1-Product Containment

Food preservation and
 Packaging has been with humans for thousands of years in one
form or the other. Packaging dates back to when people first started
moving from place to place.
 Originally, skins, leaves, and bark were used for food transport.
Four thousand years ago, sealed pottery jars were used to protect
against rodents, and glass making was an important industry in
 Tin-plating iron became possible in AD1200, and as steel replaced
iron this method became useful
 One hundred years ago there was little use for
packaging in the food industries.
 Now, tremendous progress has been made in the
development of diversified packaging materials and in the
packaging equipment.
 Over the last three decades, packaging has grown in
volume and importance into one of the most significant
areas of food production.
1- product containment
2- preservation and quality
3- presentation and convenience
4- protection during Distribution and Processing
5- provide storage history
1-Product Containment
The first function of packaging is its capability of containment.
The primary purposes of packaging are containment and
It is self-explanatory; liquids, semi liquids, and powders, as well as
bulk solids, cannot be marketed without suitable containers.
 Containment refers to holding goods in a form suitable for
transport, whereas protection refers to safekeeping goods in a way
that prevents significant quality deterioration.
2-Preservation by Maintaining Quality
 The second function of packaging is to control the local
environmental conditions to enhance storage life and safety.
The main purpose of food packaging is to protect the product from
surroundings and maintain the quality of the food throughout the
product’s shelf life.
 Product shelf life is controlled by three factors:
1-product characteristics,
2- properties,
3- storage and distribution conditions of individual package .
Reactions causing deterioration in foods include enzymatic,
chemical, physical, and microbiological changes. Additional
problems include insects, pests, and rodents.
Nutritional Quality
 Packaging affects the nutritional quality of foods. Examples
include peroxidation of polyunsaturated fats and destructive
oxidation of nutrients such as ascorbic acid,
Fatty acid peroxides are well established as causing health
 As antioxidative nutrients such as vitamins C and E are lost.
Carotenoid pigments can also be oxidized, leading to loss of color as
well as loss of their beneficial effects in the body.
 Lipid hydroperoxides can also result in the formation of aldehydes
and other compounds with off-flavors. In addition to light barriers, use of
UV absorber in the packaging material can decrease lipid oxidation.
Among all other functions of packaging, the protection of
foodstuffs against light plays a key role particularly during storage,
transport, and sales display.
Barrier Properties
To achieve the best from packaging , it is important to know
product characteristics, properties of individual package, storage,
and distribution conditions.
 Barrier properties include permeability of gases (such as O₂ ,Co₂
,N₂ , C₂H₄ ), water vapor, aromas, and light. These are vital factors for
maintaining the quality of foods.
packaging materials cannot be chosen solely on the basis of their
barrier properties.
Factors such as proccessability , mechanical properties and
chemical resistance and interaction with product
Environmental factors, such as temperature, relative humidity,
and light intensity must also be taken into account.
Now various types of active substances can be incorporated into the
packaging material to improve its functionality and give it new or
extra functions.
Active packaging technologies and Antimicrobial
Packaging and Edible Film are designed to extend the shelf life of
foods, while maintaining their nutritional quality and safety.
3- Presentation and Convenience
Food labels are intended by law to provide the information that
consumers need to be able to make the necessary decisions about
those purchases of food.
 It is important to display the product in an attractive manner to
the potential buyer.
 A cleverly designed and beautifully produced packaging can help
sell a product, which is an essential ingredient of an effective
marketing campaign . The packaging helps in distinguishing
products on the shelf, which is a trait especially important when
marketing low-fat or nutritional products.
For a package to be effective, it must present the product well and
should do its own publicity.
Changes in society, such as diminishing population pattern,
increasing average age, smaller families, more leisure time, as well as
improvements in the quality of life, standard of living, and general
level of education, may also demand specific function of packaging.
 Eating styles, such as ready-to-eat meals, snacks, and
microwaveable ready meals, have been changed over the years,
which need innovation in packaging.
Packaging should meet the future demand of meeting eating style
of the society.
For children, the packaging might represent innovation or fun.
4- Protection during Distribution and
 The fourth function is to protect the product during transit to the
Packaging is part of the distribution process necessary to deliver
goods to the consumer and facilitate handling and transportation.
 It also has affected international trade by making shipping of food
products possible, allowing seasonal products to be more accessible
out of season.
 Packaging can handle better when there are challenges in food
distribution chain, such as heat, humidity, or dew.
It is important to be aware of the distribution challenges and
designing of package to suit it.
 In case of prepacked product, it should have the ability to stand
the severity or type of process conditions , such as flexible packaging
during canning, microwaveable foods, ovenable , and retortable
Irradiated foods are usually prepacked prior to treatment by
ionizing radiation.
 Protective packaging is a term applied to packaging primarily
designed to protect the goods, rather than for appearance or
5-Provide Storage History
 Time-temperature indicator (TTI) is effective for predicting
microbial concentrations and other parameters of food quality
during shipping and storage.
 It helps in ensuring proper handling and provides a gauge of
product quality for sensitive products in which temperature control
is imperative to efficacy and safety..
TTI could be used in chilled foods to identify the temperature
abuse during storage and distribution.
 TTIs are tags that can be applied to individual packages or
shipping cartons to visually indicate whether a product has been
exposed to time and temperature conditions that adversely affect the
product quality.
 According to the response mechanisms, TTIs can be divided into
three groups: (i) biological, (ii) chemical, and (iii) physical systems
There are two issues to be considered:
One is the economics .
The other issue is knowledge of the food product.
Packaging categories
1- primary packaging
Primary packaging surrounds the product
and features labelling.
2- secondary packaging
ease of manual movement of products.
3- transit packaging
wrapping used to bundle the boxes or crates
for transport and distribution.
Transit packaged products are placed in
shipping containers for long-distance
transportation and distribution
Selecting the right material
Material selection is based on:
 technical properties (strength, flexibility, etc.)
 fitness for purpose (moisture barrier, cushioning,
 availability
 manufacturing capability
 cost
 environmental impact
 regulations
Types of Packaging Materials
From skins, leaves, and bark, tremendous progress has been made
in the development of diversified packaging materials and in the
packaging equipment.
In general, packaging materials may be grouped into
1- rigid (wood, glass, metals, and hard plastics )
2-flexible structures. (Plastic film, foil, paper, and textiles )
1- Plastics
Their foremost advantage is their wide diversity and extremely
broad spectrum of properties.
Plastics are relatively cheap, light, easily processed and shaped, and
easy to seal.
 Two major drawbacks are their permeability to gases and vapors ,
and the possibility of their interacting with the product.
 Other components in plastics are residual monomer and
oligomers, additives such as heat and light stabilizers, antioxidants,
plasticizers, and UV absorbers, as well as processing aids such as
lubricants, slip agents , and antistatic agents.
 For package sterilization, the material of choice is polypropylene
(PP), which is used as the outer and inner plies of the laminate with
polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) as the middle layer to provide an
oxygen barrier.
Plastic Bags
Plastic Closures
Oven-Safe Containers
The three main plastics used are :
PP, PS, and CPET. PP is suitable for microwaves.
but now, PS low-density blends have been developed
with heat deflection temperatures (HDTs) of 190°C, which
is suitable for microwaves.
Plastic–Food Interaction
Polymer materials are not absolute barriers.
Interactions occur between foods, packages,
In case of plastics, the major source of concern is the component
Migration from plastics is mainly due to:
1- residual components and reactants from the manufacturing process
2- compounds formed during conversion into packaging materials and
3- additives incorporated for functionality
4- adhesives used during conversion.
Other factors includes crystallinity of polymers, glass–rubber
transition, environmental conditions, and composition of packaged
 Toxicological implications of component migration from packages
into foods are another serious problem.
Migration in plastics packaging refers to the transfer of
compounds from the plastic to the food product.
This might be by leaching or diffusion.
Direct contact between plastic and a food product can result in
components of the packaging being leached out into the product,
changing the flavors of the food.
The main components that have caused problems are:
amides heat-degradation products from the polymer base,
and ink components.
Migration may also occur from the food to the plastic, in
some cases resulting in plasticizing of the package if the
vapors are water or certain solvents. This can result in loss
of mechanical strength.
The food may lose valuable volatiles, such as odors,
carbon dioxide, water, or flavors.
Metals (Steel, Tin, Aluminum)
 Steel, tin, and aluminum are used mainly for canned foods and
beverages. The most common use of metals for packaging is in tincoated steel and aluminum cans.
 The principal advantages of metal cans are their strength
providing mechanical protection, effective barrier properties, and
resistance to high temperatures providing stability during
it is an advantage for light-sensitive products.
disadvantage in that contents are: invisible, heavy mass, high cost,
and tendency to interact with contents and environment (internal
and external corrosion)
 The critical concepts of canning are to ensure that the product in
the can is stable and that the seal provided by the metal is complete.
 Aluminum is used increasingly for canning due to its lightness,
low cost, corrosion resistance, availability, and recyclability.
 Aluminum is also used extensively in many non canning
applications such as foil packaging, caps, convenience food
containers and lids, yogurt tub lids, kitchenware, and laminates.
 Foil may be used for formed or semirigid containers.
Aluminum foil is difficult to use on modern fast packaging
equipment because of creases, tearing, and marking effects
The steel can provide almost perfect barrier protection
and, due to its structural strength and ability to handle
pressure, can be retorted (cooked under pressure) after
sealing .
Metal–Food Interaction:
 Corrosion is the destructive attack on a metal through the
chemical or electrochemical reaction with the environment. Since
steel corrodes rapidly in the presence of acidic substances, the tin
acts as a barrier.
 Some cans are lacquered internally for high-acid products (pH <
3) or for products that change color in the presence of tin.
Foods that contain sulfur produce a blackening of the tin.
 The most important corrosion accelerators in foods include
acidity, oxygen, nitrates, sulfur compounds, trimethylamines,
anthocyanins, dihydroascorbic acid as well as severity of heat
treatment and storage conditions.
Corrosion products in food cans are limited to three metals: tin,
iron, and lead, which are liable to dissolve from the container. Of
these only lead is toxic and cumulative in body tissues, hence a
Glass containers used to be and still are considered a prestigious
means of packaging, and serve for the most expensive wines,
liqueurs, perfumes, and cosmetics.
 It is highly inert, impermeable to gases and vapors, and amenable
to the most diverse shaping. It is an excellent oxygen barrier and
completely neutral in contact with foods
It has the advantage of transparency, but where required it can be
given different desired colors.
 It has complete as well as selective light protection properties.
Disadvantages are :
fragility, heavy mass, and high energy requirement during
 The main uses of glass for packaging are in milk bottles,
condiments, baby foods, instant coffee, and drinks.
 Glass is not used for frozen products, or for ground or roasted
coffee because of breakage costs and the difficulty of vacuum
Timber, Cardboard, and Papers
 Pulp products are widely used in food packaging in the form of
different kinds of paper, paperboard, laminates, and corrugated
The main advantages of paper are its low cost, low mass, relatively
high stiffness, and excellent printability;
the main disadvantage is its high sensitivity to moisture, reflected
in close dependence on the relative humidity of the environment.
 The basic raw material for papermaking is cellulose.
Choosing a carton for a specific job depends on the capacity of the
carton to meet the requirements for that job.
Environmental Issues
Recently, a new dimension of safety has arisen, the ecological
This means that packaging has not only to satisfy physical,chemical,
and biological criteria using their life cycle as packaging, but once
the original function has been fulfilled the packaging should decay
without polluting the environment.
Biodegradable material for packaging
Biodegradation is the process by which carbon-containing chemical
compounds are decomposed in the presence of enzymes secreted
by living organisms.
There are three requirements for the fast degradation process viz.
temperature, humidity and type of microbes.
Acceptable bioplastics are listed below
1- Cellulose
2- Starch
3- Poly-beta-hydroxyalkanoates (PHB)
4- Polylactide Acid (PLA) plastics:
Application of nanocomposites
Research on application of nanocomposite (scale of 1e100 nm)
materials nanomaterials) in packaging is exponentially increasing.
Nanocomposite materials are composed of nanoscale structure that
enhances the macroscopic properties of food products.
The common nanocomposites used in the food packaging industry are:
(1) Polymer clay nanoclay →increased stiffness, strength, nucleating agent
in foams, smaller cell size, higher cell density, and flame retardant
(2) Silica nanocomposites of nanosilver→has excellent antibacterial
Types of Packages
The modification of the atmosphere generally implies a reduction of O2
content or an increase of the CO2 concentration, but in some cases
changing the level of carbon monoxide (CO),ethylene, ethanol, or other
compounds in the atmosphere can also contribute to shelf-life extension.
After closing the package, the respiration of the product will cause a
decrease in the oxygen content and an increase in the carbon dioxide
The course of the atmosphere modification is determined by three
interacting processes: respiration of the commodity, gas diffusion through
the commodity, and gas permeation through the film. Each of these
processes is in turn strongly influenced by several commodity- and
environment-generated factors.
Strict temperature control in the distribution chain would be a
prerequisite for optimal use of MAP in practice.
In CAP, the altered gas composition inside the package is
monitored and maintained at a preset level by means of scrubbers
and the inlet of gases. This method closely resembles the practices
used in large controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage facilities where
produce is stored essentially unpacked in bulk,except that CAP is
used for storage or transport of smaller quantities of produce.
The ULO storage uses O2 levels close to the minimum level
required for maintenance of plant tissues.
Using ULO storage at 1°C–2°C with preset levels of 0.5%–1% O2 and
2%–3% CO2, for instance, Elstar apples can be stored for almost a
whole year without unacceptable quality loss.
In some cases, a package cannot be designed in such a
way that optimal conditions will be reached passively.
“Active packaging” can then provide a solution, by adding
materials that absorb or release a specific compound in the
gas phase.
 Compounds that can be absorbed are carbon dioxide
,oxygen, water vapor, ethylene, or volatiles that influence
taste and aroma.
 Vacuum packaging (VP) may be regarded as a special type of MAP,
since part of the normal headspace is removed, leaving an altered
initial atmosphere that is not controlled after packaging.
 In this system, the initial gas composition is that of normal air, but
because of the reduced partial gas pressure, the amount of O2
available at the start of storage is about one-third of the normal
As with MAP, the lower O2 content stabilizes the postharvest
product quality by slowing down the metabolism of the produce and
the growth of spoilage microorganisms.
MAP, CAP, and VP all focus on changing the metabolic gases
oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Modifiedhumidity packaging (MHP), however, is designed for
products where dehydration causes the most important quality
losses, and therefore focuses on controlling water vapor levels. When
products such as leafy vegetables or bell peppers are not packed,
quality losses can be observed very soon.
 In most “closed” packages such as MAP, CAP, and VP, the RH is
close to saturation due to the water exchange between the product
and the headspace. This high humidity increases the probability of
condensation and free water accumulating directly on the product,
especially when the package is exposed to changing temperatures.
MHP systems are designed to control not only
dehydration but also condensation.
Control of the in-package RH may be pursued through
the use of packaging materials with high water vapor
permeabilities, by inclusion of sachets containing water
absorbers like CaC12, sorbitol, or xylitol in the package or
by use of packaging materials with suitable gas
permeabilities onto which such desiccants are coated.
Aseptic packaging
Is considered the most appropriate way of packaging for
pulsed electric fields (PEF) processed foods.
Smart packaging
A package can be made smart through its functional
attributes that add benefits to the food and hence the
Non-thermal processing
do not utilize increased temperature to inactivate
decomposing microorganisms and enzymes. This is the
biggest advantage .
2-hurdle technology is the term often applied when foods are
preserved by a combination of processes.
These methods produce far less volatile odour of
plastics, additives, and printing solvent.
4-There is no general requirement for
packaging materials
for all non-thermal processes.
This is very beneficial to high-fat foods and
frozen/refrigerated foods.
High-pressure technology
involves different packaging considerations, based on :
whether a product is processed in-container or packaged
after processing.
 The packaging material must be able to withstand the
operating pressures, have good sealing properties, and the
ability to prevent quality deterioration during the
application of pressure.
the package should be flexibl enough to transmit the pressure.
The presence of headspace must be kept as small as possible.
Irradiation technology
The packaging materials Should be chemically stable under the
radiation dose to prevent polymer degradation and low molecular
weight hydrocarbons and halogenated polymers formation which
can migrate into foods.
Radiolysis products (RPs) formed upon irradiation of a polymer
or adjuvant could migrate into food and affect odour, taste, and
safety of the irradiated food.
does not generally affect all properties of a polymer to
the same degree.
Monofilms where not significantly changed by irradiation :
UV and UV/ozone treatment
Due to poor penetrative properties, UV light is more or less limited to
surface applications, but it shows promise as a post-packaging
UV-light, usually used for sterilization of packages used in aseptic
processing, is often combined with ozone treatment.
Ozone mainly reacts with the surface of the polymers and causes
modification of the surface properties of polymers.
both UV and ozone treatment, significantly increased the surface
tension and hydrophilicity of polymers such as PE, PP and PET, and
improved their adhesion properties
The effect of ozone on the mechanical properties of plastic
films depends on the polymer and the treatment conditions
such as ozone concentration and temperature.
Oxygen permeability of linear low-density polyethylene (PELLD) treated with ozone.
UV treated PE-LD produced lower amounts of oxidation
products compared to PET.
Is used in processing lines to detect the leaks in packages
and control the microbiological quality of several foodstuffs.
Ultrasound treatment of sodium caseinate edible films
greatly improved tensile strength and puncture resistance of
these films while water vapour permeability, elongation at
break and moisture content of the films were not affected by
this treatment.
1-Mohammad Shafiur Rahman - Handbook of Food Preservation
2-Kata Galic , Mario Scetar and Mia Kurek, (2011 ).The benefits of
processing and packaging . Trends in Food Science & Technology
3-Nitaigour P. Mahalik and Arun N. Nambiar,(2011) Trends in food
packaging and manufacturing systems and technology. Trends in
Food Science & Technology
4-Sandhya ,Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Punjab ,(2011) . Modified
atmosphere packaging of fresh produce: Current status and future
needs. LWT - Food Science and Technology

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