NON COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

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NON COMMUNICABLE
DISEASES
Lesson # 1
Non Communicable Diseases
Non
Communicable
Disease:

WHAT IS IT?
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A disease that is not transmitted by
another person, or a vector, or from the
environment.
Certain habits and behaviors can either
increase or decrease the risk of these
diseases.
Non communicable Diseases
Cancer: A group of diseases characterized by an
uncontrollable growth and spread of abnormal
cells.
 Using your text on page 530 define the following
terms:
 Tumor
 Benign
 Malignant
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Vocabulary
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Tumor: An abnormal mass of tissue that has no
natural role in the body.
Benign – noncancerous; if you’re benign your fine!
Malignant – cancerous
Types of Cancer
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Lymphomas: cancers of the immune system.
Leukemias: cancers of the blood-forming organs.
Carinomas: cancers of the glands and body linings,
including the skin and linings of the digestive tract
and lungs.
Sarcomas: Cancers of the connective tissue,
including bones, ligaments, and muscles.
Risk Factors
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There is no known cause of cancer.
Genetics – family history
Environment – food, water, soil, air
Lifestyles choices – sexual activity, drinking, smoking, drugs
 What is a Carcinogen???
Carcinogen: A cancer causing substance.
Tobacco use
Alcohol use
Illegal drug use
Sexually transmitted disease
Radiation – ultraviolet rays from the sun
Dietary factors
How can you reduce your risk of
Cancer??
Practice abstinence
 Be physically active
 Maintain healthy weight
 Eat nutritious foods
 Protect your skin from the sun
 Avoid tobacco, drugs, and alcohol
 Recognize warning signs of cancer
 What type of cancer is most common in the US?
 SKIN CANCER

THREE TYPES OF SKIN CANCER
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Basal Cell Carcinoma:
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Squamous Cell Carcinoma:
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Most common
Usually appears on face & ears
easiest to detect & treat
Does not usually spread.
Second most common
Appears on sun-exposed parts of body
Likely to spread to areas beneath skin.
Melanoma:
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Least common but most lethal
UV radiation from sun or tanning beds can increase risk
Important to diagnose in early stages
Approximately 70% begin near in or near a mole
Highest risk fair skin, freckles, light blue/green eyes.
Warning Signs of Skin Cancer
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Asymmetrical: An imaginary line drawn through the
center of the mole that does not produce matching
halves.
Border: Noncancerous moles have smooth edges,
suspect moles often have irregular edges.
Color: Be cautious of moles that are intensely black.
Diameter: anything over 10 mm should be removed
and checked.
Evolving: if a mole is growing or changing in size,
shape or elevation.
Methods to Prevent Skin Cancer:
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Sun block- SPF 30 or greater
Avoid sun from 10 AM until around 4 PM
Wear light clothing
Wear a hat with a wide brim
Wear sunglasses with UV Protection
Do not go indoor tanning- (it’s also bad for night
vision)
Warning Signs of Cancer:
Change in bowel and bladder habits
 A sore that does not heal
 Unusual bleeding or discharge
 Thickening or lump
 Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
 Obvious change in wart or mole
 Nagging cough or hoarseness
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Detecting and Treating Cancer:
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Self examination
Biopsy: the removal of a small piece of tissue for
examination
Treatment:
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Surgery: removes some or all of cancerous tissue mass.
Radiation therapy: aims rays from radioactive substances at
cancerous cells. Radiation kills or shrinks the mass.
Chemotherapy: uses chemicals to destroy cancer cells
Immunotherapy: activates a person’s immune system to recognize
specific cancers and destroy them.
Hormone therapy: involves using medicines that interfere with the
production of hormones. Treatment kills cancer cells or slows the
growth.
NON COMMUNICABLE
DISEASES
Lesson # 2
Define the following terms Using your text
starting on page 514:
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Cardiovascular Disease
Angina Pectoris
Atherosclerosis
Arrhythmias
Heart Attack
Hypertension
Stroke
WARNING SIGNS OF A HEART ATTACK &
STROKE:
HEART ATTACK

Heart stops because
heart is overworked:
 Left
arm goes numb
 Sweating
 Skin is pale or clammy
 Chest pain
 Unconscious
 Shortness of breath
 Breathing difficulty
STROKE
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Blood supply to the
brain is cut off:
 Confusion
 Headache
 Dizziness
 Sweating
 Pale
and/or redness
 Balance is thrown off
Vocabulary
 Hypertension
 can
(high blood pressure)
be lowered with medication, weight management,
physical activity, and proper nutrition
 most common among people over the age of 35
 normal range: 120/80
 often called the “silent killer”- having no symptoms in
early stages
Vocabulary
Atherosclerosis

A build up of fatty materials in your arteries
 narrows
the arteries, making the heart work harder
Cholesterol:
HDL: high density lipoprotein (good)
 LDL: low density lipoprotein (bad) causes
atherosclerosis
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Vocabulary
Cardiovascular Disease:
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A disease that affects the heart, blood, or blood vessels.
Angina- chest pains caused by lack of oxygen
Arrhythmias- irregular heartbeat
Heart attack- caused by blockages of arteries, damage to
the heart muscle
Stroke- arterial blockage that disrupts the flow of blood in
the brain
Congestive Heart Failure- heart no longer pumps efficiently
RISK FACTORS FOR CVD’S
CONTROLLABLE
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Tobacco Use
High Blood Pressure- have
it checked periodically
High Cholesterol- eat less
high-fat foods
Physical Inactivity
Excess Weight
Stress
Drug and Alcohol Use
UNCONTROLLABLE
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Heredity
Gender
Age
The health behaviors
that you practice now
are affecting your
cardiovascular system!

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