26- Airport Engineering

Airport Engineering
Dr. Osama Al-Habahbeh
Airport Examples
Runway Loading
Rescue & Fire Fighting
Aircraft Noise
Ground Handling Equipment
Airport Examples
Beijing & San Francisco Airports
Runway Loading
Runway Bearing Strength
Runway Bearing Strength
Runway Bearing Strength
Runway Bearing Strength
Airport Rescue & Fire Fighting
Rescue & Fire Fighting
Rescue and Fire Fighting
Rescue & Fire Fighting
Aircraft Noise
Human hearing and Frequency
16 Hz
20 kHz
5 MHz
Major transportation sources of
noise pollution: rail, road, and air
DN: Day Night, dB (A): A: Weighted sound pressure level (sound meter filter type)
Airport Noise
Noise contours around an
airport calculated using INM
(Integrated Noise Modeling)
based on previous noise
55 - 60 dB = Light blue
60 - 70 dB = Dark blue
70 - 75 dB = Red
75 - 80 dB = Green
80 - 85 dB = Yellow
> 85 dB = Pink
Aircraft noise abatement
• Surprisingly little progress has been made in source quieting of aircraft
noise, other than elimination of gratuitously loud engine designs from the
1960s and earlier.
• Because of its velocity and volume, jet turbine engine exhaust defies any
simple means of quieting.
• The most promising forms of aircraft noise abatement is through land
planning, flight operations restrictions and residential soundproofing.
• These tactics are sometimes controversial since they can impact aircraft
safety, flying convenience and airline economics.
• In 1979 the U.S. Congress authorized the FAA to devise technology and
programs to attempt to insulate homes near airports.
• Some of the first airports at which the technology was applied were San
Francisco International Airport, Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, John
Wayne International Airport and San Jose International Airport in
• Variations in aircraft types, flight patterns and local meteorology can be
analyzed along with benefits of alternative building retrofit strategies
such as roof upgrading, window glazing improvement, and other
Mechanisms of sound production
Aerodynamic noise
– Aerodynamic noise arises from the airflow around the aircraft fuselage and control surfaces.
– This type of noise increases with aircraft speed and also at low altitudes due to the density of
the air.
– Low flying, high speed military aircraft produce especially loud aerodynamic noise.
– The shape of the nose, windshield or canopy of an aircraft can greatly affect the sound
– Much of the noise of a propeller aircraft is of aerodynamic origin due to the flow of air
around the blades.
Engine and other mechanical noise
– Much of the noise in propeller aircraft comes equally from the propellers and aerodynamics.
– Helicopter noise has a unique spectral content, essentially being aerodynamically induced
noise from the main and tail rotors and mechanically induced noise from the main gearbox
and various transmission chains.
Noise from aircraft systems
– Cockpit and cabin pressurization and conditioning systems are often a major contributor
within cabins of both civilian and military aircraft. However, one of the most significant
sources of cabin noise from commercial jet aircraft other than the engines is the Auxiliary
Power Unit (or APU).
– The typical noise output of an APU is 113 decibels. This is about 27 decibels lower than that
of a jet engine.
– Other internal aircraft systems can also contribute, such as specialized electronic equipment
in some military aircraft.
Aircraft Noise Exposure
• Generally, older jet aircraft are louder than newer
• Departing aircraft are louder than arriving aircraft
• Aircraft departing for distant destinations are louder
than those traveling to closer destinations (aircraft
with greater fuel load cannot climb as rapidly)
• An aircraft arriving or departing at night is generally
perceived to be louder than the same aircraft
arriving or departing during the day (a person's
sensitivity to noise is greater during sleeping hours)
• Low cloud cover may increase the noise level by
reflecting back to the ground
Annoyance effects
• Lesser intensities of noise are produced for cruising
velocities, mainly due to the altitudes of operation.
• However, this noise often is heard in country settings
which are by nature very peaceful.
• Thus the intrusion of this type of noise can be very
intrusive even if much less in amplitude (say
approximately 45 decibels).
• Landing aircraft descend on a three degree glide path
towards an aiming point approximately 300 meters from
the runway threshold.
• This places them at 60 meters above the ground at about
1200 meters from the aiming point or 900 meters from
the start of the runway.
• This distance is usually outside the airport fence.
Health effects of aircraft noise
• The annoyance effects of aircraft noise are widely
recognized; however, aircraft noise is also responsible
for a significant amount of hearing loss as well as a
contributor to a number of diseases.
• High levels of aircraft noise that commonly exist near
major commercial airports are known to increase
blood pressure and contribute to hearing loss.
• Some research indicates that it contributes to heart
diseases, immune deficiencies, neurodermatitis,
asthma and other stress related diseases.
• Prior research indicates clearly that hearing loss is less
a product of aging than a result of exposure to
transportation related noise.
Noise Mitigation Programs
• In the United States, since aviation noise became a
major public issue in the late 1960s, governments
have enacted legislative controls.
• Aircraft designers, manufacturers, and operators
have developed quieter aircraft and more careful
operating procedures.
• Modern high-bypass turbofan engines, for
example, are quieter than the turbojets and lowbypass turbofans of the 1960s; however, due to
expanded numbers of flights, there is no clear
trend of aircraft noise reduction for land uses near
• It’s hard to quiet aircrafts, therefore
containment of the noise to airports is the main
• Noise comes from aerodynamic noise,
mechanical noise, and aircraft systems noise.
• Even at higher altitudes sounds from the
aircraft can be annoying at the ground.
• Noise can cause health problems, such as
hearing loss, and higher blood pressure
• Much research is being done to solve acoustic
mitigation problems.
Airport Ground Services
Aircraft ramp services:
Push back and towing.
Ground support equipment.
Into-plane fueling.
International flights.
Ground Services:
Aircraft Ramp Services
• Baggage:
– Loading and unloading of baggage into or from
the aircraft.
– Baggage handling and transfers.
– Assist in weight and balance issues.
• Aircraft push-back and towing:
– Tugs and tow bars for customer aircraft.
– Aircraft marshalling.
– Aircraft parking.
Ground Services:
Aircraft Ramp Services, cont’d.
• Ground support equipment:
– Air conditioning
– Air-start
– Ground power unit (GPU).
• Into-plane fueling (Refueling):
– Fuel release coordination.
– Tracking/auditing of uplift receipts.
– Price monitoring for competitive cost.
• De-icing
Ground Services:
Aircraft Ramp Services, cont’d
• Cleaning:
– Cabin cleaning.
– Lavatory servicing.
• International flights:
– Arrival/departure gates.
– Waste management.
Flight Operations:
Support Services
• Landing Rights:
– Arrange and coordinate international landing rights
and approvals foreign governmental agencies, US
Customs, US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and
Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS).
• Route Planning:
– Assist airline dispatch with most cost effective
options considering crews, fuel, customs, etc.
• Crew Service:
– Crew accommodations and airport transportation.
Flight Operations:
Load Control
• Weight and balance:
– Participate in and/or make decisions regarding
weight and balance issues on flights.
– Arrange for transport and delivery of any
passenger baggage removed due to operational
Airport Ground Handling Equipment
Aircraft Ground Power Unit
(Frequency converter)
Cooling dollies offer refrigeration
Airport Ground Handling Equipment
Baggage towing tractor
Diesel-electric hybrid ground
power unit
Airport Ground Handling Equipment
De-icing operations
Cargo Loader
Airport Ground Handling Equipment
Bulk Loader
Blast Deflectors, Jet-Blast Deflectors,
Blast Screens, Blast Fences, and
Ground Run-Up Enclosures (GREs) are
designed to minimize the acoustic
impact of ground run-ups, which often
occur at night.
Airport Ground Handling Equipment
Passenger boarding
bridge (Jetway)
Passenger boarding
Airport Ground Handling Equipment
Fuel hydrant pits and valves
Tow Tractor for Air Freight &
Airport Ground Handling Equipment
Push-Back Tractor
Aircraft Refueling
Airport Ground Handling Equipment
Passenger Stairs Truck
Lavatory drainage
Catering truck
Cargo Aircraft Uploading & Downloading
Cargo Aircraft Uploading & Downloading

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