CIS 105 Survey of Computer Information Systems

Report
CIS 105
Survey of Computer Information Systems
Essential Concepts and Terminology
Study Unit 7
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Media Convergence.
The unification of all earlier media
forms (print, audio, video,
animation, telephone) in a single
medium.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Internet.
The worldwide communication
technology and infrastructure that
links computer networks using
TCP/IP protocol, enabling direct
data exchange between any two
connected computers.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
ISP (Internet Service
Provider).
A company that provides Internet
access, often by paid
subscriptions, to businesses,
organizations, and individuals.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Internet Protocol (IP).
The rules enabling data to be sent
from one computer to another on
the Internet. The protocol
specifies that each computer have
at least one uniquely identifier, its
IP address.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
IP Address.
The unique four-part number
separated by periods (such as
216.239.39.120) used for
identifying each computer
connected to the Internet.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
WWW (World Wide Web).
The network of computer networks
enabling connected users to access
billions of pages of information.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Platform.
A distinct class of computers,
distinguished as using a specific
type of processor and operating
system.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Interoperability.
The characteristic of the Internet
that enables cross-platform
computer operations.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Online Service.
A proprietary network offering
customized, fee-based access,
client software, and services.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Portal.
An Internet gateway providing
organized content, often with free
services to attract commercial
activity and advertisers.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
ARPANet.
The network created in 1969 by
the Advanced Research Projects
Agency (ARPA). ARPANet was the
first network to use the technology
that is the basis of the Internet.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Client.
A program running on a computer,
such as a Web browser, that
requests information from another
computer.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Server.
Any computer providing a service
to other computers on a network.
A program on a networked
computer that provides data to
client computers.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Hyperlink.
Portion of a hypertext markup
language document that directs a
client program to retrieve another
document. This technological
advance enabled the World Wide
Web.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Hypertext.
Text strings in documents that are
often underlined, highlighted, or
otherwise emphasized to indicate
their hyperlink property.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
URL (Uniform Resource
Locator).
The unique address that specifies
precisely the location of a Web
page.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
FTP (File Transfer
Protocol).
The set of rules enabling
downloading and uploading of
ASCII and text files via the
Internet.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
ASCII.
Acronym for American Standard
Code for Information Interchange,
the predominant computer
character set encoding, currently
using 7 bit binary code to define
128 possible characters.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Executable File.
A file containing instructions
capable of running on a computer,
usually with an .exe extension if
intended for use on a PC.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Macro.
Any set of instructions that
automates a task. A macro can be
written or created by performing a
task while recording the steps.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Usenet.
An Internet discussion group news
service for collecting and storing
information by topic categories,
called newsgroups and forums.
More than 50,000 newsgroups
exist.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Thread.
A series of newsgroup articles with
a continuing commentary on a
particular subject.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Netiquette.
Etiquette rules pertaining to use of
Internet communications.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Flames.
Angry or critical Internet
communications.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Internet Chat Relay (ICR).
Internet service that supports
many channels of real-time, textbased conversation among
multiple participants.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP).
A standard set of communication
rules used by every computer
connected to the Internet.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Point-to-Point Protocol
(PPP).
A version of PCP/IP to connect a
dial-up computer to the Internet
using a temporarily assigned IP
address.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Digital Subscriber Line
(DSL).
A protocol that enables highspeed, permanent online Internet
connections using telephone lines.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Backbone.
A transmission line that carries data
gathered from smaller interconnected
lines, at the local level, from LAN to
LAN or from a LAN to a wide area
network connection, or, on the Internet
or other wide area network, a set of
paths that local or regional networks
connect to for long-distance
interconnection.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Network Access Points
(NAPS).
Several major Internet
interconnection points that provide
major switching facilities and tie all
the Internet access providers
together.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Domain Name System
(DNS).
The system of Internet addressing
that stores and translates
meaningful and easy-to-remember
text aliases (such as
www.mc.maricopa.edu) into
Internet Protocol addresses.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Internet Network
Information Center
(InterNIC).
The organization originally responsible
for registering and maintaining top-level
domain names on the World Wide Web.
Recently, competition was introduced
and the Internet Corporation of
Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)
conducts registrar accreditation.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Top-Level Domain Names
.gov
Government agency
.edu
Educational institution
.org
Nonprofit organizations
.com
Commercial business
.net
Network organizations
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Intranet.
A local or wide-area computer
network based in TCP/IP, and not
necessarily available to external
connections.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Firewall.
A program to prevent or limit
external access to a computer
from networked connections.
CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
End of Study Unit 7.
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CIS 105 Concepts and Terminology Unit 7
Created by James Q. Jacobs

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