand,
and to raise their living standard on the other hand.
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Secondly, poor people don’t have a secure livelihood. In
the countryside, poor farmers don’t have access to land
tenure, so they are often forced for their
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survival to exploit marginal areas of forests or
unfavorable areas in a way that is called “cut and run.”
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Thirdly, lack of financial resources forces them to resort
to an informal but high interest capital market.
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Fourthly, poverty causes social problems. In developed
countries, European suburban violence and black riots in
the United States are caused mainly by problems
associated with poverty.
Costs of exclusion
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It affects the individual and the society as a whole.
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Individual
Deprivation from education
Financial loss
Hindered access to services
Stress, health issues
Lack of hope
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Societal
Social disparities
 Higher crime rate
 Reduced mobility
 Economic losses
 Welfare burden
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Where?
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Biggest income disparities – Latin America, SubSaharan Africa
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Europe- Non- Roma, Roma
What is Inclusion about?
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social protection
maintaining minimum living standards,
providing income support,
providing employment opportunities and guarantees,
improving access to services, including health and
reducing occupational risks
How to combat exclusion?
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Prevention from exclusion and partnership in reinclusion, providing basic services
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All this possible only after- open policy making,
partnership implementation, link between social and
economic policies, focus on outcomes, than on the
process, sustainable process
Reasons to do it:
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those affected
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intrinsic values
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materialization of rights
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high cost of exclusion
Role of actors:
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IGO’s
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Governments
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Civil Society -INGO’s, National, Local,
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Business
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Media
Exemplary areas to work:
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Children, families and schools;
Skills, jobs and income;
Homes, neighborhoods and communities;
Race;
Crime;
Older people; and
Health and disability
Activities:
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On prevention, motivation, training,
information, monitoring, mediation and
negotiation, interaction and partnership.
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Awareness raising on the existence and the
need to combat the exclusion
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challenge existing power relations, publicprivate, business- unemployed, associations of
excluded groups
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efforts to build positive image, emancipation of
the excluded, work on prevention
Roma Inclusion:
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4 key areasEducation: ensuring that all Roma children complete
primary school;
Employment: cutting the employment gap between
Roma and other citizens;
Health: reducing the gap in health status between the
Roma and the general population;
Housing: closing the gap in access to housing and public
utilities such as water and electricity.
National strategies for Roma
inclusion
Decade of Roma Inclusion
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Goal: To eliminate discrimination against Roma and close
the unacceptable gaps between Roma and the rest of
society. To improve the socio-economic status and social
inclusion of the Romani minority across the region
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www.romadecade.org
Roma Education Fund
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Goal is to close the gap in educational outcomes
between Roma and non-Roma
http://www.romaeducationfund.hu/ref-one-page
Objectives
access to compulsory education
 Improving the quality of education
 Implementing integration and desegregation
 Expanding access to pre-school education
 Increasing access to secondary, post secondary
and adult education
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REF runs five major programs:
Project Support Program
 REF Scholarship Program
 Policy Development and Capacity Building
Program
 Communication and Cross Country Learning
Program
 Reimbursable Grant Program
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OSI Roma Initiatives Office
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Support- advocacy campaigns, support for civil
society, capacity building, training, internships at
EC, EP, COE, RAP at CEU, in promotion of
positive image of Roma, and intercultural dialog
Food for thought:
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Exclusion through inclusion?!
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Inclusion through exclusion?!
Arnstein, Sherry R. "A Ladder of Citizen Participation," JAIP
Thank you
Q&A

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