PowerPoint 2: Materials

Report
Industrial Skills
Wood Products
Lumber Measurements
Calculations
Wood Products
Two Broad Groups

Hardwoods – Broad-leaved trees.
 White Oak
 Mahogany
 Teak

Softwoods – Coniferous trees
 White Cedar (Juniper)
 Cypress
 Pines
Softwood Lumber
1. Use Classifications

Yard Lumber – Less than 5” in thickness, intended
for ordinary construction and general building
purposes.

Select – good appearance and finishing qualities.


Common – general construction and utility.


Grades A-D (see handout)
Numbers 1-5 (see handout)
Structural Lumber – 2” or more in both thickness
and width, used where working stresses are
required.
Softwood Lumber
2. Manufacturing Classifications

Rough Lumber

Dressed/Surfaced Lumber

Lumber that has not been dressed (surfaced).
Lumber that has been dressed by a planing machine for a
smooth surface and uniformity of size. Most commonly on
all sides and edges.
Worked Lumber
Dressed lumber that has been matched, shiplapped, or
patterned.
*Note table of standard sizes of lumber in your handout
“Materials & Industrial Standards”.
Softwood Lumber
3. Size Classifications
Nominal/Rough –
 Refers to the “nominal” size (in inches) of the
board before it is dressed and dried

A 1 x 4 or a 2 x 4
Actual/Dressed –
 Refers to the finished (dressed and dried)
“actual” size of the lumber


A 1 x 4 is actually ¾” x 3 ½”
A 2 x 4 is actually 1 ½” x 3 ½”
*Note table of standard sizes of lumber in your handout
“Materials & Industrial Standards”.
Softwood Lumber

Boards –
 less than 2 inches thick and at least 2 inches wide in nominal
dimensions
 Ex) 1 x 4 or a 1 x 6

Dimension Lumber –
 2 to 5 inches thick and at least 2 inches wide in nominal
dimensions
 Ex) 2 x 4 or a 4 x 4

Standard lengths of lumber are generally 6 feet and
longer in multiples of 2 feet.
 Ex) 1 x 4 x 6 (1” x 4” x 6’) or 2 x 6 x 10 (2” x 6” x 10’)
*Note table of standard sizes of lumber in your handout
“Materials & Industrial Standards”.
Grading Standards
Softwood

graded by the best side of the board.
Hardwood

graded by the worst side of the board
Hardwood Lumber
Factory lumber – grades reflect the
proportion of a piece that can be cut into
useful smaller pieces.
Dimension lumber – grades are based on
the entire piece.
Finished Market Products – graded for
their end use with little or no remanufacture.
(molding, flooring, etc.)
Hardwood Lumber is sold by random
widths and lengths.
Measurements and Pricing
Lumber may be priced and sold:




By
By
By
By
the
the
the
the
piece.
lineal foot.
square foot (composites and plywood).
board foot.
Generally, when ordering large quantities of
softwoods or any marine grade hardwood, you
will receive a price per board foot.
When calculating board feet always use
the nominal size or in the case of
hardwoods, the actual rough size.
Measurements and Pricing:
Board foot = 144 cubic inches
Board Feet can be calculated in several ways.

# of pieces x Thickness (in.) x Width (in.) x Length (in.)
Divided by 144

# of pieces x Thickness (in.) x Width (in.) x Length (ft.)*
Divided by 12
*This particular formula represents one of the few exceptions to the
rule of always using like units when performing calculations.
Measurements and Pricing:
Board Foot Examples
1”
1 x 12 x 12
144 cu. Inches
1 Board Foot
12”
24”
1”
12”
6”
12”
1”
2”
4”
36”
6”
Measurements and Pricing:
Board Foot Calculations
A “piece” of mahogany measuring 1 inch thick, 9½ inches
wide, and 36 inches long would contain how many board feet?


# of pieces x T” x W” x L” = 1 x 1” x 9½” x 36”
144
144
= 342” = 2.375 Board Feet
144
OR, because 36” = 3’

# of pieces x T” x W” x L’ = 1 x 1” x 9½” x 3’
12

= 28.5 = 2.375 Board Feet
12
12
Measurements and Pricing:
Board Foot Calculations
A “piece” of dressed yellow pine measuring ¾ inch thick, 5½
inches wide and 12 feet long would contain how many board
feet.


# of pieces x T” x W” x L” = 1 x 1” x 6” x 144”
144
144
= 864” = 6 Board Feet
144


Or # of pieces x T” x W” x L’ = 1 x 1” x 6” x 12’
12
12
= 72 = 6 Board Feet
12
Industrial Applications:
Lumber Quantity Question – Dock
A boat dock your agency uses is in need of repair. The
pilings, cross-members, and stringers are all in good
shape. You are asked to calculate the amount of lumber
needed to replace all the existing deck boards with new
treated 2 x 4. A ½” gap should be left between each deck
board to allow water to adequately drain. The dock is 12
foot wide and 80 feet long.
•What is the total lineal feet needed?
• Lineal feet = total length of material needed
•What is the total board footage needed?
Industrial Applications:
Lumber Quantity Question – Dock
12’
80’
Understanding the standard sizes of lumber will make your
calculations much easier.
A treated 2 x 4 measures 1½” x 3½” .
So, the ½ inch gap is included in the 4” nominal width.
You would want to order 12’ long boards.
80 feet = 960 inches ----- 960” divided by 4” = 240 boards
Therefore you could order 240, 2 x 4 boards that are 12’ long
The lineal feet would equal, 240 bds. X 12’ = 2880 Lineal feet
Industrial Applications:
Lumber Quantity Question – Dock
12’
80’
So, we have 240 boards that are 2” by 4” (remember to use nominal
dimensions) and are each 12 feet long (144 inches)
To find board feet:
# of pieces x T” x W” x L’ = 240 x 2” x 4” x 12’
12
12
= 23040
12
= 1920 bd.ft.
Industrial Applications:
Lumber Quantity Question – Dock
12’
80’
If you ever need to convert board feet to lineal feet, simply reverse the
multiple used to bring lineal feet to board feet. In other words:
Board Feet x 12”
Thickness (in) x Width (in)
1920 x 12” = 23040 = 2880 Lineal feet
2” x 4”
8
Plywood
A panel with layers, or plies, of wood
veneer
Very strong - equally strong with and
across the grain


odd number of layers glued together with
the grains of each layer at right angles to
each other
Face and Back
 Face: “top” layer, typically higher quality of
wood
 Back: “bottom” layer
Plywood
Softwood:

Most common and used in building
construction
Hardwood:

Finer Face, used in furniture and boat
interiors
Softwood Plywood
Grading

Located on the edge or back is a “grade
stamp” N, A, B, C, C plugged, or D
 See “Standard Veneer Grades” table in handout

The Face and Back can have separate
grades
Softwood Plywood
Interior


Core contains veneers of D grade or better
Bonded with moisture resistant glue
Exterior


Core contains veneers of C grade or better
Bonded with waterproof glue
Marine


No voids in its core
Made to withstand continuous exposure to
water
Hardwood Plywood
Only concerned with Face and Back, not
core
Grades:





Premium
Good
Sound
Utility
Backing
Grades are usually abbreviated. If only
one, it refers to the face
Hardwood Plywood
Type I

Has exterior glue and is waterproof
Type II

Has interior glue and accounts for 95% of
all domestic hardwood plywood
Solid Core is also available (no voids or
holes)
Plywood
Sizes

Common thicknesses
 1/8”, ¼”, 3/8”, ½”, 5/8”, ¾”, and 1”

Common width and length
 4’ x 8’
 2’ x 4’ is available and special order lengths of
10’, 12’, and 16’
Plywood Pricing
You can be quoted by “per sheet”

Ex) one 4’x8’ sheet of ½” A/C exterior
grade plywood = X $
You can be quoted by square foot


A piece of ½” x 4’ x 8’ plywood has 32sqft
L” x W”
or
L’ x W’
144

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