Abalone PPT

Report
http://noyonews.net/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/a1.jpg
ABALONE (Haliotis)
Sandra Huynh
Marine Aquaculture
DISL 2012
What is abalone?
Herbivorous marine gastropod
 Over 70 species of extant haliotid species

http://www.usc.edu/org/seagrant/Images/Abalone_CStevenson.jpg
http://www.americanabalone.net/img/Abalone-400.jpg
Abalone history in N. America
Native Americans-meat, trade material,
and decoration
 Commercial fishery in mid 19th century
 Overfishing, disease, poaching, habitat
destruction
 Fisheries shut down
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Abalone history in N. America
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1980s- first commercial abalone farms in
California
http://www.fishtech.com/ThailandSymposium1.pdf
Taxonomy
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Haliotis spp
http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.pdf
Taxonomy

Haliotis spp
http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.pdf
Taxonomy
http://aqua.ucdavis.edu/DatabaseRoot/pdf/ASAQ-A10.PDF
Taxonomy
http://aqua.ucdavis.edu/DatabaseRoot/pdf/ASAQ-A10.PDF
Locations
http://data.recfin.org/pub/kelp/no2/aquafac.gif
Locations
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Japan
Mexico
Australia
South Africa
Korea
New Zealand
Taiwan
China
Chile
Ireland
Iceland
http://ww3.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101374/5/628x471.jpg
Locations
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Japan
Mexico
Australia
South Africa
Korea
New Zealand
Taiwan
China
Chile
Ireland
Iceland
And of
course,
California!
Market info
California: In 1998 the total amount of abalone produced was approximately
73 metric tons (mt; in-shell weight) of product valued at US$2.4 million
(Ebert 2001).
http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.pdf
Pricing
High pricing in China, Japan, and Koreas
 In 1994, prices to fishermen in California
were $500-600 per dozen for the red
abalone.
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“Abalone can fetch up to $20 per pound
or more (Dave Ebert, pers. comm.).”
http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.pdf
Life Cycle
http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.pdf
Reproduction in captivity
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Males and females induced to spawn
◦ UV irradiated seawater
◦ Solution of hydrogen peroxide
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Release unfertilized eggs and sperm
◦ 6-8 million ova out of 11 million ova released
become fertilized (from one female!)
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Fertilize, and division starts within 2 hrs
Reproduction in captivity
Eggs hatched and reared through
trochophore (16-20 hrs) and veliger (2630 hrs) larval stages
 All early life stages are sensitive, so UVtreated water is used.
 Though increased temp can increase
development, rearing at 15°C decreases
risk of bacterial infection in systems.
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Production Methods
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Cage culture
system
◦ Rectangular
cages
◦ PVC frames
covered with
heavy gage plastic
mesh
◦ Suspended from
longline systems
or floating docks
http://ww1.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101372/5/628x471.jpg
Production Methods
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Disadvantages:
 Costs for boat,
 motor,
 fuel,
 access time,
 and hydraulic wench to lift cages for
feeding, maintenance, and harvest
 And other things we’ve discussed in
class
http://ww3.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101370/5/628x471.jpg
Production Methods
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Land-based, flowthrough tank
system:
◦ Concrete or
fiberglass tanks of
1000-2000
capacity
◦ Tanks plumbed
for flow-through
seawater and
forced air
http://ucce.ucdavis.edu/files/repository/calag/img5104p7a.jpg
Production Methods
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Disadvantages:
 Operate seawater pumping
 Aeration systems
http://ww4.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101371/7/628x471.jpg
http://ww4.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101375/5/628x471.jp
http://www.americanabalone.net/img/abalone256.jpg
http://www.americanabalone.net/img/steaksLG.jpg
Feeds and Feeding
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Natural diets:
◦ Eggs and larvae: yolk reserves
◦ Juveniles: benthic microalgae
(diatoms)
◦ Adults: kelp
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Artificial diets:
◦ 30-50% protein: fish meal, milk
by-products
◦ 30-40% carbs: seaweed
◦ 5-6% each of fat, fiber, and ash
◦ Sometimes mineral and vitamin
supplements
Water Chemistry
Eggs and larvae: 15°C (59°F)
 Juveniles: 15 to 18°C
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Salinity: 30-35 ppt
Advantages:
High densities
 High production
 65% edible part is
protein
 Other nutrients:
Selenium,
magnesium, iron, and
omega-3 fats
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http://ww2.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101373/5/628x471.jpg
Disadvantages:
In both production systems, it takes 3-4
years for abalone to grow to market size,
about 7-9 cm.
 Growing to market size is the most
capital intensive and time-consuming part
of this aquaculture
 Labor and feed costs
 A lot of the animal is shell
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Sustainability
http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/media/MBA
_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.pdf
Nom nom nom
http://thumbs.ifood.tv/files/images/editor/images/abalone%20ceviche.jpg
http://ww2.hdnux.com/photos/10/01/01/2101369/5/628x471.jpg
https://encrypted-tbn2.google.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTJiScvsjupcWedGctjL9D3kgTLBEX0MB1AtYNWbbh2msii7YOZ7A
Jewelry
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_mISUD8AwDR8/S9paRtuqvUI
/AAAAAAAABBo/0fpxxmXmfBI/s1600/NEWAbalone+Heart+Pendant.jpg
http://www.squidoo.com/abalone-jewelry
Finally, if anyone finds this…
http://www.macbrush.com/images/OPI%20%20Nail%2
0polish/OPI%20%20Nail%20polish%20
(76).jpg
I will love you forever.
References
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“California Abalone Aquaculture”
http://aqua.ucdavis.edu/DatabaseRoot/pdf/ASAQ-A10.PDF
“Seafood Watch: Cultured Abalone”
http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/c
ontent/media/MBA_SeafoodWatch_AbaloneFarmedReport.p
df
“World abalone supply, markets, and pricing”
http://www.fishtech.com/ThailandSymposium1.pdf
“Training Manual on Artificial Breeding of Abalone in Korea
DPR”
http://www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/ab731e/ab731e00.htm
“Abalone Farming” http://www.americanabalone.net/aboutabalone.html
Picture sources
Abalone background picture
http://noyonews.net/wpcontent/uploads/2011/09/a1.jpg
 “Abalone’s luster grows”
http://www.sfgate.com/recipes/article/Aba
lone-s-luster-grows-Eco-friendlyaquaculture-2614648.php#photo-2101372
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